ROMANCE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

COURSES IN French (Division 371)

ELEMENTARY LANGUAGE COURSES. Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school MUST take the Placement Test to determine the language course in which they should enroll. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction in high school. Students who began French at another college or university must take the Placement Test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (FL).

Students with any prior study of French must take the placement test. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount of reading in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (l 1/2 2 hours per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations, listening comprehension and speaking tests.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103 or 102. It is STRONGLY suggested that transfer students see H.Neu or for advice regarding placement in the appropriate course. (Neu)

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this guide.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves at a rapid pace, covering about 60 percent of the French 101 materials by midterm, and about 60 percent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. French 206 may be elected prior to French 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 296 is offered in Winter Term). It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises, and laboratory work (30-60 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. Both courses also have listening comprehension and speaking tests, and 232, in addition, has an outside reading test.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward mid term students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 18-20 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, but homework, attendance, and participation in classroom activities determine the Pass/Fail grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet three times a week in section. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), simulations, two novels. Bi-weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. (Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture and social life. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, and other relevant cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties as revealed through the essays. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Laboratory activities, two novels, one play, bi-weekly essays. (Gabrielli)

363. French Phonetics. French 361 and 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to help students improve their pronunciation of French (1) through a study of the physical characteristics of each sound, the relationship between sounds and their written presentations, the rules governing pronunciation of "standard" French, and (2) through intensive oral practice in the production of French consonants and vowels, syllable structure, intonation, liaison, and in the delection/retention of the "mute E." The class meets three hours per week and is conducted in French. Regular attendance and participation are required. Students are expected to familiarize themselves with the assigned theoretical material before each class period. Oral exercises are to be prepared in the lab on a regular basis. Each student will record a speech sample during the first week of the term and will be informed of problem areas on which he/she needs to work independently throughout the term, using the audiotapes available in the lab and checking with the instructor periodically for individualized help. Evaluation of proficiency in pronunciation will be based on a final oral exam. Homework assignments, short quizzes, a midterm, and a written final exam will be given to evaluate ability to use the phonetic alphabet and knowledge of basic theory. (Neu)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Section 001 Muller; Section 002 - Carduner; Section 003; Graham)

372. Problems in Translation. French 371 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to the problems of translation from English into French as well as from French into English. The aim of the course is to introduce students to the basic prerequisites of translation, helping them to develop a proper attitude toward the original and the target language, and to give them some practical training. Students work on a variety of texts on different levels ranging from newspaper articles or magazines to technical texts, literary texts. Students are evaluated on the basis of their class work each time (contribution to class), homework, quizzes, and a final examination. The course is viewed as a continuation of French 371 and is open to students who have completed more advanced classes. (Belloni)

410(408). Advanced Translation, French-English. French 372 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will concentrate on developing the students' advanced translating skills. Working with French and English, it will use the practice of translation as applied to a variety of different texts towards the end of increasing the students' knowledge and command of syntactic and stylistic potentialities of the two languages. (Belloni)

414(416). Advanced Business French. French 380 (Intermediate Business French). (3). (Excl).

As a follow-up to Business French 380, we will look further into economic and commercial matters in France such as banking, distributions, taxes, whether they apply to businesses or to individuals or both, with emphasis on functional and conceptual generalities. CASE HISTORIES will service as a basis for oral group presentations in class. They will involve such themes as launching of a product or service, relocation and closing-up shops, mergers, union conflicts, etc. In addition, some other topics will be touched upon such as the analysis of commercials, and export marketing in French. All classes are conducted in French. Some students may be entitled to apply for an internship with a French firm in the Spring of 1989. Three papers. No auditors. One section only. (Gabrielli)

425(480)/Rom. Ling. 480. Background of Modern French. A thorough reading knowledge of French. (3). (Excl).

The history of the French language from Latin to the Renaissance, with emphasis about equally divided between historical events or movements that impinged on the development of the language and the formal changes that the language underwent (historical grammar). A series of texts will be examined and discussed. No previous knowledge of Old French is assumed; proficiency in modern French is essential, though students of another Romance language are encouraged to consult the professor before electing the course. There will be a midterm and final exam (and graduate students will be required to prepare a paper on a relevant topic). Format of course: lecture with class discussion of texts. (Leonard)

