Courses in Biology (Division 328)

Introductory Courses

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. (Martin)

102(Botany 102). Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

Practical Botany is an introductory course in learning how to grow and use plants. Students will learn how to grow, identify, propagate, and take care of many different useful plants both common and exotic ones. The major topics in lecture and laboratory include wine, mead, and beer making; plant propagation by cuttings, and other vegetative means; breaking seed dormancy, and seed germination; forcing spring corms and bulbs into flower indoors; natural plant dyes and dyeing wool; organic gardening and composting; bonsai; landscaping around the home; how to make hanging baskets and terrariums; flower and fruit types and structure as related to pollination and plant breeding; agricultural techniques and systems. Hands-on work by the students is a major part of this course. There are field trips to Hidden Lake Gardens and local specialty gardens. Another highlight of the course is a vegetarian dinner prepared by the students. Several guest lecturers help to make this a very interesting class for the budding indoor gardener and outdoor gardener. There are two lectures and one four-hour discussion/lab period per week. The labs are held at the Botanical Gardens (free bus transportation is provided). (Estabrook)

106(Botany 190). Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. (3). (NS).

Biology 106 is divided into three basic sections: (1) plants, their way of life, and uses by people; (2) probing the ecological nature of our environment in natural, agricultural, and urban ecosystems; and (3) solutions to and constructive action for our environmental problems. We cover such topics as wild edible foods, the pros and cons of the green revolution, growing and maintaining your own plants, drug and medicinal plants, alternative means of pest control, alternative energy sources, new ideas for home and urban landscapes, natural areas and their preservation, and wild and endangered species of plants. We have a natural foods dinner prepared by the students, and one field trip, late in the term, to the Kaufman farm. Throughout the course, students present oral environmental alerts on specific environmental problems and solutions to them. Grade evaluation is based on three midterms and one environmental alert (written or oral). (Kaufman)

123. Human Sexuality. Not open to students concentrating in the biological sciences. (3). (NS).

Human Sexuality is designed to introduce students to the biological and social factors which determine and regulate their sexuality. Approximately two-thirds of the course deals with the anatomical, physiological and genetic determinants of sexuality. In this section the sexual anatomy of men and women, hormonal regulation of sexual function, fertilization, pregnancy, birth, lactation, conception control, and venereal diseases are examined. In the latter third of the course emphasis shifts to behavioral and social factors. Here, human sexual behavior, sexual response, orgasm, psychosexual development, and the genesis of sex roles are examined. The evolution of sexuality in both humans and other animals is a recurrent theme in this course. Biology 123 is designed for students with a minimal background in biological science. Even so you will profit more from this course if you have had some exposure to high school biology. Biology 123 is a logical counterpart to Biology 100 and Physiology 101. The text to be used in the course will be Katchadourian, Fundamentals of Human Sexuality, 4th ed., 1985. (J. Allen)

152(Biology 112). Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent recommended. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 195. (4). (NS).

Biology 152 is the first term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology or other science programs, and for preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology who have suitable preparation are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of modern biology. Development of thinking and writing skills is also a major aim. The topical coverage of Biology 152 is divided among three areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; and (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST. Attendance at all laboratories and discussions and completion of written laboratory reports are required for credit in the course. There will probably be three course-wide examinations and a final examination. Students MUST be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule).

Students usually purchase a textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes. Students need not buy any other study guides or supplementary materials.

Enrollment for Honors work entails time and effort beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, register in Biology 152 (lecture section 002 and ANY lab/discussion) plus Biology 153 (one credit hour). See separate listing.

NOTE CONCERNING PREREQUISITES. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is recommended, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 152. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course is recommended (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful). High school biology is not required. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, Room 1563 C.C. Little Building, 764-1430.)

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this Guide.

154(Biology 114). Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit is granted to those who have completed 195. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 152, and includes the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and animal behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 152. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION Section STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE, OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ELSE ON THE WAITING LIST. Each week students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. There will be two midterm examinations and a final examination at times and dates specified in the Time Schedule. Regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course. Students usually purchase a textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary material. For Honors credit, students in LS&A Honors Program must register for Honors lecture section (031) in addition to Biology 1557 Further information about Biology 154 can be obtained from the Biology 152/154 office, 1563 C.C. Little. (764-1430).

