University Courses (Division 495)

150. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 TRAGEDY AND THE HUMAN CONDITION. The readings in the seminar will consist of primary materials, but there will be a few presentations of critical theories and interpretations at the beginning of the term. For our purposes the many theories of tragedy can be reduced to this simple characterization: Tragedy is a serious drama, a serious presentation by speech and action of some phase of human life. The seminar will consider tragedies from Aeschylos to Arthur Miller and will study them in order to demonstrate how the formulation above has been adapted, modified or challenged by dramatists. The seminar is not a lecture course and the participants are expected to do most of the talking. There will be four written assignments, a midterm and a final examination, both based on take-home study questions. Aeschylos, ORESTEIA; Sophocles, OEDIPUS THE KING; Euripides, ELECTRA, THE PHOENICIAN WOMEN, THE BACCHAE; Aristophanes, THE FROGS; Shakespeare, MACBETH, OTHELLO, KING LEAR; Ibsen, GHOSTS, DOLL'S HOUSE; O'Casey, JUNO AND THE PAYCOCK; Miller, DEATH OF A SALESMAN. (Graf)

Section 002 THE YOUNG AND THE OLD: AN EXPLORATION THROUGH LITERATURE. Intensive reading and discussion of a number of literary works drama, fiction, biography in which the theme of the relations of youth and age is central. Works, read and discussed, will be drawn from the ancient and the modern world. Students will be asked for several sorts of papers: analysis of a problem as presented by one of the authors; evaluation of its literary treatment; autobiographical, fictional or poetic treatment of some generational conflict drawn from their own experience; a critical review of a work other than assigned reading as of film, television or stage production. Oral presentation will be encouraged as a supplement to written work. READING LIST: Sophocles, OEDIPUS REX, ANTIGONE, and ELECTRA; Shakespeare, KING LEAR, ROMEO AND JULIET; Edmund Gosse, FATHER AND SON; Henry James, WASHINGTON SQUARE; Samuel Butler, THE WAY OF ALL FLESH; Ivan Turgenev, FATHERS AND SONS; D.H. Lawrence, SONS AND LOVERS (Firebaugh)

Section 003 UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATING POETRY. While poetry is speech, a mode of communication among men and women, it is speech of a special kind, in which words are used, combined, in such a way as to produce not simply a straightforward utilitarian statement like a telegram or a set of directions, but a complex work of art that communicates in many-sided subtle ways. Now it may well be that a taste for poetry is a gift, quite as much as the ability to make poetry; it should be possible to deepen our appreciation of it by careful study of the exact ways in which poems make their appeal to us. The aim of the course will be to explore, by reading and discussing a variety of individual poems from both past and present, the ways in which poems work to produce the specific kinds of satisfaction they can offer us, and to help the individual reader develop a sense for the unique value of poetry, for one of the major arts. Reading assignments: close, analytic reading of a few poems for each class discussion. Short papers on single poems throughout the term, and a more extensive paper, towards the end, on the work of a particular poet chosen by each student individually. Text: THE NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF POETRY, Third Edition (Complete Edition, not the Shorter Edition). (Students who have access to the Second Edition should be able to use it without inconvenience). (Barrows)

Section 004 UTOPIA AND ITS SUBURBS IN CHINA AND THE WEST. By the end of the second week each student will have chosen three items from a list provided to which he will devote a sharp eye and close attention as he reads for the first half of the term. By the end of the fourth week you will have written out at least ten citations which bear on your chosen topic (and others),your own thoughts, and such class discussions as may be pertinent, into a 15-20 page paper dealing with one or more of these subjects as they have been alluded to in the readings you will have done by then. All citations (quotations) should be weighed by the student against the age of the book (or the period of the utopian attempt) and the prevailing views as well as the quarter of the world from which it springs, of course. This is a mechanical attempt to approximate what actually happens when someone in a university devotes himself to a piece of research. He usually has something in mind that interests him (it may be vague or pinpoint in nature) and his predisposed eye, spots in everything he reads (or hears) when and how it bears on his interest. His publications are usually the distillations of what he has read (properly noted) plus a small admixture of his own views and original thought. (Crump)

