Courses in Biology (Division 328)

Introductory Courses

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. [Cost:3] [WL:2, but go to 3064 Dana] (Martin)

102(Botany 102). Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

Practical Botany is an introductory course in learning how to grow and use plants. Students will learn how to grow, identify, propagate, and take care of many different useful plants both common and exotic ones. The major topics in lecture and laboratory include wine, mead, and beer making; plant propagation by cuttings, and other vegetative means; breaking seed dormancy, and seed germination; forcing spring corms and bulbs into flower indoors; natural plant dyes and dyeing wool; organic gardening and composting; bonsai; landscaping around the home; how to make hanging baskets and terrariums; flower and fruit types and structure as related to pollination and plant breeding; agricultural techniques and systems. Hands-on work by the students is a major part of this course. There are field trips to Hidden Lake Gardens and local specialty gardens. Another highlight of the course is a vegetarian dinner prepared by the students. Several guest lecturers help to make this a very interesting class for the budding indoor gardener and outdoor gardener. There are two lectures and one four-hour discussion/lab period per week. The labs are held at the Botanical Gardens (free bus transportation is provided). (Estabrook)

106(Botany 190). Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. (3). (NS).

Biology 106 is divided into three basic sections: (1) plants, their way of life, and uses by people; (2) probing the ecological nature of our environment in natural, agricultural, and urban ecosystems; and (3) solutions to and constructive action for our environmental problems. We cover such topics as wild edible plants, pros and cons of the green revolution, growing and maintaining your own plants, poisonous, medicinal, and hallucinogenic plants, organic gardening and alternative means of pest control, alternative energy sources, new ideas for home and urban landscapes, natural areas and their preservation, endangered plant and animal species, and economic uses of plants by humans. The course includes 3 field trips on urban restoration, environmental education, and organic gardening in practice at the Kaufman farm. We also have a natural/wild edible foods dinner (prepared by the students)/conservatory tour at the Botanical Gardens. Grade evaluation is based on 3 midterms. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Kaufman)

130(Zoology 130). Animal Behavior. (3). (NS).

This course examines animal behavior from within the framework of modern evolutionary theory. We will consider both the proximate (e.g., how and what animals do) and ultimate (why animals do the things they do) explanations of animal behavior. Topics covered include: the history of ethology and evolutionary approaches to behavior, an introduction to modern evolutionary theory, neural and endocrinological mechanisms (hormonal influences) of behavior, behavior genetics, migration and navigation, territoriality, foraging behavior, mating behavior, parental behavior, alternative reproductive strategies, infanticide, and the evolution of cooperation and conflict. Throughout the course we will consider what the study of animal behavior can or cannot tell us about human behavior. Material will be presented in lectures, textbook readings, some of the primary literature, and films. Student grades will be determined from performance on 3 exams (2 hourly exams and a final). A background in biology or science is not required. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Lombardo)

152(Biology 112). Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent recommended. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 195. (4). (NS).

Biology 152 is the first term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology or other science programs, and for preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology who have suitable preparation are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of modern biology. Development of thinking and writing skills is also a major aim. The topical coverage of Biology 152 is divided among three areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; and (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST. Attendance at all laboratories and discussions and completion of written laboratory reports are required for credit in the course. There will probably be three course-wide examinations and a final examination. Students MUST be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule).

Students usually purchase a textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes. Students need not buy any other study guides or supplementary materials.

Enrollment for Honors work entails time and effort beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, register in Biology 152, lecture section 002 and ANY lab/discussion, plus Biology 153 (one credit hour). See separate listing.

NOTE CONCERNING PREREQUISITES. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is recommended, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 152. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course is recommended (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful). High school biology is not required. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, Room 1563 C.C. Little Building, 764-1430.) [Cost:3] [WL:2, but go to 1563 CCL]

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this Guide.