427(454)/Rom. Ling. 454. French Syntax. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course deals primarily with the syntax of Modern French from a linguistic view. Basic sentence structures and a wide variety of coordination and subordination patterns are presented in the light of transformational linguistics, but including a side-by-side comparison with pedagogical as well as traditional reference grammars. Syntactic analysis is also combined with a comprehensive review of French grammar, accompanied by an extensive series of exercises, progressing from simple to do complex sentence patterns. The course is taught in French. Classtime is divided into lectures, discussion of assigned reading, and TRAVAUX PRATIQUES. Language proficiency equivalent to French 362 and 371 is required. There will be a midterm and a final examination, and a short paper. The basic text is Dubois-Charlier, COMMENT S'INITIER A LA LINGUISTIQUE? (Hagiwara)

Civilization

385. Civilisation française, Continued. French 361. (3). (HU).

Section 001 FRANCE IN 1989. France is going through a period of profound changes. New definitions of authority are emerging, new social, political and cultural patterns are becoming visible. The national elections of 1988 (presidential and legislative) have shown the magnitude of this phenomenon. The political transformations they revealed result from deep structural changes in the social, economic and cultural areas. The working class has been disorganized by the immigration of foreign workers and even more by the development of automation. A cultural revolution caused by the rapid growth of secondary and higher education, and by the sexual liberation of the late seventies has erased the influence of traditional Catholic values which were still dominant in "provinces" two decades ago. The course will describe and explain this evolution. It will examine the demographic trends, the political system, the social organization, the educational establishment and the cultural values, as well as the daily life of the French citizen (how do they eat, work, play, etc.). The problem of the foreign population and its impact on the concept of a "French identity" will be discussed in depth. Finally the challenge of a unified European economy by 1993 will be considered. The course is conducted in French. Lectures and discussions. Four written papers. One final exam. (Carduner)

Literature

387/388/389 INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course's basic objectives are to familiarize students with the study of literature in French and to help them read texts critically and creatively. A further goal will be to acquaint students with some more or less representative masterworks from an important period of French history and a major segment of the French literary tradition. Works studied will come from several genres: comedy, tragedy, fable, fiction, autobiography. We will be asking ourselves about the nature of literary rhetoric and literary forms, and also trying to understand the relations between literary works and the social and historical circumstances of their production and reception. Authors studied will include (but not be limited to) Molière, Racine, LaFontaine, Madame de Grafigny, Rousseau and the elusive (male or female?) author of the LETTRES PORTUGAISES. Classes will be above all discussions, with only occasional lectures. Several short writing assignments (including both critical papers and creative exercises in style and writing); oral midterm; no final. (Section 001 Kavanaugh; Section 002 Paulson)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course will focus on five of the most important writers of 19th century French literature, namely Balzac, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Zola and Maupassant. Emphasis will be placed on the literary aspects of the works read as well as the historical, political and artistic context of the day. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty pages of a given work and preparing to discuss them in class. Students will write four papers in French (three or four pages in length). Each paper will be corrected for grammar, choice of expression and content. The course grade will be based on the results of written work and on classroom participation. There is no final examination. The course is conducted in French. (Gray)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).

Section 001 Literature reflects both the changing attitudes of society and the special insights of individual authors. Freedom and constraint, love and death, fear, alienation, moral values, and the notion of self-concept: the evolution of these fundamental concerns of twentieth-century society as understood by major French authors is the primary focus of the course. Students will also be encouraged to think about the nature of literary expression itself, its functions and its forms. Class discussions in French will analyze the special insights and literary techniques of five or six authors, such as Gide, Colette, Proust, Valery, Sartre, Camus, Robbe-Grillet, Sarraute, or Duras. Three short papers and a final examination. (Nelson)

Section 002. An introduction to the study of literature, taking as its base the efforts of twentieth century French writers to understand both literature itself, and its relation to what is most specific about our lives and our historical situation. Predominant themes will include the importance and failure of the writer; time, memory and trauma; the role of fiction and illusion; the status of the subject and the philosophy of existence. The course will give students the tools to read and analyze lyric poetry, theater and narration. Readings will include: Apollinaire, CALLIGRAMMES; Proust, COMBRAY (the first part of his monumental A LA RECHERCHE DU TEMPS PERDU); Artaud, LE THEATRE ET SON DOUBLE; Genet, LE BALCON; and Duras, LA RAVISSMEENT DE LOL V. STEIN. Students will also be expected to complete assigned reading to O. Ducrot and T. Todorov, DICTIONNAIRE ENCYCLOPEDIQUE DES SCIENCES DU LANGAGE. Required work: four brief (three-five page) papers, midterm and final examinations. (Graham)

