Since the Physics Department discourages students from changing
midstream from Physics 140 to Physics 125 or from Physics 240
to Physics 126, it is important that students choose the first
course of a physics sequence with care. Prospective engineers, physicists and chemists should elect Physics 140/240 rather than
Physics 125/126 because concentration programs in these areas
require the Physics 140/240 sequence. In the case of some departmental
concentration programs * (e.g., *biology) or in special
individual circumstances, students can elect or are encouraged
to elect the Physics 125/126 sequence. Some advisors will advise
all students who have had calculus to elect Physics 140/240. Physics
140/240 can be elected by all students who have had calculus, but it should be elected only by students who enjoy solving difficult
problems and who think that they will be good at it.

**115. Living with Physics.
*** Two and one-half years of high school mathematics, including trigonometry. (3). (NS). *

Physics 115 is a descriptive introduction to Physics for non-science concentrators who do not have an extensive mathematical background. Students will be exposed to both classical and modern conceptions of the physical world. Critical evaluation of ideas through the use of the scientific method will be stressed. Classical concepts involving easily measurable physical quantities will be related to everyday life through a series of lecture demonstrations, take-home exercises and experiments. At the same time, modern ideas ranging from the nature and evolution of the universe, to the world of the atom and of elementary particles will be discussed. It is hoped that students who complete the course will be in a better position to evaluate new and existing ideas in all areas of life by applying those methods which are used in the evaluation of physical theories. The final course grade will be based on homework assignments, a midterm exam and a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Axelrod)

**125. General Physics: Mechanics, Sound, and Heat. *** Two
and one-half years of high school mathematics, including trigonometry.
No credit granted to those who have completed 140. (3). (NS). *

Physics 125 and 126 constitute a two-term sequence offered primarily for students concentrating in the natural sciences, architecture, pharmacy, or natural resources; and for preprofessional students preparing for medicine, dentistry, or related health sciences. Physics 125 and 126 are an appropriate sequence for any student wanting a quantitative introduction to the basic principles of physics but without the mathematical sophistication of Physics 140 and 240. Strong emphasis is placed on problem solving, and skills in elementary algebra and trigonometry are assumed. While a high school level background in physics is not assumed, it is helpful. Physics 125 and 126 are NOT AVAILABLE by the Keller plan.

PHYSICS 125 covers classical mechanics (laws of motion, force, energy and power) and mechanical wave motion (including sound waves). The final course grade is based on three one-hour examinations, class performance and a final examination. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**126. General Physics: Electricity and Light. *** Phys.
125. No credit granted to those who have completed 240. (3). (NS). *

See Physics 125 for a general description of this introductory sequence of courses.

Physics 126 is a continuation of Physics 125; it covers electricity and magnetism, the nature of light, and briefly introduces atomic and nuclear phenomena. The final course grade is based on three one-hour examinations, class performance and a final examination. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**127. Mechanics, Heat and Sound Lab. *** To
be elected concurrently with Physics 125. No credit granted to those who have completed Physics 141. (1). (NS). *

Physics 127 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 125 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes and on written laboratory reports. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

**128. Electricity and Light Lab. *** To be
elected concurrently with Physics 126. No credit granted to those
who have completed Physics 241. (1). (NS). *

Physics 128 is laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 126 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes and on written laboratory reports. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

**140. General Physics I. *** Prior or concurrent
election of calculus. Phys. 140 and 141 are normally elected concurrently.
No credit granted to those who have completed 125. (3). (NS). *

Physics 140, 240, and 242 constitute a three-term sequence which examines concepts in physics fundamental to the physical sciences and engineering. This introductory sequence uses calculus, and, while it is possible to elect Physics 140 and Mathematics 115 concurrently, some students will find it more helpful to have started one of the regular mathematics sequences before electing Physics 140. The introductory sequence is primarily designed to develop a SKILL: the skill to solve simple problems by means of mathematics. Developing this skill requires DAILY practice and a sense for the MEANING of statements and formulas, as well as awareness of when one understands a statement, proof, or problem solution and when one does not. Thus one learns to know what one knows in a disciplined way.

The topics in PHYSICS 140 include (1) classical mechanics: vectors, motion in one dimension, circular motion, projectile motion, relative velocity and acceleration, Newton's laws, particle dynamics, work and energy, linear momentum, torque, angular momentum of a particle, simple harmonic motion, gravitation, planetary motion, pressure and density of fluids, and Archimedes' principle; and (2) space-time relativity. Evaluation is based on performance on 2 hourly examinations (see Time Schedule for dates and times) and a final examination.

