Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 190 or 192. Psychology 190 is offered as a natural science course and stresses experimental psychology. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This is a course in cognitive psychology intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles, motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 190 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about biological and cognitive areas of psychology. It does NOT emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It DOES cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Sections are taught by graduate teaching fellows who have responsibility for their own sections.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a Time Slot ONLY (sections 001-009). Students should check the Final Edition of the TIME SCHEDULE for day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-009). At this meeting, students will be given a chance to read course descriptions of instructors in their Time Slot, instructors will be available to answer questions regarding their individual section(s) and students will then complete a "Choice Form" rank ordering their choice(s) of instructor. Final Class Role Sheets will be posted at the Psychology 171 office. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-009) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179) PRIOR TO THE MEETING TO RETAIN THEIR SPACE IN THE COURSE OR ON THE WAIT LIST. Wait List (section 099) students MUST attend the Wait List meeting listed in the Time Schedule to be placed in an open section. Syllabi will be posted at the Psychology 171 office prior to registration and TAs will set up open office hours at which time students can stop in the office and get additional information regarding the section of their choice. For further information regarding open office hours, call the Psych. 171 office-764-9179.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170 or 171 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 190 or 192. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one-term survey which integrates material from Psychology 170 and 171. The course serves as a basic preparation for most advanced level courses in psychology. The aim of the course is to acquaint students with the major approaches psychologists use to understand people and the aspects of human thought, feeling, and action that psychologists have studied. Lectures and readings first present the major ways of thinking about psychological issues (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and biological) and then address the nature of thought, emotion, development from infancy through death, and interactions of individuals with family, social, and cultural forces. Discussion sections offer students the opportunity to discuss and critically examine what they are learning, to analyze case studies, and to participate in more experiential forms of learning. Students must keep Wednesday evenings open for course-wide examinations and occasional films from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. The final course grade is based on two course-wide examinations and additional work (group presentations, research papers, etc.) assigned in section. (Westen)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 172, or 190. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.
This course is designed to explore contemporary psychology. It will cover a broad area of topics: Part 1 presents a general introduction to Psychology (definitions, history, methods). Part 2 is designed to give an overview of four different levels on which psychological phenomenon can be studied. First, the biological perspective will be discussed (evolution, genetics, nervous system). Second, some basic processes, namely perception, learning, information processing and motivation/emotion are studied. Third, the individual is in the center of attention (development, personality, clinical approaches). Finally, individuals in their social context will be considered (social cognition; intra- and intergroup processes). Part 3 of this course is devoted to the application of psychological knowledge to one specific problem, the adaptation to the transition from high school to college. This problem will be analyzed on the four different levels that were presented in part 2 of this course. Grades are based on two papers (one empirical group project, one literature review), five quizzes (spaced approximately biweekly) and one final exam. The text used is Gleitman, PSYCHOLOGY, 2nd edition, plus readings in a course pack. The format of the class is lecture and discussion. (Inglehart)

Section 003. This course is intended to provide an in-depth survey of psychology, with an emphasis on the links between psychology and other disciplines, including philosophy, biology, medicine, law and literature. Through exposure to the thought and writing of scientists and non-scientists who have applied their minds and sensibilities to the same subjects, we will consider some questions that have important implications for modern life, including the following: (1) How accurately do we perceive, remember, and think? (2) To what extent are intelligence, personality and action influenced by nature versus nurture? (3) What is the proper relationship between reason and emotion? (4) How are the thought and behavior of individuals affected by group membership? A variety of class formats will be used, including lecture, discussion, films, labwork, and class demonstrations. Readings include a textbook, two additional books (THE INSANITY DEFENSE AND JOHN W. HINCKLEY, and BORN RED: A CHRONICLE OF THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION), and a course pack consisting of diverse readings (essays, short stories, autobiographical accounts, etc.) that correspond to the topics presented in the textbook. The final grade is based on your performance on frequent quizzes, frequent papers, and a comprehensive final examination. (Landman)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 55 agencies in which you can provide direct service to children in day care settings, adolescents in after-school programs, handicapped children and adults, retarded and emotionally impaired, agencies dealing with women's issues, physically ill adults and children, persons legally confined to institutions including mental health and criminal; social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Most sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule for proper credits, lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work and course information for the Fall Term, 1988, will be available at a Mass Meeting on Monday, November 21, 1988. No room has been assigned as of this date. For information, call the Outreach Office at 764-9179 or 764-9279. Psychology majors electing two separate sections in Psychology 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D.Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