440(410). Le cinéma français. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Conducted in French, the course presents an introduction to film as language, with special attention to camera angle, distance and movement, as well as to editing techniques, as a means of expression. Examples are drawn from a series of films seen in class, which form the basis of class discussion and analysis. Since the series typically includes two or three classic films of the 1930's (Vigo, Clair, Renoir, etc.), two or three new wave films of the 50's and 60's, and a modern film or two, students can also observe the evolution of film esthetics and technology in France. Class members are encouraged to see additional French films playing in Ann Arbor. The course seeks to enhance students' sensitivity to motion pictures in general, their appreciation of films made in the French cultural context, and their understanding of French directors' contributions to the cinematographic art. Readings from Mitry, Metz, and other theorists and from selected film scripts. Three short papers, midterm and final examinations. French concentrators are expected to write in French. (Nelson)

455(463/464). Introduction to French Literature of the Nineteenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Section 001 FEMININ/MASCULIN. A study of what 19th century literature had to say but also left unsaid about relations of power and desire between men and women. From Madame de Stael's portrait of the romantic artist as women to the female android of Villiers, and in shorter works by Balzac, George Sand, and others, we will examine such problems as the fictional representation of women, the sexual politics of love and desire in literature, and the role of the author's and reader's gender in the production and reception of literature both in the 19th century and in contemporary theory and practice. Discussions and informal lectures; evaluation based on class participation, two short papers, and an oral examination/conference with the instructor. Readings include Stael, CORINNE; Villiers, L'EVE FUTURE; Balzac, LA FILLE AUX YEUX D'OR; Sand, PAULINE. (Paulson)

460. (442). Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

This course will cover a panorama of recent fiction by Quebecois women writers, from the mid-40's to the present. We will read texts by the following authors, as being the most representative of the feminine and feminist experience within the context of Quebec from before the Revolution Tranquille to the "post-referendum" years: extracts from Gabrielle Roy, complete novels by Anne Hebert, Marie-Claire Blais, Madeleine Ouellette Michalsksa, Madeleine Monette, Francine Noel and texts by Madeleine Gagnon, Micole Brossard, Louky Bersianik and Jovette Marchessault. Short stories, extracts and critical or other background material will be assembled in a reader at Kinko's. Students will be able to borrow other texts for research purposes from the professor, if not available in the library. Three short papers and one oral report will be required of each student. Quebecois women's writing is prolific, new and challenging. Hopefully this will be an exciting course. (Colville)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with parallel emphasis on conversation. Text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 101 covers the first half of the text Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination.

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also emphasized. The course covers the second half of the text with workbook and lab manual; readings supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Italian 111. (4). (Excl.).

FIRST SPECIAL READING COURSE. Italian 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a thorough reading knowledge of the language. All of the basic grammar of the language is covered and reading of both fictional and critical materials is required. Open to graduates, and undergraduates and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Italian 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirements for the doctorate. Italian 111 and 112 may not be used to satisfy the LS&A foreign language requirement. Italian 112 is a continuation of Italian 111 and open ONLY to students who have completed Italian 111. Class and Tutorial. (Olken)

Other Language and Literature Courses

205. Italian Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Italian 205 emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is for students who have had a least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading materials from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short stories, etc.) which will be discussed in class. Use of the language laboratory will provide additional conversational material on various aspects of Italian life. Class will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading is on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

360. Italian Culture and History, Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries. (3). (HU).

This course, treating the 18th century through the 20th century, emphasizes the political, social and cultural difficulties that Italy encountered once it had lost the privileged position it held in Europe during the Renaissance. The importance of European movements, such as Illuminism and Romanticism, will be stressed as both artistic and political manifestations. Particular attention will be given to the mid-19th century struggle for the unification of the country, and the conditions that allowed the Fascist takeover. The Fascist period will be analyzed, considering in particular Mussolini's control over the mass-media, his promotion of the movie industry and the position of the intellectuals toward the dictatorship. The achievements of Italy after the second World War will be the focus of the last part of the course. We will take into consideration the economy, the political system, the social structures, the geography and the standard of living of contemporary Italy. Selected works by the following authors will be read: Vico, Verri, Beccaria, Goldoni, Parini, Alfieri, Foscolo, Mazzini, Manzoni, Leopardi, Carducci, Verga, and early 20th century figures. Students will be required to write two or three short papers during the term. (Lucente)

