Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to provide an introduction to the identification and critical analysis of the fundamental problems of political life. It proceeds by way of a careful reading of a small number of texts selected from the classic works in political philosophy and political literature. Included among these texts are works by authors such as Plato, Shakespeare, Hobbes, Rousseau, Mill, and Marx. Although the readings are organized chronologically, the main emphasis in both the lectures and discussion sections will be on the political issues raised by the readings, rather than on their historical significance. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Yack)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This is a broad survey of government and politics in the United States which explores a wide range of topics including elections, interest groups, the presidency, Congress and the courts. The kinds of questions considered might include the following: What impact do interest groups have on governmental policy? Are there real differences between the two major political parties? What accounts for swings in voting behavior and election outcome from one time to another? How do members of Congress decide how to vote? In what ways do presidents and bureaucrats affect public policies? This is not a comprehensive list but suggests the kinds of issues that are discussed in this course. There are two lectures and two discussion section meetings each week. There is generally a midterm, a final examination, and some other written work. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Kingdon)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to give students an understanding of how several major political systems work and to familiarize them with concepts used to analyze politics in these and other countries. Each of the countries selected will be discussed separately in order to introduce its distinctive features and to ensure that students understand how it operates. As the course progresses, we will draw increasingly broad comparisons. Certain key concepts will be introduced and used for comparative purposes. In particular, we will be concerned with the social and economic forces that influence the emergence of democracy, or led to communist or fascist regimes; political parties and political competition; leadership succession; the analysis of contemporary political conflicts and the future of advanced industrial societies. The course will offer two meetings in relatively small discussion sections designed to encourage a two-way flow of conversation. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Inglehart)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the basic approaches to the study of international politics. Material on the theories underlying these approaches is grounded in case studies of events from World War I to the present. The object is twofold: to familiarize students with the ways in which analysts have tried to understand international politics; and to equip students with both substantive knowledge of, and a grasp of the underlying theoretical issues concerning contemporary international problems. Students will be evaluated on the basis of examinations several writing assignments and a term paper. All students are expected to attend discussion sections as well as the regular lectures for the course. [Cost:2 or 3] [WL:1] (Lieberthal)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

309. The Politics of Liberation. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit three times, provided that content is different.

Section 001 POLITICS OF HOMOSEXUALITY. This course shall explore topics in gay and lesbian politics from both an historical and international perspective and shall ask the question: what are the politics of homosexuality? It shall examine the essentialist and social constructionist debates as to the nature of homosexuality. The course will be largely European in focus, studying lesbian and gay politics in the socialist states of Eastern Europe as well as in Western Europe in international, national and communal levels. Additionally, the course will include current debates in the international lesbian and gay movement such as integration versus liberation, the internationalization of gay and lesbian politics, the role of women in the movement, and AIDS. A reading knowledge of a major European language would be helpful, but is not required. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers and in class presentations. The format of the course will be lecture and discussion. The course will appear as "Politics of Liberation" on all transcripts. [WL:4] (Hillhouse)

353. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4). (SS).

This course is really called the Arab-Israeli conflict. It consists of an analysis of war and peace between the Arab states and Israel as well as between non-state actors and Israel. War and peace will be examined across three levels of analysis: 1. super-power inputs to the region 2. regional rivalries with a special focus on inter-Arab relations 3. domestic constraints. There will be a midterm and final a examination. A computer-assisted simulation will be offered in the course. [Cost:5] [WL:1] (Tanter)

361. Current Issues in World Politics. (2). (SS).

This course will examine world politics partly from a cultural perspective. The impact of values upon the behavior of nations, the cultural causes of war, the cultural foundations of power, and the role of such ideological movements as socialism, nationalism and Zionism are some of the issues to be examined. (Hadjor)

396/Econ. 396/REES 396/Slavic 396/Hist. 333/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Szporluk)

401(403). Development of Political Thought: Modern and Recent. Junior standing or two courses in political science. (4). (Excl).

This is not a new course. It used to be Political Science 403. We will focus on the major works of political philosophy from the seventeenth century to the end of the nineteenth century. In the process we will be concerned with the theoretical foundations of liberalism (the political philosophy which focuses on individual rights and equality within the political structure), its transformation over three centuries, and the critiques which have been offered of it by such authors as Marx and Nietzsche. We will read only the primary texts. Among the authors who will be discussed are Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, Bentham, Mill, Marx and Nietzsche. This course is a continuation of Political Science 402; although this and/or other courses in political theory would be helpful, they are not required. There will be two exams during the term, as well as a final. [Cost:3 or 4] All books should be available as used books. [WL:1] (Saxonhouse)

402(407). Selected Topics in Political Theory. Pol. Sci. 101 or 400 or 401. (4). (Excl).

