ROMANCE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES


Courses in French (Division 371)

ELEMENTARY LANGUAGE COURSES. Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school MUST take the Placement Test to determine the language course in which they should enroll. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction in high school. Students who began French at another college or university must take the Placement Test.

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (FL).

Students with any prior study of French must take the placement test. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount of reading in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (l 1/2 2 hours per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations, listening comprehension and speaking tests. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103 or 102. It is STRONGLY suggested that transfer students see H.Neu or for advice regarding placement in the appropriate course. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Neu)

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves at a rapid pace, covering about 60 percent of the French 101 materials by midterm, and about 60 percent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Videos will be viewed about once a week to complement lessons. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102. (Belloni)

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. French 206 may be elected prior to French 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Section 001 French 206 is an informal mini-course with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Pass-Fail only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 are the third and fourth terms of language study offered. It presents a comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. Both courses include the use of French movies and video TV excerpts. In addition, French 23 2 has out outside reading: students read a book on their own, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on topics of interest, to understand conversations on such topics, Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, written exercises, and laboratory work. There are comprehensive coursewide tests as well as the midterm and final examinations. [WL:4]

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

See French 231. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Smail)

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward midterm students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 25 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, but homework, attendance, and participation in classroom activities determine the Pass/Fail grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of materials on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet three times a week in section. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), two novels. Bi-weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course has two goals: first, to develop students' ability to communicate fluently in French through practice, and second, to initiate students into the kinds of linguistic and cognitive skills needed in more advanced coursework. It is designed as a bridge between the highly structured activities of language courses and the more independent work required in literature and civilization courses. Using a selection of literary and cultural material organized by theme as the basis of roundtable discussions and written exercises, students will increase their ability to write and converse fluently as they think about the ideas that have shaped French culture and history. Material is both audio-visual and written, and includes fiction by authors such as Christiane Rochefort and Voltaire, films by directors such as Jean-Luc Godard and Jean Renoir, literary correspondence, songs, and press articles. Required work includes active participation in class, preparation of oral and written reports of varying kinds (skits, compositions) both individually and in groups, and study of audio-visual material at the language lab, and final examinations will test the level of spoken and written fluency. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Graham)

363. French Phonetics. French 361 and 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to help students improve their pronunciation of French (1) through a study of the physical characteristics of each sound, the relationship between sounds and their written presentations, the rules governing pronunciation of "standard" French, and (2) through intensive oral practice in the production of French consonants and vowels, syllable structure, intonation, liaison, and in the delection/retention of the "mute E." The class meets three hours per week and is conducted in French. Regular attendance and participation are required. Students are expected to familiarize themselves with the assigned theoretical material before each class period. Oral exercises are to be prepared in the lab on a regular basis. Each student will record a speech sample during the first week of the term and will be informed of problem areas on which he/she needs to work independently throughout the term, using the audiotapes available in the lab and checking with the instructor periodically for individualized help. Evaluation of proficiency in pronunciation will be based on a final oral exam. Homework assignments, short quizzes, a midterm, and a written final exam will be given to evaluate ability to use the phonetic alphabet and knowledge of basic theory. [Cost:2] [WL:1 or 2 at 4014 MLB] (Neu)

370/RC Core 370. Advanced Proficiency in French. RC Core 320, or French 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See RC Core 370. (Carduner)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Graham)

410(408). Advanced Translation, French-English. French 372 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will concentrate on developing the student's advanced translating skills. Working mainly from English texts into French, it will use the practice of translation as applied to a variety of different texts with the goal of increasing the students' knowledge and command of syntactic and stylistic potentialities of the two languages. In the second half of the term, students will be asked to work on individual projects for which they will choose and extract from a contemporary English text to be translated into French. Projects will be discussed individually in class. Grading is based on participation, day-to-day preparation, homework, the individual project and in-class assignments. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Belloni)

414(416). Advanced Business French. French 380 (Intermediate Business French). (3). (Excl).

As a follow-up to Business French 380, we will look further into economic and commercial matters in France such as banking, distributions, taxes, whether they apply to businesses or to individuals or both, CASE HISTORIES will serve as a basis for oral group presentations in class. They will involve such themes as launching of a product or service, relocation and closing-up shops, mergers, union conflicts, etc. In addition, some other topics will be touched upon such as the analysis of commercials, and export marketing in French. All classes are conducted in French. Three papers. No auditors. One section only. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Gabrielli)

427(454)/Rom. Ling. 454. French Syntax. Permission of advisor. (3). (Excl).