Certain sections of Physics 140 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program without formal lectures. These sections are marked in the Time Schedule. An information sheet describing the format of Keller Plan offerings is available in the Physics Department Office (1049 Randall Laboratory). Students who want to elect Physics 140 by the Keller Plan should read this information before registering.

Honors sections of Physics 140 are offered in the Fall and Winter terms. The Honors Program in physics offers a rigorous introduction to the structure and laws that govern our physical universe. terms. Prospective Physics concentrators and other qualified science or Engineering concentrators are encouraged to register for these sections. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**141. Elementary Laboratory I. *** To be elected
concurrently with Phys. 140. No credit granted to those who have
completed 127. (1). (NS). *

Physics 141 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 140 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes and on written laboratory reports. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

**240. General Physics II. *** Phys. 140 or the equivalent; Phys. 240 and 241 are normally elected concurrently.
No credit granted to those who have completed 126. (3). (NS). *

See Physics 140 for a general description of the introductory physics sequence.

The topics covered in PHYSICS 240 include (1) classical electromagnetism: charge, Coulomb's Law, electric fields, Gauss' Law, electric potential, capacitors and dielectrics, current and resistance, electromotive force and circuits, magnetic fields, Biot-Savart Law, Ampere's Law, Faraday's Law of induction, simple AC circuits; and (2) geometrical and physical optics.

Certain sections of Physics 240 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program without formal lectures. These sections are marked in the Time Schedule. An information sheet describing the format of Keller Plan offerings is available in the Physics Department Office (1049 Randall Laboratory). Students who want to elect Physics 240 by the Keller Plan should read this information before registering.

Honors sections of Physics 240 are offered in the Fall and Winter terms. The Honors Program in physics offers a rigorous introduction to the structure and laws that govern our physical universe. terms. Prospective Physics concentrators and other qualified science or Engineering concentrators are encouraged to register for these sections. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**241. Elementary Laboratory II. *** To be elected
concurrently with Phys. 240. No credit granted to those who have
completed 128. (1). (NS). *

Physics 241 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 240 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes and on written laboratory reports. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

**242. General Physics III. *** Phys. 240 or
equivalent. (3). (NS). *

This course is the third in a three-term introductory physics
sequence, and is required of all physics concentrators. It will
deal in a quantitative manner with topics which may be classified
as "modern" physics, and shall include the investigation
of: special relativity, the relationship of particles and waves, the Schrödinger equation applied to barrier problems, atomic
structure and the interpretation of quantum numbers, the exclusion
principle and its applications, structure of solids, * etc. * The
class will meet as a lecture group. Applications of the principles
will be considered in the lecture section on a regular basis.
Math 215 is strongly recommended. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**401. Intermediate Mechanics. *** Phys. 126
or 240-241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl). *

This course is required for physics concentrators. It includes a study of vector operators and vector calculus along with their application to various physical problems. Among the topics investigated are: (1) harmonic motion in several dimensions; (2) motion under the influence of central forces; (3) wave motion; and (4) rigid-body rotation. The methods of Lagrange are applied to suitable examples. Examinations are given at various times during the term. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**403. Optics Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 or permission
of instructor. (2). (Excl). *

This is a laboratory course in geometrical and physical optics intended for science concentrators and especially for students electing Physics 402. One experiment every one or two weeks is performed during four-hour laboratory periods; a short report is required for each experiment. The experiments are designed such that they may be performed without students having a formal background in the topic investigated. The experiments include: (1) lens equations; (2) lens aberrations; (3) telescopes; (4) polarization; (5) diffraction; (6) interferometry; (7) electro-optical effects; (8) light detection; (9) fourier optics; (10) holography; and (11) spectroscopy. Students may also devise experiments. The course grade is based on the work done in the laboratory period as well as written reports. [WL:4]

**405. Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism. *** Phys.
126 or 240-241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl). *

This course extends the material introduced in Physics 240 on the classical theory of electricity and magnetism. It tries to develop further both the theoretical ideas contained in Maxwell's equations for these fields, as well as their practical application. It is a required course for all physics concentrators, and is basic to many of the courses and laboratories which follow. Physics 242 is strongly recommended. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**406. Statistical and Thermal Physics. *** Phys.
126 or 240-241, and Math. 216. (3). (Excl). *

