Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

This course will describe and analyze the way in which Mediterranean culture became a European culture and by 1715 had provided the basis for a worldwide Atlantic civilization. The emphasis in the course will be cultural and intellectual with due attention to the transformation of society, the agricultural and technical-mechanical changes in European society, the transformation of the art of war and the ratianization and transformation of the economic order. An analysis of the role of religion, the development of political participation and parliamentary politics, the growth of the universities, state-building and bureaucratic centralization will be especially stressed. No special previous knowledge is necessary for success in the course. There will be a single text and a single book of course readings. Grades will be an average of midterm and final examinations, class recitations and the evaluations of a series of short papers to be assigned in the course of the term. There will be two discussion sections per week. (Tonsor)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course examines European history from 1700 until 1945, outlining large-scale social, political, economic, and cultural change. The lectures will focus on the "turning points" of European history the Enlightenment, the French revolution, the industrial revolution, the rise of new social classes and new ideologies, imperialism, the First World War, the Russian revolution, National Socialism in Germany, the Second World War, and the division of Europe in 1945. There will be two lectures and one discussion section weekly. Course requirements include: a midterm and final examination; two short papers on topics addressed in lectures and readings; and participation in discussion section. (Canning)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

This is an introduction to the modern history, socio-cultural character, and economic development of China and Japan from about 1800 to the present, with brief attention to Korea and Vietnam as the other major components of East Asia over a quarter of the world, including its largest political and cultural unit (China) and some of its fastest growing, technologically advanced, and largest industrial units. East Asia is also the scene of the world's major revolutionary experience (China) and of the most successful effort to rival or surpass originally Western leadership in industry and technology (Japan). In addition, it has been the scene of three of the four major foreign wars fought by the U.S. (WW II, Korea, Vietnam). On a larger scale, some understanding of the development of this very large sector of the world, whose global importance continues to grow, is essential for any educated person, together with some knowledge of its culture and its varying approaches to modern challenges and to universal human problems. The impact of Western imperialism after 1800 contributed to a radical transformation of traditional Asian societies; their separate responses have created modern Asia. The approach here is interdisciplinary, with emphasis on history broadly conceived; guest lecturers from the University's large community of Asia specialists provide further perspectives. There will be one midterm and one final, mainly of the short essay type. Readings will include survey treatments, samples of fiction, and personal accounts. This is to some degree a continuation of Asian Studies 121 but may be taken separately, and no previous knowledge of the area is assumed. (Murphey)

152/Asian Studies 112. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 112 for course description. (Lieberman)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

A survey of American history to the end of the Civil War. The course will focus on the socio-economic and political development of the United States and will cover a wide variety of topics ranging from the changing attitudes toward abortion to the causes of the Civil War. There will be two one-hour lectures per week and two weekly section meetings. The grading in the course will be based on a midterm, final, and three of the four quizzes to be given in the section meetings. (Vinovskis)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).

A survey of Roman history from the founding of Rome in the eighth century B.C. to the emergence of a Christian Roman empire in the fourth century A.D. Topics to be discussed include the consolidation of Italy under Roman rule; overseas wars of expansion into the Mediterranean; the domination of military commanders such as Pompey and Julius Caesar; the establishment of an empire by Augustus; and the conversion of Constantine to Christianity. Readings will include a survey textbook and many ancient texts in translation. Classes will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussions led by TAs. Final grade is based on two tests, frequent quizzes, and participation in discussions. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. (Van Dam)

211/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. (4). (SS).