255(150). Patterns of Development. Enrollment in the Inteflex Program or permission of instructor. Inteflex students electing a concentration in psychology may use Psych. 255 as the introductory prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed 457. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students in the Inteflex program. It is a life span human development course, surveying conception to death, and providing theoretical and empirical material on physical, perceptual, cognitive, social/emotional development. Opportunities to work directly with children or special groups are optional but available. Grades are based on three exams and paper (library or practicum) (Nadelman)

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation.

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

Section 001 WORKING WITH CHILDREN. Directed experience with children aged 18 months 5 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center for Working Families for approximately 6-10 hrs/week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology.

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS).

This course surveys the field of Biopsychology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Biopsychology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Biopsychology courses. (Berridge)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be elected for credit more than once.

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. MAY NOT BE ELECTED FOR CREDIT MORE THAN ONCE.

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include work-related attitudes; motivation; leadership; decision-making; group-behavior; organizational design; organizational change; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be a general lecture and one group discussion section. The discussion section will review the materials of the readings and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. (Carlopio)


369/Biol. Anthro. 369. Primate and Human Social Relationships. Anthro. 368 or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

See Biological Anthropology 369. (Smuts)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Hesse, Lessing, Eliot and Feild. There will be short papers assigned weekly. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of the problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. It reviews the history and context for community psychological approaches, discusses ecological and systems concepts employed by this perspective, and presents a wide range of interventions and programs that have been developed from within this framework. Students are expected to gain a greater understanding of the larger external forces that shape their own behavior and lives, and learn how these forces can be modified. Course requirements include several short analyses, a term paper and midterm and final examinations. Miller)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams and classroom contributions. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. (Hilton)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

An intensive introduction to the clinical and research literatures on the family in contemporary American society. Designed especially for students interested in clinical work with families, the course will examine family process, assessment, and intervention from the conceptual vantage point of general systems theory. Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and discussion. (Olson)

391. Junior Honors: Research Methods in Psychology. Honors concentrators in Psychology. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
The principal purpose of this course is to help students progress toward development of the senior thesis project. One aspect of this is the selection of a topic area that is sufficiently challenging and interesting. To facilitate this process, students will prepare reviews of the psychological literature on topics of their choice. In addition, the course will contribute to the thesis formulation process by examining various aspects of research design. This course is only open to students who have been admitted to the Psychology Honors Program. (R. Kaplan)

Section 002. The principal purpose of this course is to help students progress toward development of the senior thesis project. One aspect of this is the selection of a topic area that is challenging and interesting. To facilitate this process, students will prepare reviews of the psychological literature on topics of their choice. The course will also contribute to the thesis formulation process by examining various aspects of research design. This course is only open to students who have been admitted to the Psychology Honors Program. (Manis)

401. Special Problems in Psychology as a Social Science. Introductory psychology; intended for freshmen and sophomores. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 003 POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY. A survey of ways that psychological factors affect political behavior, and vice versa. It begins by considering the problems of how to measure "at a distance" the psychological characteristics of people who cannot be studied directly (e.g., political leaders, national groups). Then it focuses on several specific topics: leadership, authority, and decision-making; political cognition and public opinion; political socialization; voting and elections; terrorism; reactions to oppression; and conflict, war, and peace. An introductory psychology course is a prerequisite, and a course (or strong interest) in history or political science is recommended. Exams and papers. Lectures and possible discussion sections. (Winter)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 475 or 575; and permission of instructor. (See LS&A Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 475 or 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning November 28. Enrollment is limited to eighteen students who are graduating seniors. Non-graduating seniors may place their names on the waitlist which will be used to fill any remaining spaces after graduating seniors have been accommodated. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward at the VA or the University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examinations, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

433. Biopsychology of Motivation. Psych. 331, or equivalent background in introductory physiological psychology. (3). (NS).