362. Advanced Italian. Italian 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Further proficiency in oral and writing skills will be stressed in Italian 362. Reading materials will include short fiction and non-fiction, as well as lengthier assignments of outside reading on which various written and oral assignments will be made. Participation in class discussion, occasional oral presentations, weekly compositions based for the most part on assigned readings, the subject matter of which will deal primarily with subjects of topical interest. Continuing grammar difficulties will be treated as they arise. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly. (Habekovic)

380. Italian Cinema and Society. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU).

The course, which will be conducted in English, traces the development of Italian cinema from its post-war beginnings in neo-realism to the mid-1970's. The course has several aims: to expose and analyze the theoretical basis of neo-realism and its reception, both friendly and hostile, in Italian intellectual/political circles; to expose the rethinking of neo-realism carried out, to greater or lesser degrees by De Santis, Fellini, Pasolini, Antonioni; to understand neo-realism in the light of its cultural and political context; and to offer an in-depth analysis and study of the major films of Michelangelo Antonioni. Readings will accompany each film. One or two films may be shown in Italian. Three medium length papers. A lab fee will be charged. (Ward)

412. Politics, Poverty and Poetry. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (1). (HU).

The early middle decades of the twentieth century in Italy, spanning the period of Fascism, the Second World War and a time of problematic economy, produced a literature of strong social and political import. An entire culture was in crisis, and the intellectual community that had been, for the most part, academic and conservative, began to insert itself forcefully into the mainstream of European cultural reality. Re-evaluation of the "official" Italian ethic, and a questioning and challenge of traditional mores resulted in political and philosophical polemic which was as a new translated lyricism into Italian fiction. Among the most effective writers of this period, Ignazio Silone, Carlo Levi, Alberto Morazia, Elio Vittorini, and Vasco Pratolini, typify the several approaches that were being taken to renew commitment and taste. Their most influential novels will be studied, following introductory lectures on the general literary climate of the 1930's and 1940's, with short readings by some of their "precursors," including Alvaro and Rea. Lectures, class discussion, short papers and exams. (Olken)

419. Italo Calvino: A Writer for All Seasons. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2). (HU).

The magic of Calvino is his prodigious talent as a master teller of tales; realistic, fantastic, set in centuries past or the present, his stories form a pattern of all the possible paths men have taken, and all the destinies that have befallen them. Elusively didactic, yet openly vulnerable, Calvino's characters are involved in all the great deeds and dull minutiae of life, exploring themselves and the world around them. This world as Calvino sees and appraises it, his concern with its style and meaning, will be the central topic of this course. Texts will include early short stories, his first novel, THE PATH TO THE SPIDERS' NEXT; the fantasy trilogy: THE CLOVEN VISCOUNT, THE NON-EXISTENT KNIGHT, THE BARON IN THE TREES, INVISIBLE CITIES and THE COSMICOMICS; and PALOMAR; and selected Neo-Realistic novellas and short stories. Class format will be based on lectures and discussion, and standard written assignments. The language of instruction will be English; the texts may be read in English or Italian. (Olken)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101. (4). (FL).

The text for the course is Ellison et al. MODERN PORTUGUESE. Portuguese 102 covers units eleven through twenty. Because of the nature of the text and accompanying tapes, and the nationality and training of the present staff, students will learn the variety of Portuguese spoken in Brazil by educated speakers. Classroom work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structure through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. About one fourth of the classroom time is devoted to readings (each unit presents an aspect of Brazilian culture) and free discussion of topics raised by them. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises ranging from meaningful sentences to compositions, and spending one or two hours a week in the lab working on pronunciation, listening comprehension, etc. (mostly reviewing the structural exercises and dialogues done in class). Grading will be based on one-hour quizzes given every other week, two oral exams, class participation and a final exam. Our language lab also makes available to our students tapes with Brazilian music, and video-taped TV news in Portuguese. A Brazilian newspaper (O Estado de Sao Paulo) is available in the Graduate Library and other reading materials are available at the instructor's office. Because of staff limitations, Portuguese 102 is offered only in the Winter Term.

232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 231 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).

Second Year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history, and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. The required texts at the moment are King and Suner, PARA A FRENTE!, and selected short stories and other materials made available as hand-outs. There is no formal grammar review, and the readings include novels and/or plays. Because of staff limitations, Portuguese 232 is offered only in the Winter Term.

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

454/French 427. French Syntax. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See French 427 (Hagiwara)

480/French 425. Background of Modern French. A thorough reading knowledge of French. (3). (Excl).