153(Biology 113). Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 152 and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

The scientific method is the basis for inquiry in biology. This course is intended to introduce the scientific method to Honors students who are concurrently enrolled in Biology 152. Discussion materials may include classic papers of Watson-Crick, Briggs-King, etc., and such current problems as genetic engineering, acid rain, and the green revolution. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. Students are requested to submit several short papers, and are expected to participate in the weekly discussions. Open ONLY to students admitted to the LS&A Honors Program.

154(Biology 114). Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit is granted to those who have completed 195. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 152, and includes the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and animal behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 152. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION Section STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE, OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ELSE ON THE WAITING LIST. Each week students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. There will be two midterm examinations and a final examination at times and dates specified in the Time Schedule. Regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course. Students usually purchase a textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary material. For Honors credit, students in LS&A Honors Program must register for Honors lecture section (031) in addition to Biology 155 Further information about Biology 154 can be obtained from the Biology 152/154 office, 1563 C.C. Little. (764-1430). [Cost:3] [WL:2, but go to 1563 CCL]

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) in this Guide.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 154 and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

The theory of Evolution is the basis for understanding the origin and function of species and biological processes. Biology 155 is a reading/discussion course centered on the main elements of "Evolutionary thinking." This course begins with selected works of Charles Darwin and then considers several unsolved problems in evolution such the origin of life, rates of evolution, the nature and frequency of extinction and the units of selection. The second half of the course is concerned with the evolution of man, and the possible contribution of Evolutionary Thinking to understanding the origin and structure of aspects of human culture. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. One term paper is required. Open only to students admitted to the LS&A Honors program. To accompany Biology 154. [Cost:1] [WL:1]

Writing, Research and Experiential Courses

301(Biology 300). Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Designed in cooperation with the English Composition Board, this course will satisfy the junior/senior writing requirement. Lectures deal with the nature of science and the consequent need for clarity, precision, and accuracy in organization and style, not just in grammar and punctuation. Effective communication requires an honest and accurate assessment of what one actually demonstrated or discovered. Students write or revise a paper, each with a different focus, weekly for much of the term. These exercises relate to differences in presentation appropriate for scientific journals vs. the intelligent non-professional, for original data vs. reviews, or for other purposes. Besides one lecture a week there are discussion sessions in which the written papers are critically reviewed and other exercises presented. [Cost:1] [WL:5, visit my faculty office to get on a waitlist and then attend FIRST LECTURE. Overrides will NOT be issued for DISCUSSION sections PRIOR to the start of the course. Such switches, if necessary, and where students' schedules allow for flexibility, will be solicited at the FIRST LECTURE.] (E.Voss)

Molecular and Cellular Biology and Physiology

206(Biology 291)/Micro. 291. Microbiology Laboratory. Micro. 101 or Biol. 152-154 or 195; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The revolutionary advances in molecular biology, and their impact on society are based on the study and utilization of microorganisms. This laboratory experience helps form a sound foundation for all of the biological sciences. The course consists of one orientation lecture and two laboratory sessions each week. Topics covered include an introduction to microbial variety, methods of study, specific techniques, and general consideration of microbes in the world around us and their use in the laboratory. The course is required in the microbiology concentration program, and is appropriate for concentrators in biology, botany, and cell biology. Evaluation is based on performance on two exams, and a variable number of quizzes, practical exams, and written reports. (Vadlamudi)

224(Biology 262). Biology of Cancer. One term of introductory biology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

A Collegiate Fellows course; see page 3 of this COURSE GUIDE for a complete list of Collegiate Fellows courses.