Section 005 CREATIVE WRITING. A workshop in which the student will obtain practice in writing informal autobiographical essays, short fiction and poems. The student's work will be read and discussed in class and will also be discussed in scheduled conferences with the instructor. The student should be prepared to submit about six copies of each written assignment for the use of his classmates. (Squires)

Section 006 TALKING OUR WAY OUT OF TRIBALISM: EARLY EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. Issues involved in the breakdown of cultural isolation and tribalism in medieval Europe through the spread of Latin, the terminology of Christianity, the rise of literacy, the ambitions of Germanic barbarians, and the common eternal dangers of the Arab, Viking and Turk. These issues include changes in attitudes toward foreigners, bilingualism, loan words, education in medieval kingdoms, and enforced political coalescence. Special attention is given to the development of alphabets, writing systems and books. In the end European cultural unity was so great that printing diffused through the continent in twenty years and the Italian renaissance in less than a hundred. The course is intended for students interested in languages and historical linguistics, but there are no prerequisites. Students will examine a wide range of illustrative materials and will be encouraged to develop their own ideas in class discussion. There will be a midterm and a final exam and a research paper on a topic of the student's choice. (Leonard)

151. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (SS)May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 THE MAKING OF A U.S. FOREIGN POLICY. Even many well-informed Americans seem perplexed about how foreign policy is made and administered. This seminar will examine the making of foreign policy decisions, taking into account the input not only of the President, his White House advisors, and the Department of State, but numerous other players: the National Security Council, the Pentagon and other government departments; the CIA and other components of the intelligence community; the Congress; business and citizen groups; domestic and foreign lobbies. Using case histories, constructed from official documents and accounts of participants, the seminar will point up complexities of the process, constraints on the use of American military, economic and political power, limitations imposed by the practice of allied and United Nations diplomacy, the role of history and tradition. It will examine key decisions, from World War II and its aftermath to the American hostage crisis in Iran (1979-81) and the Reagan Administration's involvement in Central America. The textbook will be announced later. There will be a supplementary reading list. Course requirements will include a typed book report as a term project, to include a l5-minute oral presentation to the class; several short class writing assignments, and a take-home final examination. (Hovey)

Section 002 PUBLIC EDUCATION IN THE SOUTH FOR BLACKS AND OTHER MINORITIES, 1863-1954. The purpose of the seminar will be to trace the development of elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education of Blacks and minorities in the southern states of the United States from the Emancipation Proclamation to May 18, 1954. Particular emphasis will be focused on judicial litigations from the Supreme Court decision of Plessy vs. Ferguson, from which the doctrine of "separate but equal" evolved, to the historic Brown vs., Topeka, Kansas Board of Education of 1954, which upheld the fundamental principle that racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional. Of special importance will be seminar discussions revealing how Blacks and minorities were successful in achieving an education in spite of the barriers confronting them in the states where they resided and resulting from court decisions, including the Supreme Court of the United States. Students will be expected to read a number of the classic writings of Black and minority authors such as W.E.B. DuBois, E. Franklin Frazier, Booker T. Washington, John Hope Franklin, and many others. The writings of contemporary Blacks and minorities such as Gunnar Myrdal's AN AMERICAN DILEMMA. Students will be expected to prepare readings, participate in seminar discussions, and develop a research topic preferably centered around one of the southern states under investigation in the seminar. (W.G.Palmer)

153. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (N. Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 SCIENTIFIC PROBLEM SOLVING. This course provides an opportunity to learn scientific problem-solving and to participate as a coach in the THINKERS LEAGUE. The THINKERS LEAGUE is a computer-mediated software laboratory and forum for faculty and students at junior and senior high schools throughout Michigan; it is designed to facilitate learning of scientific problem-solving. By working on a series of problems together, participants help each other learn more about how to use the powerful methods of experimental science in dealing with various kinds of problems. Aimed at improving achievement in science and mathematics, the kinds of problems being focused on currently in this course and the THINKERS LEAGUE are those in mathematics, logic, scientific reasoning, and the logical structure of natural language. Participants in the course have an opportunity to use microcomputer software to engage in scientific problem-solving by (a) generating plausible hypotheses about solutions to the current problem (b) designing experiments that will produce useful data for disconfirming one or more of the plausible hypothesis (c) having the experiments performed in the software laboratory, and (d) analyzing the data resulting from the performance of the experiments to determine solutions to the problems and/or appropriate additional experiments to be performed. Learners in school classrooms participating in the THINKERS LEAGUE have the same opportunities in a software laboratory delivered from the University's mainframe computer by way of the Merit Network. The series of exercises designed for this course and the THINKERS LEAGUE have been developed to provide users an opportunity to learn and use the fundamental reasoning and problem-solving skills of careful observation, logical deduction, mathematical analysis, asking good questions (which in this context is equivalent to designing good experiments), and analysis. Instead of being presented in an isolated fashion in different courses, all of these powerful techniques are brought together in dealing with a single problem. The model of learning underlies participation in the course and in the THINKERS LEAGUE tournaments emphasizes motivation and active engagement of learners in strategies that they devise, plan, and execute, rather than stressing rote absorption of knowledge. (L.Allen)

This section is available for the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP).

202. Poetry for the Eye: Drawing and Painting. (3). (Excl).

POETRY FOR THE EYE: PAINTING AND CREATIVITY. This course bridges the gap between the technical emphasis of the Art School and the analytical dissection of Art History. The general purpose is to make visual poetry to delight the eyes and the senses; it encourages and develops creativity in art and increases pleasure in the Museum of Art. Even totally inexperienced people have more talent than they would imagine. The course greatly increases that talent as the student personally experiences the problems and solves them and becomes familiar with the Museum's collections. The true basis of the course is "We learn by doing," St. Augustine. Instead of just looking, the student is taught to see like the artist who searches for deeper vision: The design beneath the surface of Life. The non-traditional U.C. 202 chooses to draw and paint the world through the eyes of Van Gogh, Matisse and Picasso. Time does not permit a deliberate emphasis upon technical skill, as in an art class. Instruction is a series of problems in (1) Design and Painting, (2) Color as theory and practice, (3) Art History with the art museum as a source of knowledge and inspiration, (4) A Visual Dictionary of personally symbolic emotions, (5) The Psychology of the Artist. A final problem, over the last four weeks, constitutes an exam, calling for understanding of all the earlier material. Grades are given on the basis of a portfolio of DAILY classwork plus the final exam problem. In the classroom four pieces of work are performed everyday so that the portfolio contains 104 pieces of work. The student has studied about art, but also created art in abundance. The supplies are chosen so as to be easily mastered by the inexperienced: lead pencils, magic markers, colored papers. The text is a course pack of Klee, Matisse, and Picasso. My course is a practical experience for those whose specialty lies elsewhere, but who feel the need of art to complete their educations and their lives. Course 202 demands perfect attendance and concentrated effort during the whole class session; not keeping up in either way will result in failing the course. Perfect attendance and concentrated effort are inflexible conditions for enrolling in the course. Any student whose purpose in education is the amassing of grade points, instead of a life fulfilling experience, is advised not to take this course. (Prendergast)