This course combines an introduction to linguistics and an in-depth review of French syntax. We will explore the basic concepts of modern linguistic theories, including discourse analysis, and see how they are applied to French. We will also compare typical linguistic approaches to language analysis with traditional grammar rules. From this analysis of French we will proceed to exercises designed to increase your competence in grammar and awareness of French stylistics. These exercises involve comparisons of French and English, various sentence recombinations, analyses of sentence structures from simple to complex patterns, including literary and conversational passages, a study of the relationship between word order and the "highlighting" devices and rhythmic patterns of French, correction of grammatical errors made in speech and compositions by French lycee students as well as American students learning French, and translations from English to French. The course will be conducted in French, and the classroom work will consist of lectures and readings (60%) and travaux pratiques (exercises). The materials for the course include an instructor-prepared manual (approximately 200 pages) containing derivational trees, supplementary explanations, examples, and exercises, and a course pack of four or five articles on French linguistics and stylistics. A third-year level review or reference grammar book and a good bilingual dictionary are strongly recommended. Course grades will be based on attendance, the completion and quality of the assigned homework (exercises), and three one-hour take home examinations. (Hagiwara)

Civilization

385. Contemporary France: Politics, Culture and Society. French 361. (3). (HU).

Section 001 CIVILIZATION: FRANCE IN 1990. France is going through a period of profound changes. New definitions of authority are emerging, new social, political and cultural patterns are becoming visible. The political transformations revealed by the national elections in 1988, result from deep structural changes in the social, economic and cultural areas. The working class has been disorganized by the immigration of foreign workers and even more by the development of automation. A cultural revolution caused by the rapid growth of secondary and higher education, and by the sexual liberation of the later seventies, has erased the influence of traditional Catholic values which were still dominant two decades ago. The course will describe and analyze this evolution. It will examine the demographic trends, the political system, the social organization, the educational establishment and the cultural values as well as the daily life of the French citizens (how they eat, work, play, etc.. The problem of the foreign population and its impact on the concept of a "French identity" will be discussed in depth. Finally the challenge of a unified European economy by 1993 will be considered. The course is conducted in French. Lectures and discussions. Course pack. Four written papers. One final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:3 or 4] (Carduner)

Literature

387/388/389 INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course's basic objectives are to familiarize students with the study of literature in French and to help them read texts critically and creatively. A further goal will be to acquaint students with some more or less representative masterworks from an important period of French history and a major segment of the French literary tradition. Works studied will come from several genres: comedy, tragedy, fable, fiction, autobiography. We will be asking ourselves about the nature of literary rhetoric and literary forms, and also trying to understand the relations between literary works and the social and historical circumstances of their production and reception. Authors studied will include Molière, Racine, LaFontaine, Madame de Grafigny, Voltaire, Rousseau and the elusive (male or female?) author of the LETTRES PORTUGAISES. Classes will be above all discussions, with only occasional lectures. Several short writing assignments (including both critical papers and creative exercises in style and writing); oral midterm; no final. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Paulson)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course will focus on five of the most important writers of 19th century French literature, namely Balzac, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Zola and Maupassant. Emphasis will be placed on the literary aspects of the works read as well as the historical, political and artistic context of the day. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty pages of a given work and preparing to discuss them in class. Students will write four papers in French (three or four pages in length). Each paper will be corrected for grammar, choice of expression and content. The course grade will be based on the results of written work and on classroom participation. Regular attendance is required. There is no final examination. The course is conducted in French.

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).

Section 001 Literature reflects both the changing attitudes of society and the special insights of individual authors. Freedom and constraint, love and death, fear, alienation, moral values, and the notion of self-concept: the evolution of these fundamental concerns of twentieth-century society as understood by major French authors is the primary focus of the course. Students will also be encouraged to think about the nature of literary expression itself, its functions and its forms. Class discussions in French will analyze the special insights and literary techniques of five or six authors, such as Gide, Colette, Proust, Valery, Sartre, Camus, Robbe-Grillet, Sarraute, or Duras. Three short papers and a final examination. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Nelson)

Section 002 This is an invitation to explore some of the significant moments in the development of 20th century French literature. We will ask ourselves such questions as: How does a new perspective on the human subject and on historical reality alter the way in which literature is written? What happened to the "traditional" genres (the lyric poem, the psychological novel, the bourgeois drama)? These issues will be discussed through a selection of works by Valery, Eluard, Ponge, for poetry; Colette, Sarraute, for the novel; Sartre, Genet, for the theatre. Glimpses into recent theories of literary analysis will provide a critical insight into these new forms of writing. Evaluation will be based on class participation and discussion (in French), three short papers and a final essay. No examinations. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Clej)