The Biology of Cancer is a lecture/discussion course designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the biological events associated with the formation of cancer. This course is organized around three fundamental questions: what is cancer, what are the causes of cancer, and can cancer be cured or prevented? Lectures will include descriptions of classical and recent experiments which address these questions, and will also provide students with the vocabulary and background needed to critically read and evaluate technical literature dealing with the subject of cancer. Although introductory biology is an essential prerequisite for this course, an attempt will be made to accommodate the needs and interests of students of varying backgrounds, including non-biology majors. Student performance will be evaluated by a combination of exams and a term paper based upon library research. In order to provide the time required for this library research, the lecture-discussion meetings will be dismissed for approximately two weeks late in the term. There will be no assigned textbook, but some reading will be assigned from the course pack and there will be an extensive reserve list of relevant books available in the Undergraduate Library. The class will meet twice a week for an hour and a half; in general, meetings will consist of a one hour lecture followed by questions and discussion. A weekly one hour discussion session will also be held. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Kleinsmith)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into the following segments: DNA and chromosomes, gene transmission in Eukaryotes, linkage and recombination, mutation and its consequences, gene expression and regulation, population genetics. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and new problems that test applications of basic concepts and genetic techniques. Practice problem sets designed for this course will be available and are covered in discussion sections or the Genetics Clinic where all office hours of TA's are held. Two demonstrations of living material and genetic tools are given during the term. [Cost:2] [WL:2] (S. Allen and Pichersky)

CSP section(s) available. See Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this Guide.

307(Biology 392). Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic principles of developmental biology. Special emphasis will be placed upon the continuity of developmental processes in terms of 1) the temporal sequence of development from the fertilized egg to the adult and 2) levels of control, from the expression of genetic information to the organization of complex tissues and organs. Greatest emphasis will be placed on development in vertebrates. Whenever possible, the experimental basis for our understanding of developmental events will be stressed. Major areas of coverage will include gametogenesis, fertilization, early embryogenesis including maternal control and nucleocytoplasmic interactions, induction and morphogenetic movements, cellular interactions in organogenesis, and morphogenesis. Certain aspects of postnatal development, such as regeneration, will also be covered. This course is intended for juniors and seniors, but it is also open to sophomores. There are three one-hour lectures per week. During the term there will be two evening examinations plus the final. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Tosney)

308(Biology 393). Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 307. (2). (Excl).

This course provides students with the opportunity to study firsthand the development of a number of live vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. In addition to observation of normal embryogenesis, students perform several of the experimental analyses which have contributed to a basic understanding of developmental processes. Exercises focus on fertilization, developmental morphology, induction, determination and differentiation of various tissues, metamorphosis and regeneration. In addition to one scheduled three-hour laboratory session each week, students are expected to spend about three additional hours in the laboratory each week. Short lectures are presented to introduce aspects of basic morphological areas of investigation. Formal reports on two exercises are required. There are three laboratory tests. Maintenance of lab note book for a complete and accurate record of observations and experimental results is required. There is a required lab manual. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Jeyabalan)

325(Zoology 325). Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Biology 418, 420, or 422 - these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. This course may NOT be elected by students who have already taken Biology 420. [Cost:2] [WL:2] (Hume and Webb)

326(Zoology 326). Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 325. (1). (Excl).

These laboratory exercises deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. Problem sets are graded for each exercise. In addition, two full-length lab reports are required. Biology 326 should be taken concurrently with Biology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Biology 325 will not be admitted to Biology 326 without special permission. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Hume and Webb)

408(Biology 401)/Micro. 401. General Microbiology. Biochemistry (Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415); preceded or accompanied by Biol. 305. (3). (Excl).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to microbiology. Lectures cover cellular structures, physiology, genetics, taxonomy, and ecology. Medical microbiology and immunology are included in the context of microbial ecology. Eukaryotic micro-organisms and cells in culture may be discussed, but emphasis is placed on prokaryotes. [Cost:2] [WL:3, but normally does not close] (Bender and Douthit)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in living cells. As an introductory course, emphasis is placed on a broad view rather than a detailed knowledge of this enormously encompassing field. Thus, biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms and reactions; the chemical basis of life. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology including medicine, dentistry, and other professional pursuits. The general subject matter includes amino acids, protein structure and function, allosterism, molecular disease, enzyme properties, kinetics and mechanisms, connective tissue proteins, membrane structure and function, energetics, intermediary metabolism and its regulation, biosynthetic processes, DNA, RNA, transcription, the genetic code and protein synthesis, control of gene expression, free radical and antioxidant biochemistry, hormone action and metabolic control.