210. Perspectives on Careers in Medicine and Health Care. (4). (Excl).

This seminar is for students who are considering a career in a health-related profession. It is designed to help them acquire perspectives which will facilitate their decision making process. Health care professionals visit the seminar and share their educational and professional experiences. Students become acquainted with the prerequisites for professional schools and spend time with dental, medical, osteopathic, nursing and public health students. We consider problems of health care delivery, issues of death and dying, and ethical questions related to the health professions. Students are expected to respond in writing and in class to the visitors, to the reading materials, and to films. Three course packs serve as the required texts. All students are responsible for taking definite steps toward the development of their own goals through a self-inventory of their values, skills, and interests and through a term paper in which they investigate a possible career direction. A part of this work will be done on computers. Knowledge of word processing is not essential; however, typing skills will be helpful. Evaluation is based on class attendance and participation in and completion of all assignments. Enrollment is by override only: contact Fran Zorn at 1018 Angell (747-3607) or call 662-0683. The class will meet on Mondays from 3:00-5:00 p.m. and on Thursdays from 7:00-9:30 p.m. at 2130 Dorset Rd., Ann Arbor. (F.B.Zorn)

250. Collegiate Seminars for Freshmen and Sophomores. Freshman or sophomore standing and completion of the introductory composition requirement. (4). (HU).

Section 001 METHODS OF INQUIRY IN LINGUISTICS. The goal of linguistics is to describe and explain the structure and function of human language. In this course we will look at the kinds of questions linguists ask about language and how they go about answering these questions. Our focus will be on four methods that linguists have used to achieve this goal: (1) socio-historical linguistics (which investigates language change by studying patterns of social, stylistic, and geographic variation within a language); (2) typology (which studies patterns of variation in structure across languages); (3) structural analysis (which provides a description of the grammar and sound structure of a particular language); and (4) experimental linguistics (which involves the development and texting of specific models of communicative behavior, or models of the speech mechanism itself). In our study of each of these methods, we will ask how this approach to language enhances our understanding of language structure. Readings, class discussion, and writing assignments (several short and one longer) will emphasize critical evaluation of the methods of linguistic inquiry, thereby introducing students to the art of linguistic argumentation. (Beddor)

Section 002 INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE POETRY. The Master said, "Why is it that none of you, my young friends, study the ODES? For the ODES may serve to stimulate the imagination, provide ways to look at the world, and help you to keep company or to give expression to your grievances." THE ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS, Book XVII. For more than two millennia, poetry has been the most esteemed form of literary expression in China. It is one of the chief imperishable glories of Chinese civilization. This course is designed to provide an introduction to the understanding and enjoyment of Chinese poetry as represented in a wide range of English translations. We shall read selected translations of great poems done by both poet-translators such as Ezra Pound, Kenneth Rexroth, and Gary Snyder, and noted scholar-translators such as Arthur Waley, D.C. Lau, and Burton Watson. Whenever possible, we shall read more than one translation of the same poems, along with word-for-word renderings prepared by myself. The emphasis will not be on bulk. Rather, it will be on close reading of representative works so that students will have a chance to develop the skills to appreciate the beauty, the vitality of the lyric voice, the clarity of vision, and the depth of imagination which characterize this long and rich poetic tradition. Students will be encouraged to experiment with their own translations from literal renderings used in the course. Requirements include active participation, frequent brief exercises (one page or two in length each), and several short papers. Note: The ODES refers to the SHIH CHING or BOOK OF ODES, an anthology traditionally believed to have been compiled by Confucius (551-479 B.C). It contains the oldest examples of Chinese poetry from about 1000 to 600 B.C. (S.F. Lin)

251. Collegiate Seminars for Freshmen and Sophomores. Freshman or sophomore standing and completion of the introductory composition requirement. (4). (SS).