This course will focus upon those aspects of animal and human motivation that can be related closely to biological foundations. What are the defining features of motivational states? What can motivational analyses tell us about brain- behavior relations? How do motivational states interact with psychological systems of learning? What happens to motivation when we manipulate the brain directly? Specific topics include: (1) The structure and measurement of motivation and emotion in other species as well as in ourselves (2) Neural and physiological mechanisms that mediate pleasure and pain, arousal, hunger, thirst, addiction, sex, and aggression (3) The relations between different motivational systems; between motivation and systems of associative learning; between motivation and action control; and between motivation and evolutionary/ethological constraints. Emphasis will be upon the critical analysis of facts and concepts, and students are expected to form and defend their own conclusions. Format is mixed lecture/discussion. Grading will be based upon essays, written exams and class presentation. (Berridge)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

This course is intended for undergraduate psychology majors and others interested in complex mental processes. It fulfills the Group I requirements for a Psychology bachelor's degree. Among the topics covered in the course are human memory, representation of knowledge, reasoning, problem solving, decision making, and intelligence. The course's approach is a scientific one, emphasizing the evaluation of theoretical models through experimental data and through computer simulation techniques. Practical applications to improving thinking abilities and real-world settings are also discussed. Mandatory class meetings consist of lectures and discussions. Grades are based on performance in three exams, a set of take-home exercises, and class participation. The total workload has been rated as "moderate" by past students. (Seifert)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This course will focus on major theoretical approaches to the understanding of human personality, with an emphasis on the connections between theory and research. A variety of methods for assessing and studying personality will be discussed, especially as they relate to particular theoretical approaches. Individual life histories will provide a context for evaluation of theory and research. Students should have taken Introductory Psychology, and have upperclass standing. (Stewart)

456. Human Infancy. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course covers phenomena of human development and maturation from conception to the third year of life. Topics include physical growth, elements of early attachment and relatedness, cognitive development, emotional expression and communication, the growth of personal and interpersonal competence, the role and status of infancy in the family and society, and careers centered on early human development. Sessions will include lectures, audio-visual presentations and discussions. Exams: Midterm and a final. (Horner)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is a survey of child development from birth to adolescence. Physical growth, cognitive development, language development and social and personality development are examined. Students are expected to read approximately 50 pages per week and to attend lectures and weekly discussion groups. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a short paper. (Mangelsdorf)

458. Gender and the Individual. Introductory Psych. (3). (SS).

This course provides an examination of gender stereotypes, the development of gender identity, and current knowledge regarding gender differences. The class is NOT designed as a psychology of women course; rather, the impact of gender and gender roles, identity and stereotypes on both women and men is considered. While the focus is primarily upon psychological theories and research, biological and sociological perspectives are considered as well. Among the topics covered are biological bases of gender differences; development and maintenance of gender identity; socialization of gender; gender differences in aggression, cognition, moral development, and power; and androgyny. Particular attention is paid to the contributions and methods of and problems inherent to psychological research on gender. Students should have completed an introductory psychology course. Grades are based upon two short papers, one major term paper and two essay exams. The course has a lecture/discussion format. (Holden)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course covers major behavioral changes throughout adulthood, particularly in old age. Special emphasis is given to such topics as changes in biological functioning including sensation and perception, and changes in cognitive processes including intelligence, learning, memory, and in problem-solving. In addition, psychosocial aspects of adulthood are discussed. These include family roles, personality, coping mechanisms, psychopathology and treatment, and dying, death and grief. The course also considers environmental facilitation of psychological adjustments to both normal and pathological processes in old age, with special emphasis on dementia. Students do assigned readings, class exercises, projects, and take two examinations. Projects primarily include interviewing two people throughout the term and writing a research review paper. For Winter Term 1989 ONLY, this course will meet ONLY during the first half of the term until Spring Break. Class hours will be Tuesday morning 9:00-12 noon and Wednesday evening 6:30-9:00 p.m. (Weaverdyke)