This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's chosen according to interest and ability to help other undergraduates with biochemistry. The course is divided into 15 logical units of material, and students are required to MASTER the content of each unit. Upon attaining mastery, the student may take both a written and an oral quiz which, upon completion, is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed plus a factor derived from performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 60 hours/week in a suite permanently assigned to this course. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are presented by Professor Beyer. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course, i.e., not in the textbook, and is not the subject of examination. Students are encouraged to attend sessions in which biochemical discoveries are presented by TA's and the professor. [Cost:3] [WL:3] (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl).This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, each proctor provides two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has MASTERED the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Beyer)

413(Botany 479). Plant Cell and Tissue Culture. Eight hours in biology; at least junior standing. (4). (Excl).

Biology 413 is a course that deals with the major aspects of plant cell and tissue culture and plant biotechnology both at fundamental and applied levels. The LECTURES cover such topics as: (1) how plant cells, tissues, and organs are cultured, (2) role of plant hormones in control of root/shoot differentiation in tissue cultures, (3) regeneration of whole plants from single cells, (4) basic techniques of plant macropropagation and micropropagation, (5) protoplasts isolation and fusion, (6) somatic cell hybridization, (7) production of secondary compounds from plant cell cultures, (8) bioreactor design and operation, (9) transformation of plant cells and tissues using electroporation, plasmids, microinjection, and direct injection of DNA, and (10) applications of plant cell and tissue culture/plant biotechnology in the production of medicinal and other economically useful compounds, life-support systems in outer space, and the production of trees, crop plants, and horticultural plants with new germplasm and resistance to stresses of all types. The LAB demonstrates the current techniques of plant macro- and micro-propagation, operation of bioreactors and the flow cytometer, scanning electron microscopy of plant cells and tissues, isolation of plant DNA, RNA, and proteins from cells and tissue cultures, and major methods used today to transform plant cells to modify their germplasm. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Kaufman)

416(Biology 494). Biophysical Chemistry. Biol. 411 and Math. 114; or the equivalents. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to give students in the life sciences a background in physical chemistry as applied to biological systems and biological instrumentation. Particular aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics, and statistical mechanics are introduced with examples drawn from enzyme folding and catalysis. The applications of physical chemistry which are discussed include the role of non-covalent bonds in the stability and folding of proteins and nucleic acids, the role entropy in the polymerization of proteins, the nature of specific and non-specific interactions, the energetics of cellular transport, DNA supercoiling, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, the use of fluorescence in cell biology, the principles of light and electron microscopy, and the principles of the detection of radiation by photographic and scintillation techniques. Ten graded problem sets and four examinations will be given.

425/Anatomy 425. Systems Neurobiology. Biol. 325 or 422, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course treats ensembles of nerve cells as developing and functional entities. It assumes a level of understanding of cellular neurobiology such as can be obtained in Biology 325 (Animal Physiology) of Biology 422 (Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology). The topics include development of the nervous system, sensory systems (especially the visual system), motor systems, and behavior. Students are evaluated by one or more hour exams, one or more papers, and a final exam. There are three lectures per week, and no optional lab. Graduate students (and in exceptional cases, undergraduates) may elect an additional hour of credit (Biology 625) in which original research papers are read, discussed, and written about. (Easter and Oakley)

428(Biology 415). Cell Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415 or their equivalents. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course provides an in-depth analysis of the molecular basis of structure and function in living cells. Three lectures per week are supplemented by a 1.5 hour discussion section (groups of 20 students) and readings from the text (Alberts et al., MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL, 2nd edition), the companion (PROBLEMS BOOK, Wilson and Hunt), and selected original research papers. There is a strong emphasis on understanding the methods of cell biology and the interpretation of experimental data. By the end of the term, students should be able to read with comprehension original research papers from the current literature in this fast-moving area of science. Topics covered will include: the structure and function of biological membranes; the structure and function of membrane-bounded organelles (including the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, peroxisomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus); protein secretion and endocytosis; membrane and organelle biogenesis; cytoskeleton and cell motility; and cell division and the control of cell reproduction. There will be two in-class midterm examinations, several quizzes in discussion sections, and a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Pringle)

429(Biology 416). Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Biol. 427 or 428, or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 428. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (Excl).