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) in this Guide.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 154 and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

The theory of Evolution is the basis for understanding the origin and function of species and biological processes. Biology 155 is a reading/discussion course centered on the main elements of "Evolutionary thinking." This course begins with selected works of Charles Darwin and then considers several unsolved problems in evolution such the origin of life, rates of evolution, the nature and frequency of extinction and the units of selection. The second half of the course is concerned with the evolution of man, and the possible contribution of Evolutionary Thinking to understanding the origin and structure of aspects of human culture. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. One term paper is required. Open only to students admitted to the LS&A Honors program. To accompany Biology 154.

Writing, Research and Experiential Courses

301(Biology 300). Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Biology 301 has been designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing AS BIOLOGISTS. With that goal in mind, we have devised a set of diverse assignments that introduce students to many of the kinds of writing they will have to employ as professional biologists. In order to make the work as realistic as possible, we insist on a high standard of biology as well as writing. Therefore, an essay that is beautifully written but has the biology wrong is no more acceptable than good biology badly written. Thus, a research paper is required that is based upon actual hands-on experiments of the kind scientists use in their own work. In addition to good writing and sound biology, we stress critical thinking by means of lectures and a critique that is designed to require students to evaluate a published research report in a way that is new to most of them. Of all our assignments, the critique is probably the most challenging and valuable, and we sometimes use a second critique as an in-class exam. Considerable emphasis is placed upon the library as a research tool throughout but especially in an assignment on the writing of a review. This requires considerable preparative work, including the development of an outline, a visit to the library, and an oral report on the subject of the paper. Throughout the course, revisions of the original writing assignments must be submitted for review by the instructor so that the need for continued editing is reinforced. By the end of the term, we hope to have improved our students' performance as both originators and users of biological literature. (Anderson)

Molecular and Cellular Biology and Physiology

206(Biology 291)/Micro. 291. Microbiology Laboratory. Micro. 101 or Biol. 152-154 or 195; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The revolutionary advances in molecular biology, and their impact on society are based on the study and utilization of microorganisms. This laboratory experience helps form a sound foundation for all of the biological sciences. The course consists of one orientation lecture and two laboratory sessions each week. Topics covered include an introduction to microbial variety, methods of study, specific techniques, and general consideration of microbes in the world around us and their use in the laboratory. The course is required in the microbiology concentration program, and is appropriate for concentrators in biology, botany, and cell biology. Evaluation is based on performance on two exams, and a variable number of quizzes, practical exams, and written reports. (Vadlamudi)

224(Biology 262). Biology of Cancer. One term of introductory biology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The Biology of Cancer is a lecture/discussion course designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the biological events associated with the formation of cancer. This course is organized around three fundamental questions: what is cancer, what are the causes of cancer, and can cancer be cured or prevented? Lectures will include descriptions of classical and recent experiments which address these questions, and will also provide students with the vocabulary and background needed to critically read and evaluate technical literature dealing with the subject of cancer. Although introductory biology is an essential prerequisite for this course, an attempt will be made to accommodate the needs and interests of students of varying backgrounds, including non-biology majors. Student performance will be evaluated by a combination of quizzes, exams, and a term paper based upon library research. In order to provide the time required for this library research, the lecture-discussion meetings will be dismissed for approximately two weeks late in the term. There will be no assigned textbook, but an extensive reserve list of relevant books will be available in the Undergraduate Library. The class will meet twice a week for an hour and a half; in general, meetings will consist of a one hour lecture followed by questions and discussion. A weekly one hour optional review session will also be held. (Kleinsmith)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into the following segments: DNA and chromosomes, gene transmission in Eukaryotes, linkage and recombination, mutation and its consequences, gene expression and regulation, population genetics. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and new problems that test applications of basic concepts and genetic techniques. Practice problem sets designed for this course will be available and are covered in discussion sections or the Genetics Clinic where all office hours of TA's are held. Two demonstrations of living material and genetic tools are given during the term. (S. Allen and Pichersky)

