Classical Studies

Classical Archaeology (Division 342)

222/Hist. of Art 222. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).

The course intends to be an introduction to Roman civilization as seen through the archaeology and art. The course will be devoted to the predecessors of Rome in Italy: the Greeks and the Etruscans, and, above all, to the city of Rome, its major monuments and works of art. There will also be coverage of the minor arts such as mosaics, wall paintings, and other artifacts recovered from excavations which shed light on Roman social history. There are no prerequisites for the course. The format is three lectures and one discussion section per week. The times of the discussion sections will be announced on the first day of class, and students may choose the section which suits their schedule. The grade is based upon discussion and quizzes in sections, and on the midterm and final exams. The assigned readings for the discussion sections each week will be taken from: F. Sear, ROMAN ARCHITECTURE (Cornell Paperback) and M. Henig, A HANDBOOK OF ROMAN ART. (Koeppel)

323. Introduction to Field Archaeology. (3). (HU).

A sequence of lectures accompanied by slides, this course offers to the novice an overview of archaeological research. It focuses on the methods excavation, surface survey, remote sensing, laboratory analyses by which archaeologists obtain their empirical data. It also relates those methods to their dual context, the material nature of the archaeological record (artifacts in their environment) and the ever more delicate questions that societies raise about their past. Students who will complete the course will have an understanding of the technical aspect of particular methods as well as an appreciation for their intellectual complexity. They may also become eligible for participation in archaeological field projects. Students need not have attended other classes in archaeology. Readings comprise introductory textbooks and a series of articles on applications of techniques in particular projects. To those without previous exposure to archaeology the instructor may assign additional readings. Grades are given on the basis of three exams and a report on an original research project. (Fotiadis)

436/Hist. of Art 436. Hellenistic and Roman Architecture. Hist. of Art 101 or Class Arch. 330; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course focuses on the architecture of the Hellenistic and Roman worlds from about 100 BC to the reign of Constantine (early fourth century AD). Hellenistic influence on Roman architecture is discussed, and then particular attention given to Roman innovations in building materials (concrete), building types, and designs and plans. The period from ca. 50 BC to 120 AD will be covered in the greatest detail. There will be a midterm, final, and one paper required. The texts books for the course are Frank Sear, ROMAN ARCHITECTURE (paperback) and William L. MacDonald, THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, Volume 2 (Yale paperback). Supplementary readings will be given in course packs. (Humphrey)

531/Hist. of Art 531. Aegean Art and Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

A survey of the major sites of Greece, Crete, and the Cyclades in the Bronze Age, with particular reference to architectural and ceramic development and interdependence. Architectural questions to be addressed will include the origins of the Minoan palatial complexes (Knossos, Phaistos, Mallia, Zakro) and the Mycenaean megara (Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, etc.) and the spread of architectural ideas across the Eastern Mediterranean. Pottery problems will include those of the varieties of ceramic production (Minyan) in Middle Helladic Greece, and of the stylistic and chronological relationship between Cretan, Cycladic, and Mainland shapes in the Late Bronze Age. Archaeological evidence, stratigraphic and otherwise, will be brought to bear on historical problems such as the date of the arrival of the first Greek speakers in Greece, the destruction sequence at the end of the third millennium, the date of the volcanic eruption of Thera, the reasons for the demise of the Minoan civilization, the historicity of the Siege of Troy and the thalassocracy of Minos. Students who have taken C.A. 221 (Introduction to Greek Archaeology) will have some familiarity with some of the material, but 221 is not a prerequisite. Undergraduates and graduate students will be welcome. There will be an hour exam, a paper, and a final. (Pedley)

540/Hist. of Art 540. Art and Archaeology of Byzantine Egypt. Hist. of Art 101, 142. 542, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See History of Art 540. (Thomas)

Classical Greek (Division 385)

Elementary Courses

101. Elementary Greek. (4). (FL).

In combination with Greek 102, this is the first half of a year-long introduction to ancient Greek and is designed to prepare students for the reading of Greek texts. Greek 101 concentrates on fifth-century B.C. Attic Greek which was the language of the "golden age" of Athens. The Greek language of that time and place represents a cultural and linguistic central point from which students can pursue their own interests within a wide range of Greek literature which extends from the Homeric epics to the Byzantine era and which includes the archaic, classical, and hellenistic periods as well as the KOINE Greek of the New Testament. The purpose of the course is to develop the fundamentals of the language so that these fundamentals can then be applied to whatever area of ancient Greek students wish to pursue.