Section 006 FROM THE OLD TO THE NEW ASTRONOMY. There are two purposes to this seminar. The first is to provide some signposts along the road that produced modern science. The examples come from the history of astronomy during a revolutionary period that began in the eighteenth century and lasted until World War II. Among the topics we will discuss in our meetings are: the comparative roles of amateurs and professionals, the improving (and deteriorating) status of women in the field, sources of funding and their impacts on the choice of research topics, the "search" for extraterrestrial life (for example, the "canals" of Mars), the education of scientists and the role of prior training in narrowing the range of "interesting" questions, quarrels between theoretical and observational astronomers, the growth of astrophysics, the discovery of the enormous scale of the universe and our place in it, and the like. Our approach will be historical, that is, this is not a natural science course, and the second purpose of the course follows from this approach. The seminar will also provide training in historical research and analytical thinking using sources contemporary with the events to be discussed. Students will have the opportunity to work with primary documents held in Michigan collections as well as with the original papers the astronomers published. We will learn by probing together the extent to which "pure science" is a result of very human assumptions and prejudices. This is very much more a course in methods of research and analysis and clear presentation of research results than it is a course requiring the memorization of factual material. (Lindner)

Section 007 IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM. The expansion of Europe abroad beginning in the fifteenth century progressed from exploration and trade to territorial sovereignty, and the course of the nineteenth century brought most of the world under Western domination. It was out of this abnormal and temporary situation, which largely ended in the ashes of the Second World War, that the disease of imperialism was generated, although aspects of it and of the ideas which characterize it remain. We will look at the history of Western expansion, primarily in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia (the Americas and Australia were, of course, part of the same expansionist drive, but established their political independence before the advent of what we may call modern imperialism), and then at the nature and growth of imperialism before, during, and after the period of over colonial or semi-colonial rule. Readings will be widely varied, will be discussed in each class session, and will be the chief material on which papers will be based. Four critical essays, submitted through the term, take the place of examinations. No previous knowledge of the subject is assumed, but conscientious reading, attention to paper deadlines, regular class attendance, and the exercise of critical thinking are taken for granted. (Murphey)

252. Collegiate Seminars for Freshmen and Sophomores. Freshman or sophomore standing and completion of the introductory composition requirement. (4). (NS).

Section 004 CONCEPTS OF TIME. Through a program of seminars, guest lectures, term papers and field trips, this course will introduce the students to various aspects of time as viewed in geology and in other fields of inquiry. Early seminars will consider chiefly geological topics such as the principles of relative age determination and correlation, contemporary methods and precision of absolute time measurement, and the rates of natural processes such as earthquake activity, continental drift, plate tectonics and organic evolution in the context of the present-day global time scale. Over approximately the second half of the course, students will give oral presentations on and lead group discussion of a topic selected in consultation with the instructor, and dealing with some important aspect of time be it in music, astronomy, theology, computer science or any other field of particular interest to the individual. The final experience in this course will be a geological field trip through Michigan and "back through time" as the group studies progressively older rock formations and has an opportunity to test their logic in evaluating a chronology of events extending from glacial times back to some of the oldest rocks exposed on earth. This FIVE-DAY field trip is a REQUIRED component of the course, and will be taken immediately after the final examination period of the Winter Term. Transportation will be provided, but students must cover their own meal and lodging costs. (Kelly)

325. Introduction to Cognitive Science. Sophomore or junior standing. (3). (N.Excl).

This course is an introduction to the interdisciplinary study of intelligent activity, or cognition. It draws upon the methods and concepts of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy of mind and language, cognitive anthropology, and neuroscience. The primary goal of the course is to introduce the student to both the need for and the manner of interdisciplinary approach to cognition. This will be done by introducing general concepts and approaches, and then examining their use through an in-depth examination of selected specific topics. The specific topics will come from perception, learning, knowledge representation, problem-solving, thinking, reasoning and language behavior. The material will be presented through a mixture of lecture, class discussion, and readings from a specially prepared course pack. In addition to exams, there will be at least one project that requires the student to explore a specific topic using the concepts and methods from at least two fields. Two faculty members from different disciplines will jointly teach the course. (Boghossian/Smith)