307(Biology 392). Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic principles of developmental biology. Special emphasis will be placed upon the continuity of developmental processes in terms of 1) the temporal sequence of development from the fertilized egg to the adult and 2) levels of control, from the expression of genetic information to the organization of complex tissues and organs. Greatest emphasis will be placed on development in vertebrates. Whenever possible, the experimental basis for our understanding of developmental events will be stressed. Major areas of coverage will include gametogenesis, fertilization, early embryogenesis including maternal control and nucleocytoplasmic interactions, induction and morphogenetic movements, cellular interactions in organogenesis, and morphogenesis. Certain aspects of postnatal development, such as regeneration, will also be covered. This course is intended for juniors and seniors, but it is also open to sophomores. There are three one-hour lectures per week. During the term there will be two evening examinations plus the final. (Tosney)

308(Biology 393). Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 307. (2). (Excl).

This course provides students with the opportunity to study firsthand the development of a number of live vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. In addition to observation of normal embryogenesis, students perform several of the experimental analyses which have contributed to a basic understanding of developmental processes. Exercises focus on fertilization, developmental morphology, induction, determination and differentiation of various tissues, metamorphosis and regeneration. In addition to one scheduled three-hour laboratory session each week, students are expected to spend about three additional hours in the laboratory each week. Short lectures are presented to introduce aspects of basic morphological areas of investigation. Formal reports on two exercises are required. There are three laboratory tests. Maintenance of lab note book for a complete and accurate record of observations and experimental results is required. There is a required lab manual. (Jeyabalan)

325(Zoology 325). Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Biology 418, 420, or 422 - these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. Supplementary reading in the undergraduate library is recommended. (Hume and Webb)

326(Zoology 326). Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 325. (1). (Excl).

These laboratory exercises deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. Problem sets are graded for each exercise. In addition, two full-length reports are required. Students choose which exercises to write up in full. Biology 326 should be taken concurrently with Biology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Biology 325 will not be admitted to Biology 326 without special permission. (Hume and Webb)

408(Biology 401)/Micro. 401. General Microbiology. Biochemistry (Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415); preceded or accompanied by Biol. 305. (3). (Excl).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to microbiology. Lectures cover cellular structures, physiology, genetics, taxonomy, and ecology. Medical microbiology and immunology are included in the context of microbial ecology. Eukaryotic micro-organisms and cells in culture are discussed, but emphasis is placed on prokaryotes and viruses. (Bender and Douthit)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in living cells. As an introductory course, emphasis is placed on a broad view rather than a detailed knowledge of this enormously encompassing field. Thus, biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms and reactions; the chemical basis of life. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology including medicine, dentistry, and other professional pursuits. The general subject matter includes amino acids, protein structure and function, allosterism, molecular disease, enzyme properties, kinetics and mechanisms, connective tissue proteins, membrane structure and function, energetics, intermediary metabolism and its regulation, biosynthetic processes, DNA, RNA, transcription, the genetic code and protein synthesis, control of gene expression, free radical and antioxidant biochemistry, hormone action and metabolic control.

This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's chosen according to interest and ability to help other undergraduates with biochemistry. The course is divided into 15 logical units of material, and students are required to MASTER the content of each unit. Upon attaining mastery, the student may take both a written and an oral quiz which, upon completion, is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed plus a factor derived from performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 60 hours/week in a suite permanently assigned to this course. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are presented by Professor Beyer. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course, i.e., not in the textbook, and is not the subject of examination. Students are encouraged to attend sessions in which biochemical discoveries are presented by TA's and the professor. (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl).This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, each proctor provides two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has MASTERED the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer)

413(Botany 479). Plant Cell and Tissue Culture. Eight hours in biology; at least junior standing. (4). (Excl).