102. Elementary Greek. Greek 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 103 or 310. (4). (FL).

Greek 102 is the second term of the elementary ancient Greek sequence and requires that the student has already completed Greek 101. Students who wish to begin Greek in the Winter Term should elect Greek 101. In Greek 102 students will supplement their study of syntax and grammar by reading Attic prose selections. (Ross)

302. Second-Year Greek. Greek 301 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course is the second half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. The primary goal of the student in Greek 302 is to learn how to read Homer; hence emphasis is placed on Homeric vocabulary and grammar. The class will translate and discuss readings from the ODYSSEY. Midterms, paper, and final exam. (Cameron)

Intermediate Courses

402. Greek Drama. Greek 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

The aim of the course will be to make detailed exploration of Sophocles' most celebrated play, OEDIPUS THE KING, and to use it as a point of access to Greek tragedy in general. Two class hours per week will be devoted to close reading of the text, and the third will be devoted to various kinds of discussion and presentation. We shall consider the play's language and themes, its staging, its social and religious contexts, its mythological background, its relationship to the rest of Sophocles' OEUVRE, and its reception by critics and other writers in antiquity and since. Required book(s) will be available from the Shaman Drum bookstore, S. State. About one third of the translation load will be designated for independent study, rather than for full in-class review. Requirements will include a midterm; a final; a class presentation; and an eight-page paper, which may be based upon the class presentation. (Hinds)

Advanced Courses

486. Readings in Later Greek Prose. Greek 402. (3). (HU).

Selected readings in Pausanias and Strabo, types of archaeological and topographical essays, with analysis and discussion of passages concerning Athens and Attica. (Pedley)

Latin Language and Literature (Division 411)

Elementary Courses

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed 103, 193, or 502. (4). (FL).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hours examinations, and a final.

102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 193 or 502. (4). (FL).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final.

194. Intensive Elementary Latin II. Latin 193 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 221, 222, 231, 232, or 503. (4). (Excl).

This is a continuation of Latin 193, a beginning language course which will have covered, by the end of the Fall Term, the essentials of Latin accidence and syntax, with some experience in reading continuous Latin prose (Caesar). This second term of this introductory sequence will continue the reading of prose and will then include the entire Fourth Book (the Dido book) of Vergil's AENEID. Students need not have taken Latin 193 to enroll in Latin 194. Initially there will be a systematic review of Latin grammar, and throughout the term attention will be paid to details of grammar to ensure a command of language necessary for increasing ease in reading. Therefore, anyone with a knowledge of elementary Latin could profit from the course. Book IV of the AENEID has been chosen as the main text because of its inherent importance for later European poetry and literature, and will be considered in class discussion as such not simply as an exercise in translation. (001 Humphrey; 002 Ross)

222. Vergil, Selections from the Aeneid. Latin 221 or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 193, 194, 232, or 503. (4). (FL).

Latin 222, a fourth term university-level Latin reading course, is designed specifically for students who have completed Latin 221 in the Fall Term, or who have been assigned into the course by a Department of Classical Studies placement examination. Successful completion of Latin 222 meets the LS&A foreign language requirement. In this course students read selected passages from the first six books of Vergil's AENEID, his great epic poem on the founding of Rome. Emphasis is placed on the artistic design of the poem and on Vergil's cultural influence, but drill on Latin structure and translation is continued. Grading is based upon class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final.

231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed 194, 222, or 503. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from such authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D. as Cicero, Caesar, Sallust, Livy, and Tacitus. Class discussions center upon the readings. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final.

232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed 194, 222, or 503. (4). (FL).
Section 001.
This class will ask you to bring together and apply all the knowledge and skills you have acquired in studying Latin to the pleasurable reading of the greatest work of Latin literature. We will attend especially to Books I-VI, working closely with the text, slowly and methodically learning techniques of translating Vergil's poetry into clear and precise English prose. Books II (the fall of Troy) and IV (the Dido book) will occupy most of our attention. We will review grammar as necessary. We will also study Vergil's epic in English translation. By term's end we should have both a good understanding and appreciation of what the AENEID is all about and an ability to confront any Latin passage of the poem with some skill and comprehension. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. (Wallin)