342. Ethics and the Professions. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to ethical issues associated with the professions law, medicine, engineering, nursing, business, teaching, research, and so on. Lectures will be general and introductory. Their main objective will be to provide a framework for thinking about and confronting ethical dilemmas. Outside class assignments will provide different options for students to gain more understanding of one or two professional areas. The course will make extensive use of audio-visual materials, the classics, popular literature, computer conferencing, and other teaching resources. Its main purpose is to foster critical thinking about problems that could become important after graduation. The course will be taught on North Campus as a convenience to engineering, art, music and other students. (Steneck)

410. Poland in East Central European Politics and Culture. Background in European history or permission of Russian and East European Studies. (1). (Excl).Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

"Poland in East Central European Politics and Culture" is a mini-course designed to place Polish history in the greater context of East Central Europe, going beyond the state of national history and defining Poland's neighbors. The course will be arranged chronologically and will underscore what is unusually Polish and can be differentiated from the context of Central European history. The last two hundred years of Polish history will be discussed, and topics in political life and Polish culture will be discussed within the framework of "freedom and unfreedom." Basic reading for the course is Norman Davies, HEART OF EUROPE, Oscar Halecki, LIMITS AND DIVISIONS OF EUROPEAN HISTORY, 29. In addition J.K. Fedorowicz, A REPUBLIC OF NOBLES: STUDIES OF POLISH HISTORY, and P.S. Wandycz, LANDS OF PARTITIONED POLAND, 1795-1918 will be used. The course is designed for undergraduates with some knowledge of European history, and special reading assignments will be made for graduate students in Central European and Polish history. A two-hour seminar on "Poland 1860s to 1980s: Sources, Studies, Interpretations" will also be arranged as part of the mini-course; this seminar gives graduate students the opportunity to pursue research topics in Polish history while Professor Roman Szporluk is on leave. In addition to the readings mentioned above, undergraduates will be required to write an eight page paper; graduate students will read additional materials and write a 10-15 pp. paper. (Carpenter)

414. Learning Disabilities in Children and Young Adults: Implications for School and Work. Upper level undergraduate standing; introductory courses in psychology, education, other social sciences. (1). (Excl).Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Since the All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (PL 94-142), equal educational opportunities are guaranteed to all students, including those enrolled in higher education. Learning disabilities has been a recognized diagnostic category for only about 15 years, but now all 50 states in the US have legislation guaranteeing appropriate education to those so labeled. In many school districts, learning disabilities is now the category with the largest number of students, exceeding mental retardation, emotional or behavior disturbance, and physical handicaps. There is considerable debate in the literature as well as among those delivering services concerning the nature of learning disabilities, the appropriate interventions, and the implications for these persons in the work force and in society. The issues have become especially critical in higher education. The majority of these students desire education beyond high school. Junior and community colleges have been especially receptive to admitting students with LD and in serving their needs. Four year colleges and universities have been much slower, but in the past five years significant changes have occurred in terms of admissions policy, provision of special programs and services, and in making special accommodations or academic expectations. The faculty and two to three guest speakers will explore the issues that must still be resolved in providing the student labeled as learning disabled with the best possible, most appropriate education. (Hagen)

488. Alternative Futures. (3). (SS).

The object of this course is to increase your understanding of the meaning of the future; in human terms, in social terms, in civilizational terms. The overall purpose is not only a scholarly examination of various conceptions of the future but an attempt to construct a humanly meaningful and ecologically sustainable future for you and me; and the Third World people as well. To examine various forms of the future, that is to say various options which we have as individuals and as society. Within the particular forms of the future, to examine the concept of man, that concept of society, the concept of eschatology (man's ultimate destiny or purpose) and how they relate to each other. To discern what is the meaning of human life underlying various conceptions of the future and how this meaning relates to the meaning of our life. To synthesize the various findings in order to arrive at a sustainable model of the future. Future is you and me and if we make it. Course work will consist of readings, lecture-seminars, class discussions, for this is basically a seminar course. Three short papers (four-five pages each), and a final paper are the basis for the grade. The final paper is an independent research paper. No specific texts. (Skolimowski)

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