Biology 413 deals with contemporary methods and results of studies on plant biotechnology with plant protoplast, cell and tissue cultures. The LECTURES cover such topics as (1) how plant cells, tissues, and organs are cultured, (2) induction of roots and shoots in tissue cultures, (3) regeneration of whole plants from single cells, (4) protoplast isolation and fusion of protoplasts, (5) somatic cell hybridization in plants, (6) genetic engineering with plant protoplasts, cell, and tissue cultures, (7) applications of plant cell and tissue culture in plant breeding, forestry, crop production, and horticulture, (8) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures to produce secondary compounds of interest in medicine and pharmacology, (9) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures in the U.S. Space Biology Program under NASA, and (10) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures to save threatened and endangered plant species from extinction. The LAB deals with the primary techniques of plant biotechnology as applied to plant cell and tissue cultures: isolation of protoplasts, mericloning, establishing tissue cultures and cell suspension cultures, somatic embryogenesis, somatic cell hybridization, anther and pollen cultures to get haploids, production of secondary metabolites in cell cultures, isolation of the Ti plasmid DNA from the crown gall bacterium, plant bio-reactors, use of flow cytometers, automation as applied to plant cell/tissue cultures, and sterile techniques and media preparation. (Kaufman)

416(Biology 494). Biophysical Chemistry. Biol. 411 and Math. 114; or the equivalents. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to give students in the life sciences a background in physical chemistry as applied to biological systems and biological instrumentation. Particular aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics, and statistical mechanics are introduced with examples drawn from enzyme folding and catalysis. The applications of physical chemistry which are discussed include the role of non-covalent bonds in the stability and folding of proteins and nucleic acids, the role entropy in the polymerization of proteins, the nature of specific and non-specific interactions, the energetics of cellular transport, DNA supercoiling, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, the use of fluorescence in cell biology, the principles of light and electron microscopy, and the principles of the detection of radiation by photographic and scintillation techniques. Ten graded problem sets and four examinations will be given. (Langmore)

424. Cell and Developmental Genetics. Biol. 305; a course in cell or developmental biology is helpful but not required. (2-3). (Excl).

This course is an in-depth analysis of current information on gene control of developmental processes in multicellular organisms. Stress is placed on reading articles in scientific journals. For each topic covered in lecture, a list of references including one or two key review papers is provided. Students are encouraged to read one or more of these papers. No examinations; student evaluation is based on two term papers (one being an extensive analysis of a topic covered in the lectures and the other a compilation of short summaries of the papers read during the term) and participation in class discussion. Students electing the course for 3 credits are required to present a seminar. (Rizki)

425/Anatomy 425. Systems Neurobiology. Biol. 325 or 422, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course treats ensembles of nerve cells as developing and functional entities. It assumes a level of understanding of cellular neurobiology such as can be obtained in Biology 325 (Animal Physiology) of Biology 422 (Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology). The topics include development of the nervous system, sensory systems (especially the visual system), motor systems, and behavior. Students are evaluated by one or more hour exams, one or more papers, and a final exam. There are three lectures per week, and no optional lab. Graduate students (and in exceptional cases, undergraduates) may elect an additional hour of credit (Biology 625) in which original research papers are read, discussed, and written about. (Easter and Raymond)

428(Biology 415). Cell Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415 or their equivalents. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This lecture course provides in-depth analysis of the molecular basis of structure and function in living cells. Topics covered will include: intracellular transport and secretion; membrane structure and function; bioenergetics in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and prokaryotes; lysosomes and peroxisomes; organelle biogenesis; cytoskeleton and cell motility; cell cycle and cell differentiation; and a survey of methods for studying these topics. Emphasis on the interpretation of experimental data is heavy. There will be two exams (Thur 7-9) and a final exam. (Frasch and Pringle)

429(Biology 416). Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Biol. 427 or 428, or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 428. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (Excl).