This course will study the institutional, economic, and intellectual development of Europe from the time of the Crusades, when contacts with the East were re-established, to the discovery of the New World, when European expansion moved West over the Atlantic. Some important themes will be the nature of kingship and representative institutions; patterns of urban, economic, and demographic growth; and movements in religious and intellectual life. Some specific topics to be covered include the demands of the secular world for greater religious experience; definitions of orthodoxy and the development of the Inquisition; scholastic thought and Western creativity; feudalism, chivalry, and the Hundred Years War; the Black Death and a fascination with the macabre. Modern interpretations of the period will be supplemented with readings from contemporary documents (chronicles, romances, poetry, sermons, etc.). In addition to a midterm and a final examination, students will write a paper. This is a lecture course, but some periods will be reserved for discussion. (Hughes)

251. Modern China. (4). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. (A. Feuerwerker)

265. A History of the University of Michigan. (3). (HU).

The University of Michigan has a proud and important heritage. Since 1817 it has been a leader in shaping the modern American university. The course will relate the University's history from the perspectives of students, faculty, fields of study, administration, politics, etc. It will also explore the factors that have shaped one modern American university. The only prerequisites are a desire to know about your own university and its place in history. The main mode of presentation will be lectures, often illustrated with slides. Grading will be based on exams and one or two short papers/projects. A picture identification exercise will familiarize students with the campus and its buildings. Readings will be from a course pack and required texts. (Steneck)

275/CAAS 231. Survey of Afro-American History II. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 231. (Dykes)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

319. Europe Since 1945. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is to provide a comprehensive critical introduction to European society, culture and politics since the Second World War. Lectures and readings will cover both Eastern and Western Europe, the international arena and the national histories of particular countries, and social and cultural life as well as political developments. The course aims to explore the shaping of the contemporary world and to introduce students to societies and political cultures which are both structurally similar and fundamentally different from their own. Instruction will be via lectures and ad hoc discussion, evaluation via midterm exam and end of term essay. No special background is required; prejudices and preconceptions about European societies are enough. (Eley)

333/Econ. 396/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Meyer)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

America's wars of the past ninety years have been important experiences both for the society and for millions of individuals. We will examine those wars through books, films, lectures, and discussions, with emphasis on World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. Personal perceptions of war's purposes and meanings are shown in the autobiographies and novels, as are the patterns of combat experience. In a larger perspective, we look historically at these themes: American society's responses to conflict, national mobilization for war, the homefront experience, images of ally and enemy, women's roles in American wars, the effects often unforeseen of technology in changing the nature of war, and ways in which war has changed our society. Grades will be based on participation in discussions, a midterm, and a final exam. There are no prerequisites. Please register for one of the lecture sections and also one discussion. (Collier)

372/Women's Studies 372. Women in European History, 1750 to the Present. (4). (SS).

Section 001 WOMEN IN INDUSTRIAL EUROPE: WORK AND POLITICS, 1750-1945. This course analyzes women's work and political activity in modern Europe. We will focus primarily on Britain, France and Germany, and will examine such issues as the nature of women's work, how continued industrial development has changed that work, the effect of popular notions like "separate spheres" on the sexual division of labor, forms of women's collective action, and the impact of the welfare state on women's lives. The success of the course rests on active class participation. Students should come to class prepared with questions and comments on each week's reading. In addition, students will be expected to prepare a brief (5-7 pp.) midterm essay and a final, 12-15 page research paper, due at the end of the term. (Downs)

376/Amer. Cult. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (SS).

See American Culture 372. (Doyle)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Section 001 THE CIVILIZING PROCESS: PEASANTS, ELITES, AND THE STATE IN EUROPE, 1450-1720. Intensive reading course in the social evolution of western Europe 1400-1750, focusing on the submergence of local, peasant cultures under emerging elites and centralizing states. Background in European history is useful, but most useful of all is the ability to digest, summarize, and critique some fairly sophisticated readings quickly and independently, and to discuss the knowledge gained in the class. Each student will be responsible for leading at least two discussions. One of these will become a short paper. A take-home exam will conclude the assignments. (Lockridge)

Section 003 MICHIGAN IN THE ERA OF INDUSTRIALIZATION. This course will focus on the period in Michigan history from 1880-1920. It will examine several themes in that period including immigration, industrialization, settlement patterns, etc. A general familiarity with United States history is required. History colloquia are conducted in the seminar format and are limited to a small number of students. As a result, emphasis is placed on student participation in discussions. Each student will be required to write a major research paper that will draw on the resources of the Bentley Historical Library, which contains original historical records relating to the history of the state. The course provides an opportunity for students to gain familiarity with a critical period in the history of the state and to do original historical research. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, class discussion, and a seminar paper. (Blouin)

