Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

The course explores the biological basis for variation in human morphology, physiology, and behavior across different modern populations around the world, and through human evolutionary history. Major topics discussed are evolutionary theory, genetics, human adaptation, primate and human behavior, and the human fossil record. No special knowledge is required or assumed. Cost:1 WL:1 (Hill)

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

An evaluation of the biological and cultural factors that influence human behavior. We will begin with an exploration of evolutionary principles and go through the animal antecedents of human behavior, with particular focus on the non-human primate origins of our own social behavior. This will include: primate sociality, mating systems, and ecology. We will then consider theories of human evolution and how one should go about constructing a model of the origins of human social behavior. The course closes with a critique of the use of Darwinian paradigms in the study of human behavior. A large selection of relevant readings will be assigned, and grades are based on short papers and a take-home final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Stanford)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that the race concept owes more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept; and (2) if the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology, what kind of sense can we make out of human biological variation? This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These aspects of the course's concern will be covered in lecture, but they can be supplemented by readings which will be suggested from time to time and by the assigned tests. Texts: A.R. Frisancho, HUMAN ADAPTATION; C.L. Brace, THE STAGES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION. Lecture outlines (syllabus) and course reading materials will be available at Kinko's copying. [Cost:2] [WL:3/4] (Brace)

399. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Livingstone)

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The first part of this course will outline the forces or factors determining the growth rates of human population and especially the role of infectious disease. The second part will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a midterm and final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:2/3/4] (Livingstone)

468/Psychology 468/Women's Studies 468. Behavioral Biology of Women. Introductory psychology or anthropology. (4). (Excl).

See Psychology 468. (Smuts)

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).

Section 001 HUMAN BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY. This course covers modern evolutionary ecology of living organisms with strong emphasis on human behavior and recent anthropological studies. Different human behavioral patterns will be examined in order to assess the extent to which assumptions about the evolutionary function of the patterns in their particular ecological context explains the observed variation. When patterned variation in human behavior does not seem to make adaptive sense we will explore the reason for this. Major topic areas include

1. Resource acquisition/economic decisions;

2. Cooperation/conflict;

3. Mating patterns;

4. Group structure.

Previous course work in whole organism biology/ecology/evolutionary biology and a general course in anthropology are required. The course is taught as a combination of lectures and directed discussions. Cost:2 WL:2 (Hill)

564. Hominid Origins. Anthro. 365 or 466 or the equivalent. Primarily for biological anthropology concentrators. (3). (Excl).

The course focuses on the vents leading up to the origin of the human line, the reasons why this line appeared and became unique, and the characteristics of the earliest humans (the Australopithecines). The timespan covered is from 13 to 1.5 million years ago. Emphasis is on the interface of morphology and behavior in the evolutionary process. A laboratory section serves to acquaint students with the fossil record and will emphasize the role of variability and the reconstruction of function from form. Three weekly lectures and a laboratory section. Evaluations are based on a paper and a final examination. For advanced undergraduates or graduates. Anthro 365, 466, 565, 566, or equivalent. Cost:2 WL:2 (Wolpoff)

568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Bio. Anthro. 368; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This is an advanced course examining theoretical issues in the ecology and behavior of the non-human primates. We will apply evolutionary theory to the range of diversity in primate social systems, and will examine the work of theorists in interpreting primate behavior, primarily from field studies. Topics include: evolution of sociality, territoriality, feeding ecology, aggression and reproductive strategies. Grades will be based on papers. [Cost:2] [WL:There are no overrides and a limited enrollment.] (Stanford)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Exposure to anthropology's cross-cultural, comparative and holistic viewpoints, and to ethnography, the field's characteristic data-gathering procedure, are important in a liberal arts education. Anthropology 101, which surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology) provides students (generally freshmen and sophomores) with a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. Anthropology 101 stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. Anthropology 101 teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. As is proper for a distribution course, the principal aim of Anthropology 101 is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology, as well as surveying its content. (As such it is also recommended for anthropology concentrators.) Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex-gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings include several paperbacks. Students must register for the three weekly lectures (section 001) and a discussion-recitation section. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Peters-Golden)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS).

What place does language have in everyday life? Do people really communicate when they speak to each other? How is language used to reinforce relationships of power, especially along racial, gender, and class lines? How do languages change, and how does change reflect the structure of society? This course is about the nature of language and the ways in which it reflects and informs social life. Topics covered include: (1) How and why languages change; (2) the relationships between speech and social class, race, and gender; (3) the politics of language use in society, including language policy in third-world societies and the "English-only" movement in the United States; (4) the ways in which language is used to construct social, cultural, and political "realities" and the ways these realities are contested; (5) the ways in which interpersonal relations of power and authority are constructed in everyday interaction. Required readings are in a course pack. The course will be evaluated by in-class quizzes. A term paper is optional. The course has no prerequisites except for curiosity about the interrelationships between language and society. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Mannheim)

285. Cult Archaeology. (3). (SS).

This is a Collegiate Fellows course; see page 3 for a complete list of Collegiate Fellows courses and the Time Schedule for details of time and place.