To familiarize the student with modern laboratory technique used in molecular genetics and in the analysis of cell structure and function is the course objective. The course deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of subcellular analysis. The course illustrates certain techniques: cell fractionation, enzyme assay, identification of subcellular functional units, and chloroplast function. Experiments also include cloning, restriction mapping, and gel electrophoresis. There will be short lab quizzes and problem sets given. Course grades will be determined based on three major lab reports (written in a format typical of manuscripts submitted for publication in scientific journals), five short reports and two quizzes. (Vadlamudi)

512(Biology 502). Regulation of Cellular Metabolism. Biol. 411 and 428, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students who wish to pursue the study of biochemical regulation beyond the levels of introductory biochemistry and cell biology. The course is aimed at gaining insight into underlying biochemical mechanisms for highly orderly activities of the cell. Heavy emphasis is given to mammalian cellular metabolism. The course starts with general discussion of basic regulatory mechanisms of cellular metabolism, and progresses to specific discussion of various modes of regulation of several representative metabolic pathways. The last 4-5 weeks will be used for discussion of special topics by guest lecturers. There is no assigned textbook for this course. A list of references is given for each topic. Students are asked to read major references in the library. The course grade is based on two take-home examinations, one term paper, and a critique. (Ikuma)

Animal Biology

252(Zoology 252). Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course teaches the comparative method, using the "three-fold parallelism" of anatomy, ontogeny, and paleontology. All examples are based on chordate animals, with emphasis on their anatomy and development. The introductory third of the course includes the theoretical basis of the comparative method, principles of evolutionary theory and speciation, and phylogenetics. The remainder of the course involves application of the method, with a survey of chordate structure, including the integument, skeleton, muscles, and the circulatory, urogenital, digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. The laboratory provides practical experience in the comparative method, including dissections, preparation of cleared and stained materials, and examination of fossils. There are three one-hour lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. There are two hourly examinations and a final examination for the lecture, and a one hour laboratory practical exam. A detailed syllabus and laboratory manual, rather than an assigned textbook, are used, with supplementary texts on reserve. (Fink and Kluge)

541/Anatomy 541/Physiology 581. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course provides an overview of the hormonal regulation of mammalian reproduction at the system, cellular, and molecular levels. Topics include basic and clinically-orientated material related to properties and mechanisms of action of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones and gonadal sex steroids, the neural control of reproduction, anatomy and endocrine regulation of the testis and ovary and of the male and female reproductive tracts, endocrine control of menstrual and estrous cycles, mechanisms of fertilization and implantation, and the endocrine basis of pregnancy and fertility regulation. Primarily for graduate students; permission of instructor is required. Students must have a strong background in biology. Evaluation is by written examinations and presentation of a poster. The course is team taught by several members of the multi-departmental Reproductive Endocrinology Program. (Foster)

Plant Biology

255(Botany 207). Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. (4). (NS).

An introductory botany course covering a broad spectrum of topics including principles of plant systematics, evolution, ecology, and biogeography. The lectures and laboratories concentrate on a group-by-group treatment of plant diversity, ranging from algae and fungi through primitive vascular plants and culminating in flowering plants. The approach is an evolutionary perspective, treating plants as organisms (individuals, populations, and communities) and emphasizing the innovations and adaptations of the various plant groups as well as life history strategies. The course also includes plant growth and structure. Two or three field trips are scheduled. Two one-hour lectures and two three-hour labs per week. A total of three lecture tests and three laboratory tests will be scheduled. Text: Raven et al, BIOLOGY OF PLANTS, 4th edition. (Wynne)

275(Botany 275). Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 152 or 195, or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. The course will provide a basis for understanding the natural history and some practical aspects of plant life including the anticipated advances in plant biotechnology. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. (Nooden)

459(Botany 422). Systematic Botany. Biol. 152-154 or 195, (or the equivalent), or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The diversity of higher plants is taught with lectures, color projection slides, specimens, living plants, and laboratory discussions. Emphasis is on the level of orders, families and genera, temperate as well as tropical, so that students can make themselves familiar with plants in any part of the world. The course focuses mainly on the flowering plants because of their dominant role on the earth, but gymnosperms and pteridophytes are studied too. The phylogeny of vascular plants provides the framework. In angiosperms hypothetical ancestral types are discussed and various lines are analyzed, e.g., the pinks (Caryophillidae), roses (Rosidae), wind-pollinated trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Lilidae), and so on. Related subjects, such as habitats of plants, geography, biosystematics, cladistics and floral biology are presented in special lectures.