Section 004 APPYING HISTORY TO POLICY MAKING. This course is a primer on ways to use social memory and experience both one's own and, vicariously, that of hundreds of others from the historic past to determine how best to make decisions in a real, imperfect, present-day world. Through discussions and required readings, beginning with Thucydides but concentrating mainly on case studies drawn from 20th century U.S. experiences, we will discover how much those govern and manage public affairs have learned by looking backward in order to look forward and how often they were misled by the exercise. There will be no examinations. (Achenbaum)

Section 005 AMERICAN POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT. This course will attempt to provide an improved understanding of contemporary problems and controversies confronting the United States by considering them in relation to the national historical experience and the processes of change and development which the nation has undergone. The underlying argument is that political institutions, practices and values are formed in particular historical circumstances but persist long after those circumstances have changed. One consequence is political stability and the avoidance of radical and potentially disruptive change. A second consequence is that persistent practices, institutions, and values can become problems themselves, and constraints on the capacity of the nation to respond to new needs and challenges. Thus a central goal of the course will be to assess for the contemporary period, the consequences of these patterns of persistence. To do so will require examination of aspects of the political development of the United States from the founding of the nation to the present. Grades will be based on several papers and class participation. (Clubb)

Section 006 JAPAN IN WORLD WAR II. This course will examine the causes, course, and consequences of Japan's involvement in World War II, from the Manchurian incident in 1931 to the surrender aboard the MISSOURI in 1945. Through discussion in films, assignments in a text (Ronald H. Spector's EAGLE AGAINST THE SUN-Vintage pb. 1986) and other readings, and through oral and written reports on designated topics, the aim is to study different aspects of the war: why Japan went to war on the continent and in the Pacific, how the war was fought, and the impact the war had on Japanese society. Students will be evaluated on their contributions to discussions, on the results of the quiz, and he quality of their oral presentations but especially on their three written reports. (Hackett)

Section 007 CONTEMPORARY SOVIET POLITICS AND CULTURE. This course, which could be titled "Perestroika and Glasnost'," will explore various aspects of Soviet culture from the late 1970s through 1988. Major sources will be Soviet literature, films, television, and articles from the Soviet press. Discussions will focus on the connections between literature and politics in the Soviet Union, on the description of Soviet political discourse, and on cultural developments changes and continuities from the Brezhnev period to the present. Each student will write one short essay and a research paper. A reading knowledge of Russian is preferred; students who cannot read Russian must have the instructor's permission to register in the course. (Burbank)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Section 001 JEWISH BIOGRAPHIES IN THE EARLY MODERN WORLD. The aim of this course is to discover early modern Jewish history through the biographies of significant individuals. Students will read memoirs, biographies, and autobiographies with the aim of exploring how these very personal sources reveal the workings of larger communities and societies. Particular attention will be paid to whether patterns of continuity and/or change emerge. Students will read works by or about Joseph Karo, Uriel Acosta, Gluckel or Hameln, Solomon Maimon and the Baal Shem Tov, among others. There will be four papers of varying lengths. (Rosman)

Section 002 WOMEN AND SOCIETY IN TRADITIONAL JAPAN. The dramatic transformation in women's status is a key feature of Japan's premodern history. The course will examine the patterns of change in the female gender role from the seventh through nineteenth centuries by reviewing primary sources (in English translation) and relevant articles. We will seek to understand the correlation between the structure of dominant institutions and the experiences of women of various classes. Sexual-religious culture, property and inheritance rights, marriage practices, work, and formal political authority will be some of the themes explored. Apart from participation in discussion at weekly meetings, the course requires completion of two sets of take-home examinations. There are no prerequisites but general familiarity with Japan's premodern history is helpful. (Tonomura)