Intermediate Courses

302. Catullus and Cicero. Latin 194, 222, 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course will provide an introduction to the prose and poetry of the late Roman Republic (first century B.C.), and is designed for students who have completed Latin 194, 222, 232, or the equivalent. Class time will be spent primarily in translation and discussion of some of Cicero's speeches and a selection of the poems of Catullus. Emphasis will be placed on a further mastery of Latin grammar and translation skills. There will be hour exams and a final. (Potter)

410. Poetry of the Republic or Later Empire. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

This course will accomplish an in-depth reading of Seneca's PHAEDRA. This play affords a dazzling exploration of human psychology, especially its pathological dimensions. Attention will be primarily directed toward the Latin language as mediator of Seneca's view of this myth. Attention will be paid to grammar and syntax, as well as to the literary dimensions of the text. Hour examination, final examination. (Witke)

Advanced Courses

421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. I: (3); III b: (2). (Excl).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of descriptive linguistics that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. (Knudsvig)

435/MARC 440. Medieval Latin I, 500-900 A.D. Two years of college Latin or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is designed for students who have not had any Medieval Latin. The prerequisite for the course is approximately two years of Classical Latin, though students who have had accelerated courses in Latin are certainly welcome to apply to the course. We will be accomplishing in this course a survey of the major literary events from roughly A.D. 500 until the end of the age of Charlemagne. The kinds of texts we will read will include some historiography, some saints' lives, certain representational poems from the court of Charlemagne, as well as emphasis on the development of monasticism in the West. While the course is primarily a reading course in Latin, and hence will pay some attention to the way in which Medieval Latin develops from Classical Latin, it is also very much a cultural course which is designed to show students the emerging concerns of the Early Middle Ages in the areas of religion, philosophy, thought, as well as literature. (Witke)

500. Special Reading Course in Latin. (4). (HU).

This course is designed to meet the needs of beginning graduate students who must perfect their ability to read and analyze Latin literary texts, especially at sight. It is therefore not recommended for undergraduates. Two substantial pieces of literature will be read, one in verse and one in prose. Class will be devoted to prepared translation from these works, sight translation from other works, and grammatical review. (Hinds)

581. Lucretius and Roman Epicureanism. Latin 401 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Extensive reading of Lucretius' DE RERUM NATURA. Discussions will focus primarily on the place of the poem in Latin literary and intellectual history, but we will also consider the role of Lucretius as a proponent of Epicureanism. Students will be expected to read secondary sources in addition to the original text. Requirements will include class presentations, several translation tests, a paper, and a final exam. (Shelmerdine)

Classical Civilization (Division 344)

Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who have not had time or opportunity to learn these languages but who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

102. Classical Civilization II: The Ancient Roman World (in English). (4). (HU).

This course serves as a general introduction to the history, literature, life, institutions, and contributions of ancient Rome - that is, to Roman civilization. In order to achieve some focus, we will consider in detail four periods of change or crisis: the founding of the Republic (509 BC); the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 BC); the Augustan "peace"; and the established principate of Nero. We will thus be able to follow the development and failure of institutions of government and society, and to trace the changing attitudes and values of the major writers of each period as they tried to give shape and meaning to their world and times and searched for order and consolation in times of civil war and the collapse of the social structure. We will read historians (Livy, Sallust, Tacitus), poets (Catullus, Vergil, Horace), and other thinkers (Cicero, Petronius). Lectures will follow certain common ideas and themes, with occasional presentations of special topics (e.g., Roman law; slavery; the ancient book; gladiators). There will be two short papers (50% of the final grade, and a midterm (15%) and final (35%) exam. (Ross)

321. Chariot Racing and Gladiators. (2). (Excl).

The course will study the two major spectator sports of ancient Rome in their historical and social context. The main questions to be addressed are: Why did the Romans exhibit such a passion for these particular sports rather than for the traditional Greek sports typified by the program of the Olympic Games? How were the practical difficulties of staging such expensive and elaborate games in front of 150,000 spectators overcome? What social status did the performers in these games achieve, and what distinctions existed between different types of performer? Why was the Roman tolerance for bloodshed in the arenas higher than that of most contemporary societies? How were the games used by those in power to consolidate that power, and who benefited chiefly from the holding of these games? The primary source material upon which we depend includes: the physical remains of the entertainment buildings, representations of the games in works of art, inscriptions recording the careers of charioteers and gladiators, literary sources (such as the LIVES OF THE EMPERORS by Suetonius) which describe particular sets of games, advertisements for games painted on the walls of Pompeii, and physical remains of equipment used in the games. The visual material will be illustrated on slides in each lecture. The literary sources will be compiled in a course pack which will form the basis for the discussion sections. All readings will be in English translation. The course will meet three times a week in the second half of the term, with two lectures and one discussion section per week. There will be one term paper of 6-8 pages and a final examination. (Humphrey)

325/Women's Studies 325. Women in Classical Athens. (2). (HU).