An introduction to the thermal and other macroscopic properties of matter, their description in terms of classical thermodynamics, and their microscopic interpretation from the perspective of statistical mechanics. Techniques from classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and elementary quantum mechanics will be used. Frequent homework problem assignments, at least one hour exam, and a final examination will be given. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

**407. Thermodynamics Laboratory. *** Phys.
126 or 240-241. (2). (Excl). *

This course is normally elected concurrently with Physics 406
and emphasizes thermodynamics and heat transport. Each section
consists of eight students subdivided into groups of two with
each group rotating through five experiments: (1) use of the thermoelectric
effect to measure temperature, (2) use of thermistors for the
measurement of temperature, (3) measurement of the viscosity of
gases, (4) measurement of the thermal conductivity of gases, and (5) determination of the ice-water phase diagram. Each experiment
takes a maximum of three weeks of laboratory time. Grades are
based on the record of data taken, computation and analysis, error
analysis, display of results (graphs, tables, * etc.) * and comparison
of results with theory and/or accepted values. Laboratory performance
is observed and evaluated by the course instructors. [Cost:1]
[WL:4]

**409. Modern Physics Laboratory. *** Open primarily
to science concentrators with junior standing, or by permission
of instructor. (2). (Excl). May not be elected by Physics concentrators
unless written permission is given by a Physics concentration
advisor. *

This course is an advanced undergraduate laboratory course designed to acquaint students in the basic techniques of experimental physics and to introduce them to physical phenomena of modern physics. Students select experiments from among those which are available. The results of the experiments are recorded. These laboratory notes together with a written laboratory report are graded. The reports and performance in laboratory are the basis for the course grade. There are no formal examinations. Students may modify existing experiments or design new experiments. Topics investigated include: photo-electric effect; diffraction; electron charge and charge-to-mass ratio and others. This laboratory is not open to physics concentrators who should choose Physics 459 or 461. This course is required for concentrators in the Engineering Physics program. [WL:4]

**411. Introduction to Computational Physics. *** Physics
242, calculus, and some knowledge or BASIC, FORTRAN OR PASCAL.
(2). (Excl). *

This course is an introduction to the techniques of computational physics with applications in optical, atomic, solid-state, nuclear, and particle physics. Typical topics covered include particle motion in a force field, calculation of electric and magnetic fields, optical and ion-optical ray tracing, quantum-mechanical (QM) bound states (Schrödinger Equation) and QM barrier penetration and scattering. The course is taught with two formal lectures per week together with supervised, informal computer laboratory sessions using microcomputers. True BASIC is the adopted programming language and will be used for most assignments. Grading will be based on weekly or semi-weekly computer problem assignments, a term project on a specific numerical problem selected by the student, and a short oral exam on the latter and the course material given at the end of the term. Some prior knowledge of BASIC, PASCAL or FORTRAN will be useful, but students without previous programming experience should be able to learn and use BASIC quickly. However, more advanced students may use FORTRAN or PASCAL for selected assignments or their term projects. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**418. Macromolecular and Biophysics II. *** Math.
216 and Phys. 242, 402, and 417; or permission of instructor.
(3). (Excl). *

This course will provide an introduction to physical techniques used to study the ultrastructure of macromolecules and biomolecules: characterization of macromolecular structure; factors influencing conformational stability; an elementary study of structural techniques; scattering theory (such as x-ray diffraction, light scattering, etc.) and spectroscopic methods (such as infrared, Raman, UV, etc.) with application to macromolecules. [WL:4]

**420. Living with Physics for Elementary Teachers. *** Concurrent
registration in Physics 421. Open only to elementary education
concentrators. (3). (Excl). *

For Winter Term, 1990, this course is jointly offered with Physics 115. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Axelrod)

**421. Living with Physics for Elementary Teachers-Lab.
*** Concurrent registration in Phys. 420. Open only to
elementary education concentrators. (1). (Excl). *

Physics 421 is a laboratory course accompanying Physics 420. Students will do experiments designed to increase their understanding of physics. Emphasis is placed on the development of demonstrations and activities for use in the elementary school classroom. [Cost:1] [WL:3]

**452. Methods of Theoretical Physics. *** Phys.
451. (3). (Excl). *

This is a course in mathematical methods of physics. The textbook by G. Arfken, MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR PHYSICISTS, is used; approximately 85% of the contents will be covered. This course is considered a necessary preparation for graduate school. [WL:4]