Section 005 IMPERIAL CHINA'S FOREIGN RELATIONS: HAN THROUGH HIGH CH'ING. This course covers topics in the relations of imperial Chinese regimes with the surrounding states and peoples from the Western Han to the high Ch'ing. It is often assumed that China existed in isolation from the rest of the world behind its "Great Wall." Hostility toward the "barbarians" of Central Asia was important at times in China's long history. But even isolation required a foreign policy and diplomatic and military institutions to assure it. Readings and discussions will examine the attitudes of statesmen toward the non-Chinese world; the institutions and procedures for controlling foreign contacts; and the mutual influences that interaction yielded. The course is not a survey of imperial China's foreign relations. Topics are selected from several dynasties (Han, T'ang, Sung, Ming, and Ch'ing) to illustrate different patterns of relations and the precedents that were important to later policy-makers. The emphasis will be on Chinese-Central Asian relations, but relations with Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia will also be considered. The course will be run on a discussion basis. There will be no exams, but three short (5-7 typed pages) and one longer paper (10-15 pages) will be required. Some knowledge of Chinese history will be helpful but is not essential. (Woodruff)

398. Honors Colloquium, Junior. Honors students and junior standing. (4). (SS).

This course is a methods seminar required of juniors who are members of the History Department Honors Program. It is not available for general enrollment. (J. Fine)

412/MARC 414. Social and Intellectual History of the Florentine Renaissance. (4). (HU).

The course will begin with a profile of Florentine society in the 13th century, with particular attention devoted to the learned professions. It was from their number that Dante emerged, and we shall consider him in relationship to the intellectual and artistic activities of his contemporaries. Discussion of the state of the vernacular literature (especially poetry) will follow, and the contribution of Dante will be assessed. Social and political conflicts will be analyzed and their impact on Dante's thought considered. Boccaccio and Petrarch will be treated next with concentration on their Italian and Latin writings. The state of classical studies in Florence at the mid-14th century will be reviewed, and the origins of humanism delved into. Social change in the early 15th century will be treated in relationship to the rise of civic humanism. Then the importation of Greek texts and the study of classical Greek will be considered with the impact of Platonism on Florentine intellectual life highlighted. The Neoplatonic movement in Florence will be investigated with its effects on Medicean circles. Finally, the political thought of Machiavelli and Guicciardini will be treated in detail along with the theme of the decline of the Florentine republic. (Becker)

417. Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present. (4). (HU).

The Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present is a lecture discussion of the chief ideas of "modernity" from the inception of the symbolist movement and the anti-positivist revolt to the beginnings of the post-modernist period following 1945. The course will consist of lectures and bi-weekly discussions of five books chosen to illuminate particular ideas and problems dealt with in the course. There will be a midterm and a final examination. An effort will be made to give a coherent account of the impact of symbolism and elite aesthetic and social theory on the development of art, literature and politics. Elite theories of socialism, anti-democratic biological, cultural and social theories, the rise of authoritarianism and ideology, the loss of religious faith and the growth of Irrationalism, the revolution in science and technology and the anti-technological response will all be discussed. Books to be purchased and read by the student: Renato Poggioli, THE THEORY OF THE AVANT-GARDE; Ernst Nolfe, THREE FACES of FASCISM; Vladimir Lenin, WHAT IS TO BE DONE, BURNING QUESTIONS OF OUR MOVEMENT; Georges Sorel, REFLECTIONS ON VIOLENCE; Walter Laqueur, WEIMER, A CULTURAL HISTORY. (Tonsor)

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (4). (SS).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French Revolution to the 1930's, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure and role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a final take-home examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew)

431. Byzantine Empire, 867-1453. (4). (HU).

A survey taking the Byzantine Empire from the accession of the Macedonians till the Empire's fall to the Ottomans. The course focuses on both internal political history and foreign affairs (relations with the west; the great Church split between Rome and Constantinople; relations with Crusaders and with Slavic neighbors - Russians, Bulgarians, and Serbs, relations with the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks). The main texts are: Ostrogarsky's HISTORY OF THE BYZANTINE STATE, and Jenkins' BYZANTIUM: THE IMPERIAL CENTURIES; and for the final two centuries, Nichol's THE LAST CENTURIES OF BYZANTIUM. Flexible requirements: Besides the final examination, various options exist: 1) a short paper and hour exam; 2) a longer paper and no hour exam. (J. Fine)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