This distinction between private and public plays a fundamental role in our thinking about modern liberal society, and intrusion into the private sphere is held to be one of the features of repressive and authoritarian regimes. The course aims at exploring the various meanings of the pair private/public in different writers and at different junctions in Western civilization. Although the course mainly focuses on 19th and 20th century material from John Stuart Mill to Arendt, Habermas, and feminist theory Greek, Roman, and early Christian sources, and works by Calvin and Locke will be taken into consideration. Students will be required to attend lectures, participate in class discussions, and be tested in a midterm and final. Tests will emphasize oral as much as written proficiency. (Gobetti)

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (Excl).

This course examines the creation and implementation of public programs in the United States. Lectures and readings focus on the major institutions of American government, how those institutions work together, the effects of federalism on public policy, and how we go about paying for all of this. In addition, there is a term-long role-playing simulation of the American Policy Process. Grades are based on a midterm exam, a final exam, a research paper, and participation in the simulation. (Palachuk)

419/CAAS 418. Black Americans and the Political System. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course will focus on how the continuing struggle for Black empowerment has helped to shape both the current American political environment as well as the social and economic conditions of the Black community. While this course focuses on Afro-American politics since World War II some attention is paid to the period before the war in order to lay a firm foundation for the analysis of modern Black politics. The unique nature of the Afro-American necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject. Consequently materials and lectures will also show how the study of race relations, psychology, economics and sociology can increase our understanding of the critical importance of Black politics to American politics. After considering such topics as the politics of the Civil Rights and Black Power eras, fiscal retrenchment, Blacks and governmental institutions, this course will end by considering whether a "New Black Politics" has emerged and the impact of the nation's move toward the political right on Afro-American politics. (Dawson)

420/Comm. 420. Politics and the Mass Media. Pol. Sci. 111, 300, 410, or 411. (4). (Excl).

Section 001 This course will focus upon the role and impact of the mass media in the political process. We will study how the news is made and the impact of mass media on policy-makers and the public, and its effects on political attitudes and behavior. The role and influence of the media in election campaigns in the U.S., and how this compares with other advanced industrial democracies, is a major focus of the course. Other topics include media diplomacy and foreign affairs coverage, media treatment of protest groups and social movements, and the relative power of media and politicians in shaping the political agenda. (Semetko)

Section 002 This course examines the way in which the modern mass media has altered the dynamics of democratic politics in the United States. More generally, we shall be concerned with the ways the mass media influences how we think about and act in the social and political world. Specific topics include the impact of television on political discourse; the structure and ownership of the mass media; how the news is made and how it influences our political attitudes and behaviors; the role of the media in campaigns and elections; how the media covers government and how this influences policy makers; how the media presents socio-political issues and movements. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a series of short written assignments, a midterm, and a final exam. [WL:1] (Williams)

421. American State Government. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course will explore state, local, and regional politics, as well as intergovernmental relations across all levels of American government. It will provide historical overviews of each of these areas, apply a variety of political science perspectives to them, and consider some of the most pressing current questions in subnational politics. It will also include a comparative focus, examining the differences in politics and policymaking between federal and non-federal systems, and will place special emphasis on health care and environmental policy. This course will be intended for undergraduates with some prior coursework in political science and American government. It will encourage students to conduct research in subnational politics, culminating in a research paper. In addition, students will complete an essay-style examination, as well as one or two brief papers focused on discussion-related topics. Readings will include selections from the traditional political science literature on state and local politics and intergovernmental relations, but will also include a variety of areas not commonly associated with or applied to subnational politics, including regulatory theory and game theory. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Rabe)

428/Phil. 428/Econ. 428/Asian Studies 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass standing or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended for students who seek an introduction on the subject. There are no prior course requirements for the course, and the lectures and readings avoid jargon or esoteric concepts. This is a classic area studies course. The immediate purpose is simple: to convey a preliminary understanding of the Chinese communist revolution, China's recent political history, its emergence into the world scene in the past few years, and its current social, cultural, political, and economic conditions. The larger purpose is to awaken a life-long interest among students in following developments in China, with the assumption that the rise of this nation is one of the major developments of our lifetime. Mr. Oksenberg will deliver approximately half the lectures, and the remaining lectures will be given by professors from UM's leading Center for Chinese Studies. This is a genuinely inter-disciplinary course. Requirements are an hour exam, a short research paper, and either a written or oral final examination. (Oksenberg)

429. Seminar in Urban Analysis. Two courses in political science (urban) or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be elected for credit twice.