440(410). Le cinéma français. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Conducted in French, the course presents an introduction to film as language, with special attention to camera angle, distance and movement, as well as to editing techniques, as a means of expression. Examples are drawn from a series of films seen in class, which form the basis of class discussion and analysis. Since the series typically includes two or three classic films of the 1930's (Vigo, Clair, Renoir, etc.), two or three new wave films of the 50's and 60's, and a modern film or two, students can also observe the evolution of film esthetics and technology in France. Class members are encouraged to see additional French films The course seeks to enhance students' sensitivity to motion pictures in general, their appreciation of films made in the French cultural context, and their understanding of French directors' contributions to the cinematographic art. Readings from Mitry, Metz, and other theorists and from selected film scripts. Three short papers, midterm and final examinations. French concentrators are expected to write in French. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Nelson)

460(442). Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 002 FRENCH WOMEN'S WRITING. This course will examine the works of French women writers from the 17th century to the present in a variety of genres the novel, short story, letter, diary and essay. We will consider the place of female authors in the literary canon, but the primary focus will be close analysis of selected texts in light of feminist criticism. Our discussions will explore the problematics of the female text and the implications of "writing as a woman." Authors to be read: La Fayette, Sevigne, Graffigny, Tristan, Sand, Colette, de Beauvoir, Duras and Irigaray. Requirements: two papers (one three-page; one ten-page); and a final exam. (Stanton)


Courses in Italian (Division 399)

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with parallel emphasis on conversation. Text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 101 covers the first half of the text Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination. Cost:2] [WL:1]

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden the student's knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also emphasized. The course covers the second half of the text with workbook and lab manual; readings supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:1]

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:2] [WL:1]

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian, including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a continuing review of grammar, and the elements of composition. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:1]

Other Language and Literature Courses

360. Italian Culture and History, Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries. (3). (HU).

This course, treating the 18th century through the 20th century, emphasizes the political, social and cultural difficulties that Italy encountered once it had lost the privileged position it held in Europe during the Renaissance. The importance of European movements, such as Illuminism and Romanticism, will be stressed as both artistic and political manifestations. Particular attention will be given to the mid-19th century struggle for the unification of the country, and the conditions that allowed the Fascist takeover. The Fascist period will be analyzed, considering in particular Mussolini's control over the mass-media, his promotion of the movie industry and the position of the intellectuals toward the dictatorship. The achievements of Italy after the second World War will be the focus of the last part of the course. We will take into consideration the economy, the political system, the social structures, the geography and the standard of living of contemporary Italy. Selected works by the following authors will be read: Vico, Verri, Beccaria, Goldoni, Parini, Alfieri, Foscolo, Mazzini, Manzoni, Leopardi, Carducci, Verga, and early 20th-century figures. Students will be required to write two or three short papers during the term. [Cost:2] (Lucente)

362. Advanced Italian. Italian 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Further proficiency in oral and writing skills will be stressed in Italian 362. Reading materials will include short fiction and non-fiction, as well as lengthier assignments of outside reading on which various written and oral assignments will be made. Participation in class discussion, occasional oral presentations, weekly compositions based for the most part on assigned readings, the subject matter of which will deal primarily with subjects of topical interest. Continuing grammar difficulties will be treated as they arise. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly. [Cost:1] [WL:1]

380. Italian Cinema and Society. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU).

This course, which will be taught in English, consists of the reading in translation of five major works of Italian narrative, along with the viewing of the films inspired by these works. The course seeks to explore the complex relationship between literature and film by focusing on the widely divergent methods of representation employed by the two media and on the problems encountered in adapting a literary work for the screen. We will begin with an illustrative pairing, Pier Paolo Pasolini's DECAMERON and the ten stories of Boccaccio's narrative on which Pasolini based his "retelling." The rest of the term will proceed in a similar manner, moving through comparisons of four other prose narratives with the films adapted from them: (1) Giovanni Verga's THE HOUSE BY THE MEDLAR TREE (1881) and Luchino Visconti's LA TERRA TREMA, the classic neorealist film inspired by Verga's novel; (2) Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa's novel THE LEOPARD (1958), and Visconti's cinematic adaptation; (3) Giorgio Bassani's novel THE GARDEN OF THE FINZI-CONTINIS (1962), and Vittorio De Sica's filmic treatment of it; and (4) Francesco Rosi's adaptation of Carlo Levi's CHRIST STOPPED AT EBOLI (1946). The course requirements, beyond class participation, will be three six-to-eight page papers. A knowledge of Italian is useful, but is not required. A lab fee will be charged. [Cost:3]