See French 425. (Leonard)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and writing Spanish. Grade based on three departmental exams, quizzes, written work and daily oral work. (Spanish 101 AND 102 are the equivalent of Spanish l03.)

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental exams, three oral exams, other examinations, quizzes, written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish 102 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. Spanish 206 may be elected prior to Spanish 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities which are of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week, and the most important qualities necessary to participate successfully are a willingness and a desire to learn. Grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. THIS COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION OR LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature, history and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on a series of exams designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on three exams, designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish, plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Spanish 111 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 112 is designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. It is open to graduates, juniors and seniors; and to others by special permission.

Other Language Courses

306. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 306 may be elected prior to Spanish 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to acquire the linguistic habits (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. Students share their knowledge with one another, and more advanced students help to maintain the continuity of the course as well as to encourage and to motivate less proficient class members. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. THE COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used, centered on a grammar-based course book. The student will do readings in Spanish, prepare discussion topics, revise and extend grammar, prepare exercises and translations, and expand vocabulary. Ample time is allotted to class discussion of the readings, and to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on weekly translations, tests, exams, and participation in discussion. (Anderson)

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 361. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Anderson)

Literature

331. Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. Open to students at all levels. A knowledge of Spanish is not required. May not be included in a concentration plan in Spanish (or teaching certificate major or minor). (3). (HU).

The CELESTINA is one of the masterpieces of Renaissance literature, a sort of Spanish ROMEO AND JULIET, which tells of a pair of desperate and self-destructive lovers, brought together by an aged (female) bond, deep and wise but also sinister, one of the great characters in world literature. Much of the term will be given over to a close reading of this text, but we will also explore the literary background of its two authors, the ancient comedies that are the remote models of the CELESTINA, stoic philosophy that is its thematic basis, and rhetoric and the arts of language that give it form. (Fraker)

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

A study of Spanish literature in the Medieval and Golden Age periods (1000-1700). Students will read several texts of Spanish literature including POEMA DE MIO CID, EL ABENCERRAJE Y LA HERMOSA JARIFA, and LAZARILLO DE TORMES. The discussions will center around a broad cultural background including moral and political themes as well as formal aspects of the texts. There will be one short report to be given orally in class, two three-four page papers in Spanish on the texts, and one final exam consisting of essay questions on readings. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers, exams and class discussion. Methods: lecture-discussion. (Casa)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

The late eighteenth-century and the 1930's mark the two extremes of the period represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, methods and approaches of literary criticism are considered, and an effort is made to show how the works exemplify their historical and cultural context ranging from Enlightenment through Romanticism, Positivism, Symbolism to Existentialism. Representative authors who may be studied are Moratin, Larra, Becquer, Galdos, Unamuno, Machado, Jimenez and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of periodic tests, midterm and final papers, and a final exam. The course is conducted in Spanish. (Anderson)

382. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Covers the main Spanish American contemporary authors in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortazar, Gabriel Garcia Marquez; Vicente Huidobro, Pablo Neruda, Cesar Vallejo; Rodolfo Usigli, Octavio Paz). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. Conducted in Spanish. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports (b) midterm exam, and (c) final examination. There will be a course pack available at the beginning of the term. (Goic)

482. The Spanish Picaresque Novel. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

In the middle of the sixteenth century Spain created a new kind of novel that became fashionable throughout all Europe, first in translation, and later as an original production: the picaresque novel. The course will study LAZARILLO DE TORMES (anonymous), GUZMAN DE ALFARACHE (by Mateo Aleman) and BUSCON (by Francisco Quevedo) and the effects of these books on the Spanish and European novel. (Lopez-Grigera)

488. Latin American Narrative of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (Excl).

The course will deal with the history of the contemporary novel and will focus on six Chilean novels of the 20th Century. The approach will be the close reading of HIJO DE LADRON, by Manuel Rojas, LA ULTIMA NIEBLA and LA AMORTAJADA by Maria Luisa Bombal, CASA DE CAMPO by Jose Donoso, PARENTESIS by Mauricio Wacquez and SONE QUE LA NIEVE ARDIA by Antonio Skarmeta. Some time will be devoted to examining new directions in current Spanish American narratives. The format of the course will be lecture and discussion. Students will be required to write a number of assignments and short reports, a midterm paper and a final paper. Text Cedomil Goic, LA NOVELA CHILENA, 4th ed. Santiago, Editorial Universitaria, 1978. (Goic)


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