To familiarize the student with modern laboratory technique used in molecular biology and in the analysis of cell structure and function is the course objective. The course deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of subcellular analysis. The course illustrates certain techniques: cell fractionation, enzyme assay, and identification of subcellular functional units. Experiments also include cloning, restriction mapping, gel electrophoresis, and chromatography. There will be short lab quizzes and problem sets given. Course grades will be determined based on three major lab reports (written in a format typical of manuscripts submitted for publication in scientific journals), five short reports and two quizzes. (Vadlamudi)

512(Biology 502). Regulation of Cellular Metabolism. Biol. 411 and 428, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students who wish to pursue the study of biochemical regulation beyond the levels of introductory biochemistry and cell biology. The course is aimed at gaining insight into underlying biochemical mechanisms for highly orderly activities of the cell. Heavy emphasis is given to mammalian cellular metabolism. The course starts with general discussion of basic regulatory mechanisms of cellular metabolism, and progresses to specific discussion of various modes of regulation of several representative metabolic pathways. The last 4-5 weeks will be used for discussion of special topics by guest lecturers. There is no assigned textbook for this course. A list of references is given for each topic. Students are asked to read major references in the library. The course grade is based on two take-home examinations, one term paper, and a critique. [Cost:1] [WL:3, but normally does not close] (Ikuma)

514(Biology 567). Topics in Molecular Evolution. Biol. 305 and one upper level course in either molecular or evolutionary biology. (3). (Excl).

This year's topic is THE EVOLUTION OF SEX. We shall proceed by first considering a recent hypothesis that relates the evolution of sexual reproduction to the process of DNA repair, follow this with an in-depth review of two competing hypotheses about DNA repair, and then review recent literature describing molecular genetic correlates of asexual forms of reproduction. Finally, we will attempt to evaluate the alternative hypotheses about the evolution of sex and to suggest experiments that might critically test some of the assumptions that each of them requires for its validity. The format includes both individual presentations and group discussions of relevant literature. Student evaluations will be based on classroom presentations and participation in group discussions, and on a comprehensive review paper. Class meetings of 90 minutes will be held twice weekly. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Brown and Pichersky)

Animal Biology

252(Zoology 252). Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

This course teaches the comparative method, using the "three-fold parallelism" of anatomy, ontogeny, and paleontology. All examples are based on chordate animals, with emphasis on their anatomy and development. The introductory third of the course includes the theoretical basis of the comparative method, principles of evolutionary theory and speciation, and phylogenetics. The remainder of the course involves application of the method, with a survey of chordate structure, including the integument, skeleton, muscles, and the circulatory, urogenital, digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. The laboratory provides practical experience in the comparative method, including dissections, preparation of cleared and stained materials, and examination of fossils. There are three one-hour lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. There are two hourly examinations and a final examination for the lecture, and a one hour laboratory practical exam. A detailed syllabus and laboratory manual, rather than an assigned textbook, are used, with supplementary texts on reserve. (Fink and Kluge)

450(Zoology 450). Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (4). (Excl).

Lectures on the evolution, behavior, ecology, and life history of amphibians and reptiles. Laboratory exercises and field trips emphasize identification, life history, adaptations, and field methods. (Nussbaum)

532. Birds of the World. Sixteen hours of biology and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course is a comparative survey of avian systematics and the world avifauna. It provides systematic training in ornithology, particularly at the species and family level, and utilizes the research collections of birds (study skins and anatomical materials) of the Museum of Zoology. It highlights problems for research in the evolutionary systematics of birds. Testable objectives include an ability to identify birds to family or lower level and discuss their systematic relationships. Methods include lectures, demonstrations of avian diversity with the museum collections, bioacoustic analysis, library readings, and experience in independent research in systematic ornithology. Student evaluations are based on exams and papers. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Payne)