468. Studies in Modern Italian Literature. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Section 001 ITALIAN THEATER FROM PIRANDELLO TO BETTI. This course will trace the development of modern Italian theater through close readings of plays by Luigi Pirandello and Ugo Betti, two of Italy's foremost twentieth-century dramatists. Attention will be paid both to the literary quality of these authors' works and to the philosophical questions that their works pose. Finally, an attempt will be made to see these works in their sociopolitical context, that is, in the life and times of the Fascist dictatorship and the subsequent era of political democracy and political confusion. Requirements include two short essays (6-8 pp. each) and a final essay exam. Lectures and discussions will be in English, though the plays themselves can be read either in the original Italian or in English translation at the option of the student. [Cost:1] (Lucente)


Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101. (4). (FL).

The text for the course is RUMO AO PORTUGUES NO MUNDO (Abranches, Ferrao). Portuguese 102 covers units 9 to 15. Students will learn the variety of Portuguese spoken in Portugal, although they will get acquainted (and be encouraged to do so by their own meanings) with the varieties of other countries where Portuguese is the official language (Brazil, Angola et alia). Classroom work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structure through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. About one third of the classroom time is devoted to readings (each unit presents a situation a foreigner would face while visiting a luso-linguistic country, and also introduces several cultural aspects) and free discussion of topics raised by them. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises ranging from meaningful sentences to compositions, and spending one or two hours a week with audio material working on pronunciation, listening comprehension, etc. (mostly reviewing the structural exercises and dialogues done in class. Grading will be based on four quizzes, two tests, class participation and a final exam. The instructor's office provides some audio-visual material (videos, newspapers), and other material is available at the Language Lab. Because of staff limitations, Portuguese 102 is offered only in the Winter Term. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Zink)

232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 231 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).

Second Year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history, and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. Texts will consist of selected short stories and other materials made available as hand-outs. There is no formal grammar review, and the readings include novels and/or plays. Because of staff limitations, Portuguese 232 is offered only in the Winter Term. [Cost:1] (Zink)

461. Main Currents of the Literature of Portugal. Portuguese 232 or equivalent reading knowledge. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine three major figures from contemporary Portuguese literature in terms of their specific cultural context: The novelists Saramago (BALTAZAR AND BLIMUNDA) and Lobo Antunes (SOUTH OF NOWHERE) and the work of Portugal's major poet since Camoes, Fernando Pessoa. Portugal is known as "a nation of navigators" as well as "a nation of poets" ("um pais de poetas"). Both statements are mythical, but it is true that 15th century Portuguese navigators were pioneers in Atlantic sea-travel and poetry is the country's principal form of literary expression. Also, there is always truth in mythical statements. With Saramago's novel, BALTAZAR AND BLIMUNDA, we return to the baroque Portugal of the 18th century. Why has this historical novel been the most successful work in Portugal in many years as well as the most read abroad? With Lobo Antunes, a writer known for the violence (Baroque, by the way) of his language, we have in SOUTH OF NOWHERE a portrayal of the Portuguese colonial war (1961-1974) as well as the subsequent decay of Portugal's Guiness-Book-of-Records prize dictatorship of 48 years. [Cost:1] (Zink)


Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

454/French 427. French Syntax. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See French 427. (Hagiwara)


Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. Students who began Spanish at another college or university must also take the placement test.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and writing Spanish. Grade based on three departmental exams, quizzes, written work and daily oral work. (Spanish 101 AND 102 are the equivalent of Spanish l03.)

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental exams, three oral exams, other examinations, quizzes, written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this GUIDE.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish 102 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. Spanish 206 may be elected prior to Spanish 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Section 001 The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week; grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. One section of 206 is usually reserved for students who plan to participate in the Summer Study in Spain program. Class content and activities are designed to prepare students for the experience of living and studying abroad. THIS COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Pollard)

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature, history and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on a series of exams designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on three exams, designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish, plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

251. Collegiate Fellows Seminar: From Orality to Literacy, Languages and Cultures in Contact. (3). (HU).

A Collegiate Fellows course; see page 3 of this Course Guide for a complete list of Collegiate Fellows courses.