474. Introduction to Behavior Modification. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
Major theories of behavior change will be reviewed, and clinical assessment/treatment methods based on these approaches will be discussed. The largest portion of the course covers behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques applied to specific childhood and adult psychological disorders. This course is most appropriate for advanced undergraduates, especially those who wish to establish careers in medicine, clinical psychology or social work. Introductory psychology is a prerequisite. Psychology courses in child and adult psychopathology would be helpful, but are not prerequisites. Students are expected to attend weekly lecture and discussion sections. (Olson)

Section 020. Theoretical models, assessment strategies, and therapeutic techniques of behavior change will be integratively discussed. The emphasis is on the more recent developments in cognitive-behavior theory and the associated techniques. The course also illustrates the use of behavior change mechanisms as applied to a variety of disorders. Introductory Psychology is a prerequisite. The course is geared towards more advanced students, those with career interests in working with clinical populations. The course is organized around a weekly lecture format with class attendance and participation of importance. (Goldman)

475. Abnormal Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course overviews abnormal psychology, emphasizing psychological explanations of such problems in living as anxiety, depression, drug abuse, and sexual dysfunction, as well as their treatment by psychological means. There are two lectures and one discussion per week. Grades are based on examination performance and activities assigned in discussion sections. Books include Davison and Neal's ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY and Kesey's ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO'S NEST. Additional readings may be assigned. (Peterson)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
An extremely difficult and unusual course. Not suitable for many students. Each student selects a group of people of particular interest. Usually people in a neighborhood that is very different from the sort of neighborhood she grew up in. Sometimes, alternatively, people whose lives have special relevance to her, such as people practicing a profession she plans. The student must then create in-depth prolonged meetings with a small number of these people and write up each week these meetings and her reflections on them. This journal is checked every two weeks. The course also will deal with about five books. Last term these were one technical book on attitudes, three sociological books of participant observation, and one novel by Lessing and Achebe. Real investment of time: about ten actual hours/week, EVERY week. NOT for students with a high need for structure from an authority figure. NOT for the uncurious. (Ezekiel)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psychology 170, 172, 190, 192, or 310, and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MEMORY. The purpose of this course is to describe, evaluate and place in historical context the findings, methods and concepts used in the study of brain mechanisms of learning and memory, and to show how study of these mechanisms has influenced models of memory and the diagnosis and treatment of memory disorders. (Butter)

Section 002 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOPSYCHOLOGY. This course will examine perinatal development of neural and hormonal physiology which ultimately shapes physiological and behavioral development and adult function. Topics will include neural plasticity, perinatal learning, sexual differentiation, social and emotional development, how development is influenced by the parent-offspring interaction, and how aberrations in development disturb adult function. Instruction will consist of lectures with in-class discussion. The student evaluations will be based on three exams and two short (three-five pages) papers. Reading materials will include four small texts and a course pack of readings. Course requirements: Introductory Biopsychology, two courses in biology or consent of instructor. (Lee)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 DREAMS AS MODELS OF PERSONAL CONFLICTS AND RESOLUTION. The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving hence clinical data will be made the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others) the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation Of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as well as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class) and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

Section 002 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF LIVES. This course addresses the shaping of lives from two directions the cultural and the psychodynamic. On the one hand, the progress of a life is determined by the person's social and cultural situation (family, social class, subculture, gender-role, economics). On the other, a life story manifests a continuity of tendencies and themes that have the stamp of individuality. Students will learn to interpret biographical and autobiographical materials in cultural and psychological terms. Class discussion of theory, research, and case materials will be the medium of instruction. Students will be evaluated on the basis of one group project and one term paper. (Rosenwald)