**453. Quantum Mechanics. *** Phys. 242; recommended
Phys. 401 and 405 previously or concurrently. (3). (Excl). *

A brief review of the mechanical, thermal, electric, magnetic and chemical properties of matter will be given. The empirical foundation of atomic physics will be discussed in some detail. The theoretical developments resulting from the failure of classical theories and early atomic models will be discussed, wherein wave mechanics will be studied and a brief introduction to the Schrödinger equation will be given. Other topics include the exclusion principle and some quantum statistical mechanics. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**454. Electronic Acquisition and Processing of Physics
Data. *** Open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students;
a basic knowledge of computer structure is helpful. (3). (Excl). *

The course consists of two hours of lecture-demonstration and one hour of laboratory project work. The course is organized and designed primarily as a vehicle for the dissemination of information on "how to" regarding the electronic handling of data in experimental physics. The range is therefore very broad and the coverage of each topic is of an introductory nature. A single specific, in-depth topic is required for each student enrolled in the course. Emphasis is placed on the use of commercially available electronic circuit elements and computing equipment in terms of their external specifications without reference to the internal resistors and transistors of which they are composed. Integrated circuit technology is used in most examples. The topics introduced are: digital circuit elements/Boolean functions/gates /flip flops; use of the basic elements in counters, storage registers, decision asking, conversion and display; timing and control circuits; computer programming for external device handling; basic analog circuits/operational amplifiers/comparitors/ multipliers; analog to digital conversion; and digital to analog conversion. The project or laboratory work is established and approved on an individual basis and can be associated with the student's work, research, or with the other research efforts within the department. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

**457. Nuclear Physics. *** Phys. 453. (3).
(Excl). *

Topics of study will include (1) nuclear structure: binding energies, size and shape, angular momentum, parity, isopin, magnetic moments, electric quadrupole moments, statistical, shall and collective models for the nucleus; (2) nuclear decays, radioactivity, barrier penetration and alpha-particle decay, the weak interaction and beta-decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei; (3) nuclear interactions: basic properties of the nuclear force, nucleon-nucleon scattering, the deuteron, nuclear reactions and reaction models; and (4) nuclear radiation: interaction of charged particles, gamma-rays and neutrons with matter, nuclear radiation detectors. The basic elements of quantum mechanics are used. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

**459. Nuclear Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics laboratory course, or permission of instructor.
(2). (Excl). *

This is an advanced laboratory course designed to acquaint students with the techniques of experimental nuclear physics and to introduce them to physical phenomena of modern physics. Included are experiments in the following areas: scintillation counting; gamma-gamma angular correlation; Compton effect; Rutherford scattering; muon lifetime; nuclear magnetic resonance; and nuclear fission. This course is normally elected as a sequel to Physics 403, 407, or 409. [Cost:3 (text is recommended, not required)] [WL:4]

**460. Atomic Physics. *** Phys. 453. (3). (Excl). *

Physics 460 continues the work of Physics 453 in developing the quantum description of phenomena at the scale of atoms and molecules. [WL:4]

**461. Atomic Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics laboratory course, or permission of instructor.
(2). (Excl). *

Intended mostly for science majors. Conducted in a manner similar to Physics 403, 407, 409 and 459, but more advanced. Emphasis on atomic phenomena and instrumentation. Experiments available include atomic spectroscopy, Zeeman effect, optical pumping and lasers, x-ray diffraction and Moseley's law, Faraday effect and others. [WL:4]

**463. Introduction to Solid State Physics. *** Phys.
453 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). *

Main topics to be covered are cohesion in solids; Free Electron Theory in Metals; Periodicity in Solids, Crystal Structure, Symmetry, Reciprocal Lattice, Diffraction Methods, Electrons in Periodic Structures; Band Theory of Solids and Fermi Surfaces; Phonons, Thermal Effects; Applications to Semiconductor Devices. Students should have a background in thermodynamics, elementary statistical mechanics, plus a little quantum mechanics. There are three lectures per week, one of which may be a discussion period. Student evaluation is based on midterm and final exams; occasional short tests and weekly problem sets. Text: C. Kittel, INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE PHYSICS, 5th ed., Wiley, 1976. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**465. Senior Seminar. *** Open to Physics concentrators
in their junior or senior year. (2). (Excl). Fulfills the Junior-Senior
writing requirement. *

In this seminar students explore topics chosen on the basis of their importance and interest to physics and on the basis of student and faculty interest. Seminar members read in the research literature, write extensively, and contribute to discussions led by seminar members or visitors. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

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