Section 001 CULTURAL CONFRONTATIONS AND THE COLONIZATION OF THE NEW WORLD. In this interdisciplinary course, which emphasizes critical thinking, the general nature of speech and writing in human culture will be examined first in order to critically evaluate the consequences of literacy in the colonization of the New World during the XVth and XVIth centuries. The early confrontations between Western and Amerindian cultures and the signification of literacy in the colonization process will be, finally, seen in the context of Latin American cultural history and current issues related to literacy, culture and domination. The course will consist of four parts. The first will be devoted to the critical examination of current views about orality and literacy; the second, to the process of alphabetization and Christianization in colonial Mexico (basic readings: selections from the writings of Franciscan missionaries); the third, to the encounter between the alphabet and the Amerindian's oral and written traditions (basic reading: THE POPOL VUH); and the fourth to alphabetization, liberation and critical consciousness (basic reading: Rigoberta Menchu, AN INDIAN WOMAN FROM GUATEMALA and selections from Paolo Freire's work). Language of instruction is English. Reading: English and/or Spanish, according to the needs and competence of the student. Lecture, students' oral presentations, and a strong emphasis on class discussions. Bi-weekly short written reports. [Cost:4] [WL:1,4] (Mignolo)

Other Language Courses

306. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 306 may be elected prior to Spanish 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to acquire the linguistic habits (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. Students share their knowledge with one another, and more advanced students help to maintain the continuity of the course as well as to encourage and to motivate less proficient class members. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. THE COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Pollard)

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. (3; 2-4 in the half-term). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used, centered on a grammar-based course book. The student will do readings in Spanish, prepare discussion topics, revise and extend grammar, prepare exercises and translations, and expand vocabulary. Ample time is allotted to class discussion of the readings, and to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on weekly translations, tests, exams, and participation in discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Anderson)

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects.[Cost:1] [WL:4] (Anderson)

Literature

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

A study of Spanish literature in the Medieval and Golden Age periods (1000-1700). Students will read several texts of Spanish literature including POEMA DE MIO CID, EL ABENCERRAJE Y LA HERMOSA JARIFA, and LAZARILLO DE TORMES. The discussions will center around a broad cultural background including moral and political themes as well as formal aspects of the texts. There will be one short report to be given orally in class, two 3-4 page papers in Spanish on the texts, and one final exam consisting of essay questions on readings. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers, exams and class discussion. Methods: lecture discussion. (Casa)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

The late eighteenth-century and the 1930's mark the two extremes of the period represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, methods and approaches of literary criticism are considered, and an effort is made to show how the works exemplify their historical and cultural context ranging from Enlightenment through Romanticism, Positivism, Symbolism to Existentialism. Representative authors who may be studied are Moratin, Larra, Becquer, Galdos, Unamuno, Machado, Jimenez and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of periodic tests, midterm and final papers, and a final exam. The course is conducted in Spanish. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Anderson)

373. Topics in Spanish Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 MEDIEVAL SPANISH LITERATURE OF LOVE. This course will trace the chronological development of the treatment of love in medieval Spanish literature, paying special attention to its contradictory and paradoxical nature. The readings will begin with the Hispano-Arabic "kharja" and "muwashahaat" lyrical poetic forms; the refinement of this sentiment into its "courtly love" form will be traced, as seen in the anonymous "Razon de amor," and as codified by Andreas Capellanus in his ARS HONESTE AMANDI; the misogynistic trend will be examined, as seen in the CORBACHO. Later fifteenth century amorous literature will be represented by the "Serranillas" of the Marques de Santillana and the enigmatic sentimental novel CARCEL DE AMOR; and finally, as a bridge into early Renaissance literature of love, a dramatic "egloga" of Juan del Encina will be read. Class lectures and discussion will be in Spanish. Grades will be based on a midterm and a final exam. [Cost:2] (Anderson)

376. Latin American Civilization. Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 251. (Mignolo)

382. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Covers the main Spanish American contemporary authors in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortazar, Gabriel Garcia Marquez; Vicente Huidobro, Pablo Neruda, Cesar Vallejo; Rodolfo Usigli, Octavio Paz). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. Conducted in Spanish. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports (b) midterm exam, and (c) final examination. There will be a course pack available at the beginning of the term. (Casa)

437. Introduction to Literature Studies and Criticism. One 400-level Spanish course or permission of adviser. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