Studies political participation. To understand more about this process, students in the first part of this course conducted a survey of voters in the Ypsilanti-Ann Arbor area. In the second part of the course students will use the data gathered as the basis for a research paper on some aspect of political participation. (Borquez)

436. Bureaucracy and Policy Making. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course focuses on bureaucracy and its impact on the American political system. Its goal is to provide students with an understanding of the reasons for, and the consequences of, the emergence of bureaucracy as the dominant form of social organization in the modern world. To explore this topic we first examine the historical development of rational-legal bureaucracy and the problem it poses for democratic politics. We survey contemporary literature on organizational behavior (including novels) to develop an understanding of the workings of bureaucracies and their impact on contemporary American society and politics. Next, we explore the dynamics of bureaucratic politics by detailing the relationship between bureaucracy and other institutions of American government. Here, we study the impact of bureaucracy on executive and legislative politics, on the role of the mass media, and on the role of the individual citizen. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a series of short written assignments, a midterm, and a final examination. [WL:1] (Williams)

441. Comparative Politics of Advanced Industrial Democracies. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (Excl).

This course examines the politics in the democracies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan. The focus is on political parties, elections, patterns of participation, public policy, and political economy. It should not be elected by students without a course in Political Science, or by students who have taken Political Science 440 or 442. Students will be evaluated by midterm and final examinations and by a paper. Lecture and discussion. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Barnes)

443. Selected Topics in Western European Politics. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

This course will be devoted to "THE CONSOLATION OF DEMOCRACY IN SOUTHERN EUROPE." The course deals with politics in the countries of Southern Europe. The chief focus is on Italy and Spain, with attention also to Portugal and Greece. All of these countries have experienced authoritarian regimes in the twentieth century, and all are now parliamentary democracies within the European Community. We will examine the background of their current political systems as well as the way they function today. Students will be evaluated by a midterm exam, a term paper, and a final exam. Lecture and discussion. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Barnes)

444. Government and Politics of the Soviet Union. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The focus of this course will be the current era of reform in the Soviet Union and the implications of democratization for the Soviet future. Since the origins, meaning, and prospects of perestroika (the fundamental restructuring of Soviet society) can be fully understood only on the basis of a thorough knowledge of the Soviet and Russian past, the course will first survey Soviet political history through readings, lectures and films. Analysis of both past and present will be done within the framework of theories of elites, political parties, revolution, and political development. The course will also consider how well various models of the Soviet political system explain the current reality of Soviet politics. We will conclude with an exploration of the effects of change in communist systems on the foreign and domestic politics of Western nations. (Kullberg)

448. Governments and Politics of Latin America. Pol. Sci. 140 or 440; or a course on Latin America elected through another department. (4). (Excl).

An introduction to the study of social and political conflict and change in contemporary Latin America. The class combines attention to major issues and trends with in-depth analysis of selected cases. Among the issues and cases to be considered in Winter 1986 are the following: the changing role of the Catholic Church, the expansion of the state, patterns of economic transformation and their political implications, formation and mobilization of peasantries, international influences on domestic politics. Detailed attention will be paid to cases such as Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, Chili, Peru, Brazil, Columbia. Class format combines lecture with discussion. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. (Levine)

450. Political Modernization in the Developing World. Any 100-level course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course will have a double purpose. It will cover some of the key conceptions of political development and explore how such large scale transformations affect other sectors of national life. Moreover, the course will review briefly how national development and the resulting mobilization of resources will affect the structure of international power. The method of instruction will be lecture, and each student will be required to make reports. [Cost:4] [WL:4] (Organski)

452. Israeli Society and Politics. (4). (Excl).

This course surveys the political and social development of the state of Israel. It includes an examination of Zionist ideology, the political culture and institutional structure of Israel, the party system, and political leadership. Political behavior and socialization, national integration and ethnicity, and religion and politics are among the other topics examined. A final examination and a midterm or term paper are required. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Gitelman)

454. Governments and Politics of Southeast Asia. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This is an introductory course concerned with the ten nations of Southeast Asia. Major points of interest will be the political culture, religions, militaries, and economics of these countries. The subject matter of this course will be almost exclusively domestic policies, with little coverage of the international relations of the region. Grading will be based on short papers, a final exam, and in-class discussions. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Hawes)

456. Government and Politics of Japan. Pol. Sci. 140, 440, or 450; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

Japan is an ever-more interesting country to study, due to both its obvious importance, and the fact that it is the only post-industrial non-western country. This course offers an overview of contemporary Japanese politics, designed for students with a general interest in Japan as well as political science concentrators. Special attention is given to how politics has affected, and has been affected by cultural patterns, social organization, economic growth and Japan's position in the world. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Hayao)