A major component of the science of botany, systematics is considered essential to training plant scientists and botany concentrators. However, the course is also elected by biology concentrators, zoologists, foresters, ecologists and ethnobotanists. Some individuals take the course merely because they enjoy plants and wish to learn about them, including students with backgrounds as diverse as engineering and city planning.

The methods of instruction include lecture and laboratory, the latter including demonstrations and discussions. There are two midterms, a final, and numerous small lab quizzes. Various texts are recommended for students with special interests, but only two are required: THE IDENTIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANT FAMILIES by P.H. Davis and J. Cullen (Cambridge University Press) and A STUDENT'S ATLAS OF FLOWERING PLANTS by C.E. Wood, Jr. (Harper and Row). (Wagner)

462(Botany 437). Anatomy of Vascular Plants. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent), or Biol. 255. (4). (Excl).

This most interesting course is basic to an understanding of plant biology and important for anyone planning to enter anthropology, archaeology, biology, botany, ecology, forestry and other areas of natural resources, horticulture, plant physiology, plant pathology, and others. The course deals with the nature of the cells, tissues, and organs of the plant body, the sites of their initiation, patterns of development, and the relationship between their structure and function. In other words, one will learn in detail about the internal structure of plants and how they grow. We also consider the evolution of plant structure. The course will consist of two well-illustrated lectures and two laboratories each week in which we shall study both prepared slides and a large quantity of living material. Biology 462 satisfies a requirement of both the Biology and Botany concentration programs. Student understanding of the subject matter will be evaluated by two lecture tests, two laboratory tests and a final exam. (Beck)

Ecology, Evolution and Animal Behavior

280(Biology 222). Energy and Ecology. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (2). (NS).

This study of the use of energy and its impact on the world ecosystems and climate treats the basic question of how to supply the energy needs of mankind while maintaining ecological integrity. The following sources of energy are considered: solar, biomass, wind, tidal, ocean thermal, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear, including their mining and manufacture, transport, utilization, and ecological principles and conservation practices that are essential for a healthful and stable world. (Gates)

380(Biology 343). Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or equivalent and at least one term of college chemistry or physics, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Marine ecology is a study of the organisms and processes of the ocean, including both pelagic and benthic communities. It is the branch of biological oceanography that applies ecological principles to the study of marine life. Lectures will cover the inter-relationships of marine organisms and their environment. Organisms and communities from the following habitats will be discussed: estuaries, the rocky intertidal, coral reefs, the coastal zone, the deep sea and the open ocean. The course will treat the ecology of marine organisms as different as bacteria and whales. This offering fulfills the undergraduate Biology concentration requirements for a course in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. It may be taken singly, or as a complement to courses in physical and chemical oceanography taught by other units. Grading procedures will be based on exam performance: 2 one-hour exams plus a comprehensive final. (P. Kilham, Lehman, and Wynne)

481(Biology 413)/Nat. Res. 413. Biophysical Ecology. General Physics. (3). (Excl).

This is an analytical approach to the understanding of how plants and animals interact with their environments. Concepts of energy exchange, gas exchange and chemical kinetics are combined with a description of the physical environments to account for the productivity of plants and the behavior of animals. Topics discussed include solar radiation, longwave radiation, spectral properties of radiation, plants, animals and terrain surfaces, conduction, convection, photosynthesis and the energy budgets of plants and animals. Topics important to remote sensing, such as polarized light and water stress effects on vegetation, are also investigated. (Gates)

492(Zoology 476). Behavioral Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and one additional course in zoology. (3). (Excl).Also offered at the Biological Station during IIIb for 5 credits (which includes Biology 493).

The objective of this course is to acquaint students with the subject of animal behavior. All types of behavior are considered; both vertebrate and invertebrate examples are utilized. The course approaches behavior from a zoological viewpoint; emphasis is placed on understanding the methods of investigation used in the study of animal behavior. Consideration of physiological mechanisms is given, as well as discussion of the evolutionary framework in which behavior patterns evolve. The course is divided into two sections. In the first, the types of factors which affect behavior are discussed. During the second part of the course, functional categories of behavior (feeding, orientation, agonistic, sexual) are discussed with an emphasis on bringing together as many factors as possible in an attempt to understand the control (both proximate and ultimate) of these behaviors at all levels.