A history of twentieth-century Russia, which concentrates on the social, political, economic and intellectual forms of Bolshevism as they developed before 1917, and as they were applied in domestic and, to some extent, foreign policies after 1917. Stress is placed on understanding Russian perspectives of Russian history, and on developing an awareness of important aspects of social development generally. Readings are drawn from various literary and historical monographs, rather then from a single text; and students are asked to integrate their own interests with the substantive material of Soviet history through class "projects," which may or may not be written term papers. There is also a midterm exam (with graded/ungraded option as well as a take home/in class choice). (Rosenberg)

435. History of the Jews in Eastern Europe. (4). (Excl).

This course surveys the history of the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe from their origins in the eleventh and twelfth centuries to their destruction during World War II. These communities were the largest and most culturally dynamic in the Jewish diaspora from the seventeenth century until World War I and the emphasis will be placed on developments during these centuries. Among the major topics to be covered are the evolution of institutions of communal self-government; the role of Jews in the economic life of the region; relations between Jews, on one hand, and landowners, peasants, and government officials, on the other; the urbanization and economic mobilization of Jews in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and their impact on traditional religious values; the efforts to modernize traditional patterns of life and create a more secular, more westernized Jewish culture in Poland and Russia. Throughout the course, attention will be drawn to developments that were unique to Jewish history in Eastern Europe and not paralleled in lands where Jewish settlement was sparser and Jewish integration into state and society more advanced. Thus, considerable time will be devoted to the appearance of new religious movements, like Hasidism and Musar, within the world of tradition; the growth of revolutionary political creeds and parties (secular, nationalist and/or socialist in outlook) after 1880; the creation of a modern Jewish literature in Hebrew and Yiddish; and the persistence of the orthodoxy as the dominant religious expression of the mass of Eastern European Jews until well into this century. (Rosman)

450. Japan to 1800. (4). (SS).

Japan offers one of the most colorful of the world's premodern histories. This course will explore the evolution of Japanese civilization from its prehistoric days to the last phase of the age of the samurai, covering such major topics as the emergence of the state, aristocratic lifestyle, rise of the warriors, feudalism, peasant and lord, and mass culture. The course is organized in a chronological fashion. Occasional films and slide presentations will supplement lectures. Students will complete two take-home examinations and write a brief paper. The basic text is John W. Hall's Japan from Prehistory to Modern Times. No prerequisites for taking the course. (Tonomura)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (4). (SS).

Southeast Asia, scene of the bloodiest and most expensive war since 1945, remains a major area of Great Power competition. Southeast Asia boasts one of the world's most rapidly expanding regional economies. It is, moreover, among the globe's most culturally and politically diverse regions, home of all the great religions and all the major modern ideological systems. An understanding of modern Southeast Asia is therefore of considerable practical and intellectual significance. This course seeks to describe the "modernization" of Southeast Asia, that is to say, the full integration of the region into the international economy and the simultaneous transformation of political and social life through exposure to Western influence. The course adopts a stimulus-adaptation approach, examining first the colonial conquest and then the Southeast Asian reaction. In particular, it seeks to explain the divergent paths chosen by various countries: why some states become pro-Western military regimes, others pro-Western civilian governments, and yet others Communist. (Lieberman)

455. Classical India and the Coming of Islam 320-1526 A.D. (4). (HU).

The greater part of this course concerns itself with the history of ancient India in its classical age beginning with the empire of the Guptas, and attempts to analyze the components of Indian civilization in its classical form (kinship, caste, political organization, religious institutions). It then examines the Turkish invasions and the challenges posed by Islamic rule. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of any of its participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautmann)