463. International Organization and Integration. Pol. Sci. 160 or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course is concerned with ways of managing issues arising from increasing interdependence among nation-states. It examines the role of international organizations in the contemporary global political system. It considers the historical development of international organizations, their political processes, and their activities. It explores the consequences of the growth of international organizations for the global political system, particularly in terms of the extent to which international integration is being achieved. Primary attention is devoted to international governmental organizations such as the agencies of the United Nations system and the European communities, but international non-governmental organizations are also considered. Responsibilities of students taking the course for credit include: (1) studying the assigned readings and participation in class discussions; (2) writing four papers of no more than 2,500 words in length; (3) writing a midterm examination; and (4) writing a final examination. [Cost:2 or 3] [WL:1] (Jacobson)

467. International Political Culture. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to the influence of cultural forces in both world politics and the world economy. The range of cultural forces examined is from religion to cultural nationalism, from the international sexual division of labor to the impact of English and French on educational systems in the Third World. The course will also expose students to the debate between economic determinism and the primacy of culture, between the power of material forces and the power of ideas and values. At the end of the course the students enrolled should have a developed appreciation of the significance of cultural forces in the interplay amongst the various forces and actors in the global order. Prior enrollment in course Political Science 361 is an asset. (Hadjor)

470. Comparative Foreign Policy. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (Excl).

This course analyzes the processes by which the foreign policies of states are formulated and implemented. It also analyzes the consequences of these processes for the content of the state policies. Some of the lectures will compare particular geographical areas of the world or countries; others will look at substantive areas such as population, trade, political development and arms control. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Sorokin)

481. Junior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with junior standing. (4). (Excl).

This is the first seminar in the Political Science Honors program. It has two aims. First, it will alert students to the scope and method of the study of politics through a critical discussion of key concepts and their function in some of the classics of political theory. Second, it will introduce students to the range of specialized interests and methodological skills of the University's Political Science faculty.] (Levine)

487. Psychological Perspectives on Politics. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

Explanations of political phenomena often rest on psychological assumptions. Studies of leadership, decision-making, socialization, public opinion and voting, violence and revolution, propaganda and persuasion all have a psychological base. The purpose of this lecture course is to survey major currents of theoretical and empirical work in the psychological analysis of politics. Extensive background in political science and psychology courses is NOT required, nor is the course part of a departmental sequence. Grades will be based on examinations and at least one paper. (Kinder)

490. Political Socialization. One course in political science. (4). (Excl).

Course focuses on the influence of early learning, the family, peer groups, school, work place, military service, church and other adult organizations on the political attitudes and behavior of the mass public and political elites. We examine selected learning models as a means of organizing and understanding the literature and its relevance to adult political behavior. Method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Student evaluation is based on midterm and final exams and optional term paper. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Langton)

494. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with senior standing. (4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). No more than four hours of Honors credit may be elected as part of a concentration plan in Political Science.

Open to seniors with Honors concentration in Political Science. Thesis writing course. (Levine)

495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 LIBERTY: ANCIENT AND MODERN. This course will explore alternative understandings of liberty developed in ancient and modern thought as part of one's reflection on the nature and purpose of political life. Questions will focus on the need for and source of restraints on actions and desires, on the value and dangers of liberty, on the relationship of constitutionalism to liberty, etc. Students should have had previous exposure to political theory, especially Plato, Aristotle, Hobbes and Locke. There will be four papers of about five pages each assigned during the term and students will be responsible for leading at least part of the discussion sessions. Readings will include selections from Aristophanes, Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle, the Bible, Hobbes, Locke, Documents of Colonial America, the Federalist Papers, Mill and Kant. Since this is a seminar, it is expected that class sessions will be largely discussion, with some background material provided by the instructor. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Saxonhouse)

Section 002 THEORIES OF JUSTICE. In recent years, the theoretical debate on the tasks of politics in advanced industrial societies of the West has focused on the role of justice in regulating human relations. Should the state engage in redistributive policies - as Rawls, Walzer, Ackerman argue or should it merely apply retributive justice, ensuring that everyone safely enjoys what legitimately belongs to him/her? This course aims at looking at the origins of this debate in 17th century natural law theory, and then move on to contemporary writers. Besides the writers already mentioned, and other contemporary ones such as Nozick and Hayek, some 17th century thinkers such as Grotius, Pufendorf, and Hobbes will be considered. Students will be required to prepare in-class oral presentations of the material for discussion, and write a 15-20 pages research paper on one of the themes or authors treated in the course. (Gobetti)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 ETHNICITY AND POLITICS IN THE SOVIET UNION. This seminar is designed for those with some background in Soviet or East European politics. It examines the nationalities of the USSR, policies which effect them, the ideology which informs those policies, and the reactions of the nationalities to state policies. We examine the historical and ideological development of Soviet nationality policy and then analyze several aspects of ethnopolitics: language and personnel policies, resource allocation, ethnicity and religion, ethnic relations, and demography. The seminar concludes with an examination of the current crisis in Soviet ethnopolitics. The course emphasizes reading and the writing of papers, including a major research paper. There are no examinations. (Gitelman)