533(Zoology 580)/Anatomy 715. Regeneration in Vertebrates. An introductory course in developmental biology; graduate or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This is a lecture-discussion course designed principally for graduate students. Its object is to cover the principles of regeneration in vertebrates. The first half of the course is devoted to an in-depth analysis of amphibian limb regeneration as a biological model system. The second half of the course is tailored according to the interests of the members of the class. Class participation consists of regular readings and discussions based upon them, a one hour student seminar and a paper. (Carlson)

541/Anatomy 541/Physiology 541. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course provides an overview of the hormonal regulation of mammalian reproduction at the system, cellular, and molecular levels. Topics include basic and clinically-orientated material related to properties and mechanisms of action of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones and gonadal sex steroids, the neural control of reproduction, anatomy and endocrine regulation of the testis and ovary and of the male and female reproductive tracts, endocrine control of menstrual and estrous cycles, mechanisms of fertilization and implantation, and the endocrine basis of pregnancy and fertility regulation. Primarily for upper-level undergraduates or graduate students with a strong background in biology. Permission of instructor is required. Evaluation is by written examinations and presentation of a poster. The course is team taught by several members of the multi-departmental Reproductive Sciences Program. (Foster)

Plant Biology

256/Geol. 256. Ancient Plants and the World They Lived In. Biol. 152, 195 or 255. (2). (NS).

The evolution of plant life through geologic time makes a fascinating story. This course which provides evidence, derived from fossils, of the earth's past plant life also includes a discussion of associated animals in those cases where there is documented evidence from the fossil record, and techniques used in the study of plant fossils. Among many other interesting topics are: life in the Precambrian, adaptations for life in a terrestrial environment, the evolution of seed plants, continental drift and the affect of continental movement through time on continental climates and dominant vegetation, plants of the Pennsylvanian coal swamps, and the origin of flowering plants. There will also be an opportunity to see some beautiful fossil specimens from the collections of the Museum of Paleontology. Grades will be based on a midterm test and a final examination. (Beck)

275(Botany 275). Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 152 or 195, or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. The course will provide a basis for understanding the natural history and some practical aspects of plant life including the anticipated advances in plant biotechnology. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. (Noodén)

459(Botany 422). Systematic Botany. Biol. 152-154 or 195, (or the equivalent), or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The biodiversity of higher plants is taught with lectures, color projection slides, specimens, living plants, and laboratory discussions. Emphasis is on the level of orders, families and genera, temperate as well as tropical, so that students can make themselves familiar with plants in any part of the world. The course focuses mainly on the flowering plants because of their dominant role on the earth, but gymnosperms and pteridophytes are studied too. The phylogeny of vascular plants provides the framework. In angiosperms hypothetical ancestral types are discussed and various lines are analyzed, e.g., the pinks (Caryophillidae), roses (Rosidae), wind-pollinated trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Lilidae), and so on. Related subjects, such as habitats of plants, geography, biosystematics, cladistics, and floral biology are presented in special lectures.

A major component of the science of botany, systematics is considered essential to training plant scientists and botany concentrators. However, the course is also elected by biology concentrators, zoologists, foresters, ecologists and ethnobotanists. Some individuals take the course merely because they enjoy plants and wish to learn about them, including students with backgrounds as diverse as engineering and city planning.

The methods of instruction include lecture and laboratory, the latter including demonstrations and discussions. There are two midterms, a final, and numerous small lab quizzes. Various texts are recommended for students with special interests, but only one is required: THE IDENTIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANT FAMILIES by P.H. Davis and J. Cullen (Cambridge University Press). [Cost:1] [WL:1&3] (Wagner)

Ecology, Evolution and Animal Behavior

280(Biology 222). Energy and Ecology. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (2). (NS).