459. Science, Medicine, and Sexuality: Historical Perspectives. (4). (SS).

How and why have men and women differed in their experiences as health care workers? their experiences of health, illness, and medical treatment? How has medical science both created and reflected social concepts about gender and sexuality? And how have these relationships changed over time? This course will examine these questions, emphasizing the ways in which women's history has affected men, and vice versa. Lectures and discussions will study four different periods in United States history from the colonial era to the present, focusing on the past two centuries. Although no background in history, gender studies, or biology is required, prior coursework in at least one of these subjects is recommended. Students may elect either midterm and final essay-style exams, or three seven-page papers. Five or six short factual quizzes will also be required. Students will be expected to read approximately 150 pages a week, in sources ranging from modern histories to old medical journals and poetry. This is a rewarding but demanding course intended for those willing to sustain high levels of intellectual effort throughout the term. Those not present at the first meeting will be dropped from the course. (Pernick)

463. Jacksonian America. (4). (SS).

The course centers upon the principal political, economic and social developments of the Jacksonian period, 1828-1845. Political party formation and their socio-economic foundations will have special emphasis. Discussion is encouraged during the three weekly lectures. The midterm and final examinations will be of the "take-home" variety, with the limited option of a term paper. The required reading will include such books as Tocqueville's Democracy in America, Formisano's The Birth of Mass Political Parties, Silbey's The Transformation of American Politics, 1840-60, and Katz' The Irony of Early School Reform. The average weekly reading will be 200 pages. (Livermore)

464. The Ordeal of the Union, 1840-1877. (4). (SS).

This course deals primarily with the causes of the American Civil War. It begins with a description of the society of the antebellum South; turns next to a portrait of Jacksonian politics and political ideology; then takes up that transmutation of Jacksonian ideals in the 1840's and 1850's through which hostile sectional stereotypes were defined. It explores the sense in which social and economic conflicts in America come to be summarized by the slavery question during the period, because of the demands of political competition. The last three weeks of the course deal with the reconstruction episode, in an effort to show how the failure of this experiment was dictated by the assumptions which had produced the War. There will be a midterm examination, a paper of ten pages, and a two-hour final examination. Reading will average about 250 pages a week. (Thornton)

467. United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; and the presidencies of Carter and Reagan. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

477. Latin America: The National Period. (4). (SS).

This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the present. The approach is thematic, focusing on a series of topics: 1) the colonial heritage and political independence, 2) political systems and the search for order, 3) economic dependency and development, 4) labor systems (including slavery, sharecropping, wage labor, peasant cultivation and peonage), 5) class and ethnicity, and 6) revolution and reaction. Selected countries will be discussed under each topic, with particular emphasis on Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, the Andes, and Central America. The method of instruction will be lecture/discussion, with strong encouragement of student participation. Requirements include a short book review, a longer paper, a midterm, and a final. There will be readings in primary and secondary historical and anthropological sources, including Gibson, SPAIN IN AMERICA; Stein and Stein, THE COLONIAL HERITAGE OF LATIN AMERICA; Keen and Wasserman, A SHORT HISTORY OF LATIN AMERICA; Reed, THE CASTE WAR OF YUCATAN; Stein, VASSOURAS; Mintz, WORKER IN THE CANE; Fredrich, AGRARIAN REVOLT IN A MEXICAN VILLAGE; Castro, HISTORY WILL ABSOLVE ME, as well as selected fiction by Arguedas, Asturias, Fuentes and Garcia Marquez. (Pico)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 491. (Whatley)

538(442). The Ottoman Enterprise. History 110 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course, which replaces the "old" History 442, covers the history of the Near East from the arrival of the Turks in Asia Minor in the eleventh century to the heyday of Ottoman rule in the seventeenth century. In addition to the central area, we will also look at some topics in the history of Inner Asia and Iran insofar as they affected the Mediterranean. Among special subjects treated are: nomadic society in history, the Mongols in the Near East, the end of the Byzantine Empire, the growth and spread of Turkish culture, the economic history of the Mediterranean in the age of discovery, the conquest and governance of the Balkans in the age of the Renaissance and Reformation, the comparative social history of town and countryside, and like subjects. Classes will consist of lectures and discussions of the required readings (drawn from contemporary sources, for the most part). Undergraduates will be required to take two exams and prepare a book report on a topic to be chosen in consultation with the instructor. (Lindner)

550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (4). (HU).