Section 002 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST. This course is designed to explore contemporary theoretical approaches to the study of politics and political change in the Middle East. The approach is comparative. Cases are drawn predominantly from the Arab world. The goal is not (primarily) to present a detailed history of the region or any one state; rather it is to develop greater familiarity with the concepts and conceptual frameworks used in the study of politics and to apply them to the states of one region. The first part of the course deals with the region as a whole, with the basic issue of development, and with the major theoretical approaches to the study of development (including modernization and dependency). The second part analyzes economic, social, and political structures in the region. Three themes appear throughout the course: poverty and wealth, ideology and identity, and coercion and consent. The course has no formal prerequisite except the instructor's permission. Ordinarily, however, at least one prior course on the politics or history of the region is expected; this is not an introduction to Middle Eastern politics. This is a seminar. Course requirements include presentations and class discussion (50%) 20-25 pages of written work (50%). The writing will include drafts and rewriting. [Cost:2 or 3] [WL:4] (Crystal)

Section 003 MODERN BRITISH POLITICS. This seminar will focus on continuities and change in British politics in the post-WWII era. We will review the British constitution and the process and structure of government. We will focus heavily on political participation, interest groups, political parties and elections. We will also discuss the distribution of power in Britain and the political impact of mass media. By way of answering the question "What is distinctive about the British experience?" we will compare Britain with other advanced industrial democracies. (Semetko)

Section 004 POLITICS OF THE THIRD WORLD. By the year 2000 four of every five peasants will be living in the countries outside of the "so called" developed world. From the sixteenth century onward these regimes were increasingly subjected to European dominance. By now, political decolonization is vertically complete, although economic subordination and political dependence remain. This research seminar focuses comparatively and internationally on the processes whereby third world nations were integrated into the international system through colonialism, imperialism, and dependency; the consequences of the types of subordinate roles they played; and twentieth century attempts to gain autonomy and to develop. Open to students with at least one course on development/developing Third World areas. (Hadjor)

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT. This course will have a double purpose. It will cover some of the key conceptions of political development and explore how such large scale transformations affect other sectors of national life. Moreover, the course will review briefly how national development and the resulting mobilization of resources will affect the structure of international power. The method of instruction will be lecture. [Cost:4] [WL:4] (Organski)

Section 002 FROM WAR TO WAR. In this seminar, we will try to test a variety of models that purport to explain how and why wars between major powers begin and end. Since the Napoleonic War, there have been about twenty such wars, and the next/final one cannot be ruled out. After some introductory reading, discussions, and two written exercises, each student will select two such wars and become the group "expert" on the events and conditions that led up to them, going back to the end of the prior war in which one or both were combatants. The final paper will summarize the results of your investigation. Permission of instructor is required, and will depend on prior course work (at least two 400-level) plus writing samples; submit resume, etc., plus writing at any time prior to term. (Singer)

Section 003 ARAB-ISRAEL CONFLICT SEMINAR. This seminar treats the Arab-Israel conflict as a series of overlapping disputes between European Zionists and Arabs of Palestine, European imperialists and Arabs of Palestine, Israel and front-line Arab states, as well as conflicts among the Arab states and between them and Palestinian Arabs. Competition among the Great Powers, rivalry among regional actors, and domestic political constraints on inter-state behavior are three levels of analysis for the seminar. A computer-assisted conference will be used. [Cost:4] [WL:5] This course is a seminar and it is very doubtful if any overrides will be given. (Tanter)

586/IPPS 586. Organizational Design. Pol. Sci. 585 or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The course attempts to prepare policy analysts to deal with the organizational context of policy making. It is designed to acquaint the student with many of the ways that organizations create opportunities and problems for the people who work in them and to help the student learn to deal with the problems and take advantage of the opportunities. Some of the features of organizations discussed are organizational structure, authority, discretion, decision making, goals and routines. Students are required to write memoranda, give oral briefings and participate in group projects. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Feldman)

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