Although Biology 152 and 154 or equivalent are required, it would be best to have at least one of the following three areas before taking the course: genetics, ecology, or neurophysiology. Students who wish to obtain a more complete background should plan to take Biology 422 and/or Biology 494 either before of after taking Biology 492. Methods of instruction: (1) lectures are the primary means of instruction; (2) a text is also utilized, as are outside readings; (3) there is a midterm lecture exam and a term paper, as well as a final exam. (Hazlett)

493(Zoology 477). Laboratory in Animal Behavior. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 492; and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

The objective of this laboratory course is to give students first-hand experience with observing animal behavior and in measuring the behavioral effects of experimental treatment of animals. In addition, considerable attention is given to the design of experiments by the students. A variety of animals are used vertebrate, invertebrate; terrestrial, fresh- water; diurnal and nocturnal. A variety of behavior patterns are studied in the experiments, ranging from simple orientation movements to complex social behaviors. About one quarter of the course is devoted to individual research projects which the students design themselves. (Hazlett)

495(Botany 472). Plant Population Biology. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl).

The course will cover empirical and theoretical approaches to the ecology of plant populations and communities. Topics include plant life history patterns, breeding systems, ecotypic differentiation, population dynamics, mechanisms and consequences of intraspecific and interspecific competition, interaction of plants with other trophic levels, plant distribution patterns, and community organization. Although the emphasis will be on natural populations, managed systems will also be considered. A course in ecology is required background. Grades will be based on a literature review paper, midterm, and final examination. Although there will be a textbook, emphasis will be placed on reading primary sources. The format of the course will be lecture and discussion. (Goldberg)

496(Biology 472)/Nat. Res. 425. Population Ecology. General ecology and Nat. Res. 438; calculus recommended. (4). (Excl).

The study of the dynamics of single species populations and systems of multi-species populations is examined. This is accomplished by reviewing the theoretical explanations for various topics and comparing these predictions with observations and experiments with animal and plant populations. Topics covered include population growth and its limiting factors (resource acquisition, life history patterns, habitat use, and social structure), competition, predation, population cycles, food web structure, and the stability and persistence of assemblages of populations. Because the theoretical development of these topics depends upon mathematics, students will find experiences with introductory calculus useful, and basic statistical knowledge is useful in understanding the comparison of observed plant and animal populations with the theoretical predictions. The course consists of two 90-minute lectures, a lab experiment requiring one hour and a discussion group for one-two hours each week. Students are evaluated on the basis of two hourly exams, a term paper, weekly short lab reports and participation in the discussion group. (Belovsky)

497(Biology 471). Community Ecology. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl).

An examination of current theory and research on ecological communities. Emphasis is on the analyses of patterns in community structure and species diversity, and the mechanisms responsible for generating and maintaining these patterns. Specific topics include the roles of species interactions such as competition, predation, and mutualisms, environmental variation, and biogeography, in community processes. A background in ecology is required. Readings are from the original literature. There are two one-hour lectures and one two-hour discussion per week. (Rathcke and Werner)

589. Mechanisms of Microbial Evolution. Biol. 305. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to the processes of evolution in the context of microbes. The course will focus on the forces which promote variation and change in microbial populations. Among the topics covered during the term will be: structure of microbial populations and measures of genetic variation; evolution of community structure including predatory/prey interactions; roles of mutator genes and transposable elements in evolution; evolution of plasmids and their interaction with the host genome; enzyme evolution; evolution of the E. coli genome. The course is open to undergraduate and graduate students interested in evolutionary biology, and/or molecular biology and/or microbiology. In addition, the course is one of the electives for the undergraduate concentration in microbiology. The course will meet three times a week. Two of these hours will generally be devoted to formal lectures and the third to discussion. Course requirements are two term papers plus a miniseminar presentation and participation in the discussions; no exams. (Adams)

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