This course will explore the lives of women of the most celebrated period of Greek culture, from about 460 to 360 BCE. Because no text or work of art by a woman survives from this period, the study of Athenian women must be an exercise in using inherently limited evidence. The course will be based on extensive reading in primary sources, including forensic orations, inscriptions, art (primarily painted pottery and grave reliefs), tragedy, comedy, medical texts, and philosophical works. The course will emphasize the complexities and paradoxes of women's position: pervasive misogyny/respect and affection for wives; exclusion from the public sphere/central role in civic cult; model of the invisible woman/aggressive tragic heroines. All reading will be in English. There will be two lectures per week and a discussion. Students will write a short paper and there will be a final exam. Enrollment will be limited to 100 students. (Scodel)

462. Greek Mythology. (4). (HU).

Greek Mythology is designed to acquaint the student with the major myths and epic cycles of ancient Greece from the creation myths and their Near Eastern prototypes through the Trojan War and the wanderings of Odysseus. The development of various myths will be illustrated through Greek literature and art. We will also discuss the use and treatment of Greek myths in English literature, modern psychoanalytical theory, and comparative anthropology. Required texts will include Homer's ODYSSEY, parts of Hesiod's THEOGONY and WORKS AND DAYS, the HOMERIC HYMNS, and a selection of tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. An additional course pack will provide readings for discussion sections which will meet once a week to consider a variety of theoretical approaches to mythology, and other critical questions. Course requirements include two hour tests and a final exam. (Shelmerdine)

467. The Good Life. (3). (HU).

This course will include a variety of classical authors in several genres spanning about 300 years and will focus on ethical issues. The course is designed to take advantage of the fact that the early Greeks did not make the same distinctions we do between philosophical and nonphilosophical literature and did not segregate as we do ethical, political, epistemological, and metaphysical questions. The systematic philosophies of Plato and Aristotle will be used as the bases for discussing the questions and solutions selected for study. But these philosophies will be studied specifically within the culture from which they arose. Thus, so-called "literary" and "historical" texts (Homer, lyric, tragedy, Herodotus, Thucydides, etc.) will be used to articulate the issues as well as to test the abilities of the systematic philosophies to accommodate them. The course will interweave the study of "literary" and "philosophical" texts around a core of questions arising from three main topics: 1) what constitutes the good life; 2) how the good life is achieved; and 3) what are the problems confronting this life. The first topic includes questions about what it is to be a good person and whether this is extensionally equivalent to what the best life is for a human being; what it is to be "happy"; what values would be included in the good life and the best life (for example, pleasure, external goods, love, friendship, citizenship, autonomy); and what form of government is best suited to the pursuit and maintenance of these values. How one becomes morally educated, what are the social requisites, and what are the varieties of moral reasoning to be employed (for example, the mechanics of a system based on a single value as opposed to one based on a plurality of values), constitute the second topic. The third topic explores the problems that both give rise to ethical debates and demand answers from those who would propose systematic solutions. These include problems of moral disagreement, conflict of values, akrasia or "weakness of will," and the limitations on the good life and being a good person imposed on human beings by contingencies. While the ethical issues will be studied in a "culture-specific" fashion, their interest and importance is by no means limited to their originating culture. The questions which will be raised and discussed are fundamental to understanding and handling both the persistent and the extraordinary ethical and social issues with which we are all confronted in this age. Since the course will blend the rigors of philosophical investigation with the rigors of developing acquaintance with a culture through the perusal of texts of high literary quality, the course will provide students with the opportunity not only to engage in all aspects of critical thinking and practice these skills in their thinking and writing for the class, but also in accordance with the goals of a liberal education, to become more informed about matters of cultural and aesthetic significance. Requirements: three writing assignments, a midterm, and a final exam. (Rickert)

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