Section 003 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLINGUISTIC. Acquiring and using language with native competence is one of the major tasks of childhood. In this course, we consider the means by which native competence is attained. Among the questions addressed are: What special capacities for learning language does the child bring to the task? What is the role of parental input? How do children with sensory deficits acquire language? How do language and communication skills change with age? The course will include one lecture and one discussion of the lecture and readings per week. Students will be expected to participate in discussions and to lead several of them. There will be short (one page) regular writing assignments and one 10-12 page term paper on a research project. Readings will be in original sources from a book of readings and a course pack. Students should have some prior experience in the area, either in Psychology 451, linguistics, or an appropriate equivalent. Please see the instructor if there are questions about the prerequisites. (Shatz)

Section 004 SELECTED TOPICS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW. A review of several areas of law and psychology will comprise the readings and lectures in this course. The use of psychological data and theory in courtroom proceedings will be examined along with a discussion of critical issues at the interface of psychology and law. (Guyer)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 HUMAN MATE SELECTION. This course will cover major topics in human mating behavior. These include, but are not limited to, preferences in potential mates, tactics used to attract mates, tactics used to retain mates, derogation of competitors, conflict between the sexes, and life history mating strategies. Past and ongoing research on human mate selection will be presented. (Buss)

Section 002 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE HUMANITIES. This course will explore the contributions of psychology to the study of the humanities. It will begin with a survey of pioneering work, drawn largely from psychoanalysis Freud, Jung, Jones, Rank and Sacks and literary criticism Burke, Hyman, Wilson, Trilling. It will then move to the study of contemporary texts, authors, and controversies, chosen to represent current approaches and disputes. Specific topics will reflect the interests of the class members. Among the possibilities: PSYCHOHISTORY AND ITS CRITICS, e.g., Erikson vs. Bainton on Luther; Hitler and the Nazis, from Langer to Lifton; the history of anorexia (Bell), and the Salem Witch Trials (Demos). LITERARY BIOGRAPHY AND CRITICISM; e.g., Edel on James; the Yale school (Bloom, Brooks, et al.), Lidz on Shakespeare; recent studies of narrative and metaphor. THE GRAPHIC ARTS, e.g., Kris, Arnheim, Gedo, PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES, e.g., Schwartz on Rousseau; Wolheim on the person; the psychology of moral virtue (Kohlberg, MacIntyre, et al.). Some attempt will be made to appraise the influence of new approaches in both psychology and the humanities: the object-relations school, cognitive theory, structuralism. The connections between creativity and psychopathology will also be considered. (Adelson)

Section 003 INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY. This course will examine major topics within psychology from an evolutionary perspective. A major theoretical focus will be on PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS that have been shaped by natural selection to solve "problems" that humans face in the course of survival and reproduction. Topic areas of special focus will include: fears and phobias, social exchange, cooperation, parent-offspring relations, conflict in close relationships, sexual jealousy, and decision-making processes. (Buss)

Section 004 INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE SCIENCE. This course is an introduction to the interdisciplinary study of intelligent activity, or cognition, and it draws upon the methods and concepts of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and philosophy of mind and language. The course will introduce general concepts and approaches in this field and then examine their use through an in-depth examination of selected specific topics in perception, learning, reasoning, and language. (Smith/Boghossian)