This study of the use of energy and its impact on the world ecosystems and climate treats the basic question of how to supply the energy needs of mankind while maintaining ecological integrity. The following sources of energy are considered: solar, biomass, wind, tidal, ocean thermal, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear, including their mining and manufacture, transport, utilization, and ecological principles and conservation practices that are essential for a healthful and stable world. (Gates)

380(Biology 343). Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or equivalent and at least one term of college chemistry or physics, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Marine ecology is a study of the organisms and processes of the ocean, including both pelagic and benthic communities. This course teaches biological aspects of oceanography at the organism level, and also applies ecological and evolutionary principles to the study of marine life. Lectures will introduce the major groups of marine organisms and will cover the interrelationships of marine organisms and their environments. Organisms and communities from the following habitats will be discussed: estuaries, the rocky intertidal, coral reefs, the coastal zone, the deep sea and the open ocean. The course will treat organisms as different as bacteria and whales. This offering fulfills the undergraduate Biology concentration requirements for a course in Biological Evolution and Diversity, and it is required for the Marine Biology option of the undergraduate Oceanography concentration. Grading will be based on exam performance: 2 one-hour exams plus a comprehensive final. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (S. Kilham and Lehman)

496(Biology 472)/Nat. Res. 425. Population Ecology. General ecology and Nat. Res. 438; calculus recommended. (4). (Excl).

The study of the dynamics of single species populations and systems of multi-species populations is examined. This is accomplished by reviewing the theoretical explanations for various topics and comparing these predictions with observations and experiments with animal and plant populations. Topics covered include population growth and its limiting factors (resource acquisition, life history patterns, habitat use, and social structure), competition, predation, population cycles, food web structure, and the stability and persistence of assemblages of populations. Because the theoretical development of these topics depends upon mathematics, students will find experiences with introductory calculus useful, and basic statistical knowledge is useful in understanding the comparison of observed plant and animal populations with the theoretical predictions. The course consists of two 90-minute lectures, a lab experiment requiring one hour and a discussion group for one-two hours each week. Students are evaluated on the basis of two hourly exams, a term paper, weekly short lab reports and participation in the discussion group. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Belovsky)

497(Biology 471). Community Ecology. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl).

An examination of current theory and research on ecological communities. Emphasis is on the analyses of patterns in community structure and species diversity, and the mechanisms responsible for generating and maintaining these patterns. Specific topics include the roles of species interactions such as competition, predation, and mutualisms, environmental variation, and biogeography, in community processes. A background in ecology is required. Readings are from the original literature. There are two one-hour lectures and one two-hour discussion per week. (Rathcke and Werner)

587. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Biol. 381 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The climate of the world is warming rapidly. The temperature increase in the next few decades may be greater and more rapid than at any time in the last 100,000 years. There will be an enormous impact on ecosystems as the mean annual isotherm moves from Georgia to Michigan. The effects of temperature and moisture changes on plants and animals may be almost unprecedented. Past climates and their effects on ecosystems and the vulnerability of specific species of plants and animals to climate conditions of the future will be discussed. Students of biology and of environmental sciences should understand these highly important issues which will be a significant part of their lives. This is a lecture course but students will investigate and report on selected topics of their choice. (Gates)

589. Mechanisms of Microbial Evolution. Biol. 305. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to the processes of evolution in the context of microbes. The course will focus on the forces which promote variation and change in microbial populations. Among the topics covered during the term will be: structure of microbial populations and measures of genetic variation; evolution of community structure including predatory/prey interactions; roles of mutator genes and transposable elements in evolution; evolution of plasmids and their interaction with the host genome; enzyme evolution; evolution of the E. coli genome. The course is open to undergraduate and graduate students interested in evolutionary biology, and/or molecular biology and/or microbiology. In addition, the course is one of the electives for the undergraduate concentration in microbiology. The course will meet three times a week. Two of these hours will generally be devoted to formal lectures and the third to discussion. Course requirements are two term papers plus a miniseminar presentation and participation in the discussions; no exams. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Adams)

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