This is a systematic analysis of state, society, men, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: 1) the concept and structure of empire; 2) soldiers, diplomacy, and war; 3) society, cities, and literature; 4) barbarian challenge, economic development, and social change; 5) state, society, and culture in early modern China. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. (Chang)

554. Economic History of Late Imperial and Republican China, 1500-1949. A course in Chinese history or on the Chinese economy or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

History 554 studies the nature and quantity of the remarkable "premodern" economic growth achieved in late imperial China, and the difficulties encountered in initiating "modern" economic growth in the 19th and 20th centuries. Prior to the great economic changes which began in the 17th century, the absolute performance of the Chinese economy and the social and individual standards of living that it supported were arguably unrivaled in world history. How had this premodern growth been achieved? And why did not China go on easily from that basis to accomplish some variety of modern economic development such as Europe experienced, and which from the 19th century confronted imperial China with an unprecedented challenge or threat? While the focus of the course will be on economic organization and performance in "traditional" China, the boundaries between the economy and Chinese state and society will be continuously examined. And Chinese economic history will be placed in a broad comparative context of European and Asian economic history over five centuries. A previous course on the history of China (e.g., History 250, 251, 550, 551, 670 or 671) or on the Chinese economy (e.g., Economics 455) is a prerequisite. Lectures, assigned readings, class discussion, and a course paper. (A. Feuerwerker)

559. U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (4). (SS).

This course deals with American diplomacy since 1914, with major emphasis falling on the two World Wars and the Cold War. World Politics, policy making, and American domestic politics are all considered. The course is a rather standard lecture course in format, with a textbook and reading for a term paper required. There is a one hour exam and a final. (Perkins)

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (4). (HU).

This course explores the intellectual discourse of educated Americans since the Civil War. Its focus will be on ideas about human nature, politics, society, knowledge, gender, morality, the physical world, and American national destiny as these ideas surfaced in the writings of leading thinkers. Attention will be given to the scientific and literary cultures of the Victorian era, and to the legacies of these two, often conflicting cultures in the twentieth century. Attention will also be devoted to: a) the shifting social foundations for American intellectual life, b) the emergence of cultural modernism, c) the political arguments of American intellectuals in relation to Stalinism, the Cold War, McCarthyism, and the crisis of the 1960's, and d) the reconsideration of "positivistic" social science. Readings are likely to include works by William James, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dewey, Robert Penn Warren, Reinhold Niebuhr, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Josiah Royce, Margaret Mead, Sinclair Lewis, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lionel Trilling, Thomas S. Kuhn, Edmund Wilson, and Randolph Bourne; while some attention will be given to prominent Europeans whose work was widely discussed in the United States (e.g., Charles Darwin, W.K. Clifford, James Joyce, and Leon Trotsky). Students will be asked to complete one midterm, one paper, and one final examination. (Hollinger)

584. American Constitutional and Legal History. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students interested in American History, for those interested in the development of the central ideas and institutions of modern American constitutional and legal history. The course will undertake an analysis of several themes: changing approaches to constitutional interpretation; the impact of social and economic developments on public and private law; the relationships of legal theory to legal education to the role of the legal profession; the tensions among legal doctrines, scientific theory and social attitudes regarding the problem of human freedom. Course requirements include: 10-12 page take home midterm essay and a final examination. (Green)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

Literature provides a window on the society which generates it, a set of perspectives different from those of standard historical texts but equally valid and equally useful, especially as it may enable observers from outside the society to see it through the eyes of a member-participant. This course provides a series of windows on the historical evolution of modern Asia: India, Southeast Asia, China, and Japan, through the eyes of both Western and Asian writers of fiction set in Asia. The interplay between East and West, "traditional" and "modern," during the last ten decades or so is the prominent theme in most of the writings chosen, but they are also selected for other insights they provide into the workings of each major society as it has evolved during the present century, as well as for their literary merit. The class is kept small enough to function as a group discussion, which considers also the Asian context of each work. No previous knowledge of Asia is assumed, but regular attendance and critical attention to the readings are taken for granted, in accordance with the schedule which will be handed out. Four short critical essays take the place of examinations, and they must be submitted on schedule through the term. (Murphey)

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