Section 005 COMPUTER MODELS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING. The course explains the construction and use of computer models for research in the cognitive sciences and machine learning; it is a course in fundamentals, NOT programming techniques. The course is aimed at senior undergraduates and graduate students. Prerequisites are (1) a basic understanding of computer programming (there is NO assumption that the student is adept in some particular language such as LISP, Pascal, or the like), and (2) at least one course in elementary probability or statistics (or an appropriate course in finite mathematics). The course is a three credit course involving lecture only. There will be a midterm exam and a final; only simple pencil and paper projects will be assigned, perhaps with one short computer project. (Holland)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 001.
This lab will explore techniques for describing and analyzing the process of spiritual development. We will be examining the records of prior laboratory groups as well as creating a new culture of our own. The techniques used will be primarily those of thematic analysis and ways of describing the evolution of groups. The prerequisites (Psychology 370 or 403 or Religion 369 or 424) will be enforced, and the required permission of the instructor may be obtained at 554 Thompson. There will be weekly writing assignments and one final, integrative essay. Early in the term students will be trained in the use of MTS and CONFER which will be used to create an electronic conference containing both the data and the commentary of the lab members. (R.Mann)

Section 002. This course initiates the student to the process of creating new knowledge about judgment and decision making in the behavioral sciences in general. Essentially, class members are co-investigators on research projects that address two original problems of current interest in the field. The problems examined differ from one term to the next. An illustrative problem is understanding the foundations of people's typical overconfidence in their answers to factual questions, e.g., "Which is farther north, New York or London?" Each student participates fully in all phases of the research process, from the conceptual analysis of the given problem and review of the pertinent literature through the collection and analysis of data, and the interpretation and reporting of results. Classes consist mainly of intensive discussions of relevant articles and of design and interpretation issues. Grades are based on students' reviews of articles, their contributions to the execution of various aspects of the class projects, their written reports, and their participation in discussions. The prerequisites are a course on behavioral decision making, e.g., Psychology 522 and a statistics course. It satisfies one of the advanced laboratory requirements for a concentration in psychology. (Yates)

Sections 003 and 004. This new laboratory course will give students an introduction to research in the field of biopsychology. Three general topics will be covered: (1) Preparation for and presentation of scientific research: how to write a scientific paper, reading and evaluating scientific papers, and how to use the library and reference sources. Materials will be chosen that instruct students on the above topics and that contribute to the student's knowledge of brain-behavior relations. (2) Brain structure and function. Sheep brain dissection with an emphasis on the functional role of specific neural systems (e.g., sensory and motor pathways). (3) Experimental methods in biopsychology. Use and handling of laboratory animals, anesthesia, post-operative care, the responsibility of scientists to their animals, as well as the presentation of many of the research techniques used in the field. Topics two and three will be integrated and specific laboratory experiments will teach brain-behavior relations and methods in studying animal behavior. Laboratory reports will be written based on the results of the laboratory experiments. Grade will be based on exams and lab reports. Text to be used will be Kalat (BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY- same as in Psych 331) plus supplemental materials. (J. Becker)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300; and Psych. 382 or prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (Excl).

Section 002. "I want to help change the world. What can I learn from the lives of others who have wanted to create change?" In this course, each student chooses a group that is working at political change or social change. The student uses her (or his) ears and eyes; she does observations; she creates semi-structured interviews. She reflects on her field experiences, asking herself: (1) What are the lives that lead people to this group? (2) In the implicit thinking of this group, what are the processes by which change occurs? For this group, what are people like, how does one reach people? The student composes a paper every two weeks, discussing her field experiences and her reflections on them. The course requires about three hours of field work a week and about six hours a week at the typewriter, thinking and writing. The ideal student is hungry to explore because she has a deep need to understand social and political developments that are not casual interests. The ideal student is highly independent and fairly adventurous. The course is rewarding for students who think reality is exciting, who have active minds and social passions. (Ezekiel)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (Excl).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology; investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, socio-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course: students engage in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering theory, research issues, methods, and actual studies in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning different research projects in the Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Approximately three different research projects will be conducted off campus, each involving different methods and different-aged subjects. Evaluation is primarily based on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. Exams will cover research methods. (Perry)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an opportunity to carry out research in personality. There are weekly in-class discussions during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of a small group research project. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal presentation of the final research project and its results. (Malley)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (NS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group 1 requirement. Grades are based on demonstrations, two-three assignments, two quizzes, and a final examination. (Yates)

533. Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course surveys current knowledge of the human brain and its role in mental processes, such as perception, attention, thought, language and memory, and learned behavior skills. Special topics include left vs. right-brain functions, sex differences in brain function and recovery of function following brain damage. Evaluation based on three objective-type exams. (Robinson)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (Excl). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course examines the adolescent period, largely from the points of view offered in personality, clinical, and social psychology. Although the course emphasizes the normal processes of adolescent development, for example, the achievement of ego identity, and the growth of mature modes of thinking and reasoning, it will also give close attention to such characteristically adolescent phenomena as delinquency and eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia. We will also try to understand the extraordinary increase in severe pathology among adolescents during the last two decades. There is a two-hour seminar discussion once each week; and the class members will also meet in groups of five or six once every two weeks. There is a term paper and a final essay examination. (Adelson)

560. Human Performance and Technology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The focus of the course is on the interaction between people and their immediate environment. Person and immediate environment can be viewed as a system. (A pilot controlling an aircraft or an operator at a computer terminal are examples of such systems). The emphasis of the course is on human capabilities and capacities that bear on the design and operation of work environments. Human senses (information intake), and cognitive activities (information processing), and actions (performance) will be considered. The course is not an engineering course, but it is concerned with design principles, for example, the design of displays and controls. Some facility with algebra is necessary. A nodding acquaintance with probability and calculus is desirable. Examinations, and laboratory exercises will be used for student evaluation. (Weintraub)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of several short analyses, term paper, midterm and final examinations. (Miller) paper. (Miller)

574. Clinical Psychology. Psych. 474 or Psych. 575 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed primarily for Junior and Senior students who are concentrating in psychology and who are considering the mental health profession as a career. Professional issues in Psychology, Social Work and Psychiatry will be addressed. The clinical inference process will be emphasized through readings and discussion of clinical interviews, psychological test protocols and research data. The course will integrate theories of normal psychological development, psychopathology and a variety of orientations to psychotherapy. In order to facilitate in-depth discussion of the clinical materials, the class size will be limited to approximately twenty students. Evaluation of students will be based on a combination of several brief analytical papers, a midterm and a final exam. An approximation of the syllabus of this course for the Winter Term is available in the form of the Winter, 1987 requirements for Psychology 574. (Hatcher)

575. Perspectives in Advanced Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, 475, and 558. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

577. Intervention in Childhood Disorder. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 573. (3). (SS).

This course is intended for advanced students as the third course in a three course sequence beginning with one of the courses in childhood development such as Psych. 453, followed by Psych 573, Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. The object of this course is to explore issues in both traditional and non-traditional modes of societal intervention in the lives of children. It will consider such topics as residential treatment, effects of divorce on children, homelessness, child abuse, et. Students will be evaluated on the basis of exams and a term paper; the pedological method will be lecture and discussion. (Marsden)

578. History of Psychology. Two advanced concentration courses. (3). (Excl).

The course will cover the intellectual history of the discipline of psychology. It will concentrate on its modern period from 1850 to the present but its intellectual roots before that will be reviewed. Students should be juniors or seniors with a background in either psychology, philosophy, science or intellectual history. The course is open to graduate students as well. Grading will be based on class participation and on a long paper which will center on the tracing back through time or the development of work of a current psychology department faculty member. Each student will choose a faculty member, interview him/her, read from their current work and trace their intellectual, methodological and content mentors from the past. Readings will be extensive and tailored to each student's project as well as a base of common background texts. The format will be as close to seminar style as the number permits. (Brown)

591. Senior Honors Research II. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

The course, second in the sequence for Psychology Honors seniors, is intended to assist each student in carrying out an independent research project that culminates in an oral report, the Honors Thesis presentation and a formal written report . (Section 001 - Zajonc; Section 002 Weintraub)


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