The main goal of this course is to introduce the student to the fundamental principles of literary studies as a discipline. Literary studies, as any other discipline in the human services , can be seen as a series of knowledge-generating activities of theorizing or as a cluster of knowledge-problems and methods produced by these activities. Literary studies share, with other human sciences, a common goal: the explanation (theory) and interpretation (understanding) of our cultural world and our cultural experience. What distinguishes literary studies from other disciplines in the domain of the human sciences, is its focus on language, discourse and texts. Consequently, this course will emphasize critical thinking about texts by asking questions such as: What is literature? What is fiction? What are genres? What is explanation? What is explication? What is interpretation? Do we obtain knowledge or understanding in our transactions with literature and literary texts? A secondary goal of the course is to have a clear understanding of the meaning "Hispanic Language and Literature" within the context of general literary studies and of the current division of knowledge within colleges and universities in the USA. In this respect the course will focus on questions such as: What distinguishes the study of Hispanic from English language and literature? What are the relationships between foreign languages and literature and comparative literature? Reflecting on these issues will help the student to understand both the place of literature among other human symbolic expressions and the cultural significance of understanding the "other" from "our native" point of view. The course will be taught in English and Spanish depending on the competences of the students. Readings will be in Spanish or English. (Mignolo)

450(461). Middle Ages. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-387 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The background and structure of some of the masterpieces of medieval Castilian literature. A lecture course. Students will write several short papers. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Fraker)

463(467). Spanish Literature of the Eighteenth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-378 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Presents the intellectual and literary awakening of Spain in the first century under the Bourbons. Lectures and class discussions will focus on such issues as the rise of a critical spirit in a country deeply sensitive to its decline and intensely suspicious of foreign thought; the attempts to define the national culture in conservative or progressive terms; and to create a literature in accord with those tendencies; Neoclassicism as art and problem; the emergence of PERIODICOS and its implications for prose literature; Anacreontic and other tendencies in poetry; the development of sensibility and early Romantic stirrings. Authors to be studied include Feijoo, Forner, Huerta, Jovellanos, Ramon de la Cruz, Cadalso, Melendez Vales, and Moratin. Hour and final examinations, term paper, and an occasional class exercise. (Hafter)

469. Spanish Theater of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (Excl).

After a brief introduction to certain important trends in twentieth-century Spanish drama, the course will concentrate on a number of plays by five of the century's most outstanding playwrights: Benavente, Valle-Inclan, Grau, Garcia Lorca and Alberti. The works selected, representing a wide variety of styles, themes and techniques, will be analyzed in detail, both as theatrical pieces and literary texts. The prescribed plays will include, among other things, examples of Benavente's bourgeois drama, Valle-Inclan's ESPERPENTO, both Lorca's more conventional and experimental dramas, and Alberti's radical adaptation of the AUTO SACRAMENTAL. Some acquaintance with the Spanish Golden Age COMEDIA and/or other European late nineteenth-century early twentieth-century drama would be something of an advantage but is certainly not a necessity. The basis of student evaluation will be class participation, papers devoted to the works of the authors listed above, and tests and exams. The method of instruction will be a mixture of lecture, analysis of specific extracts, and class commentary and discussion. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Anderson)

485(489). Case Studies in Latin-American Literature. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Professor Ignacio Osorio Romero, from the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, has been specifically invited to teach an undergraduate course on Mexican literature of the XIX and XX centuries. It is an exclusive opportunity for Spanish concentrators to study with a scholar and teacher of international reputation. For more information, please contact Prof. Walter D. Mignolo 764-5249 or 764-5344. [Cost:4] [WL:1,3]

490(401). Spanish Honors: Introduction to Literary Studies and Criticism. One 400-level Spanish literature course, and permission of Honors advisor. (3). (Excl).

The course has been planned with the intention of providing future teachers of language and literature, as well as first year graduate students, with basic tools and general principles for the study and teaching of literature. We will examine, first, the nature and function of literature in social life by asking questions about its regional or universal dimensions (Does every human culture have literature?) We will pay specific attention, secondly, to the place and role of literary studies in the spectrum of the social sciences and the humanities (What do we teach or study when we study literature? What is the role of the canon in literary studies?). In the third place, we will scout the common ground between literary narrative and film (What is missing when a literary narrative is "translated" into a film narrative? What are the differences between the written word and the image, between "reading" and "seeing?"). Although the "teaching-literature" topic will be part of the three sections, we will conclude the course with a particular discussion on literary scholarship and the teaching of literature. Course is given in Spanish. English permitted in class discussions and oral presentations. Reading: English and Spanish. Class discussions and oral presentations emphasized. [Cost:4] [WL:1,4] (Mignolo)


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