Cultural archaeology examines claims in the press and on television that cultural achievements by non-Western people are a consequence of contact with superior beings. The examples will be drawn from the prehistory and contact periods in the New World and the approach will be a case study using critical thinking as an analytical method. Claims of contact with beings from outer space, diffusion of ideas and methods across the Pacific, and pre-Columbian appearance of Europeans and Africans will be examined. The subjects discussed include art, architecture, agriculture, social change and cultural evolution. The goal is for students to learn critical thinking, to understand professional ethics, to appreciate cultural racism and the harm that it does, and to know what to believe in an imperfect knowledge arena. (Ford)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

319. Latin American Society and Culture. (4). (SS).

The two aims of this course are (1) to impress upon students the immense diversity summed up in the term "Latin America," a region which spans two continents, nearly half a billion people, and a multitude of countries, societies, and cultures; and (2) to explore the aspects of shared histories which in some ways make of it a unity. Topics covered will include: the history and geography of conquest, from the Spanish invasions to US interventions; colonial and modern race ideologies and the meaning of being an "Indian"; gender relations; religion, including folk Catholicism and revitalization movements; dependency, proletarianization, class consciousness, and the question of "cultures of resistance." We will try to do some justice to the regions of the Andes, Brazil, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Class meetings will be devoted to lectures and discussion sessions, with occasional films and slides. Grades will be based on class participation, a short midterm and a final exam or research paper. (Frye)

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the basic economic, social and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)

405. Peoples and Cultures of India. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

Following a survey of the peoples and cultures of South Asia - which will include the Indian sub-continent and Sri Lanka - the course will focus on five culturally salient phenomena: person, family, caste, labor and ethnicity. A course pack in addition to several monographs will constitute the required reading for the course. A paper, a midterm and a final examination will be required of all students. The course will be structured on a lecture-seminar format. Cost:3 WL:3 (Daniel)

410. Ethnography and Politics in Southern Africa. One course in anthropology. (3). (Excl).

ETHNOGRAPHY AND POLITICS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA. This course explores some of the ways that political processes in southern Africa have been illuminated through ethnographic accounts. After situating anthropological discourse on southern Africa in its colonial and post-colonial political contexts, the course examines distinctively ethnographic contributions to understanding such things as migrant labor and rural transformation, urbanization, ethnicity, and political resistance. The emphasis throughout is on showing how a grasp of local social and cultural structures illuminates larger-scale political and economic processes. Material will be drawn from South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia. Course prerequisites: Students enrolling in this course should have a familiarity with basic concepts in the social sciences, and should have taken at least some anthropology. Some prior knowledge of southern Africa will be extremely helpful, but is not required. Course requirements: The course will be run as a lecture/discussion course, with considerable attention devoted to the discussion portion. Students will be expected to keep up with readings and to be prepared to participate in discussions as a matter of course. In addition, students will be urged to write a series of four short (4 to 5 pages typewritten) papers during the course of the term. Students who do not write four papers will have to write a final exam instead. The final exam will be a take-home essay examination. Each student taking the final will be obliged to give essay-length (4 to 5 page) answers to however many questions corresponds to the number of papers they did not write. A student who wrote two papers during the term would have to answer two exam questions; a student who wrote no papers would have to answer four. Student who have written all four papers will have the option of taking the final if they wish and replacing lower grades they may have earned on earlier papers if they score better on the final. Short oral presentations may also be assigned from time to time. (Ferguson)

411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on INSTITUTIONAL characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and slides. Cost:1 WL:4 (Owusu)

513/CAAS 424. Urbanization and Technological Change in Africa. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Drought is only part of the reason for famines and chronic food shortage in Africa today. This course examines the political and ecological transitions related to increasing urbanization and the social organization of urban/rural relations from both urban and rural perspectives. The growth and survival of cities, in Africa as elsewhere, depends on the social, political and technological changes that support these large non-farming populations. Secure food supplies are also essential to a broad range of national development goals, including higher living standards, improved productivity, equity and financial stability. Transformation of agricultural communities and establishment of urban institutions has taken very different paths in West, East and Southern Africa. Course readings compare conditions in these regions but focus on the Sahel, a major focus of international concern. We will consider the impact of climate, war, population levels, family roles, political interests, local marketing systems, agricultural technology, food imports and foreign aid. Their combined impact has severely affected local communities' ability to maintain food production and nutrition levels in time of drought. We will then analyze specific development programs and policies that act as causes or potential solutions to Africa's food problems. Class format includes some lectures and more discussion of the readings. Group projects researching a subject of particular interest to group members will be presented to the class and written up. Grading will be based on the project notes and paper, midterm and final essay exams and class participation. Students will need some familiarity with the issues raised from at least one course on Africa, anthropology, urban studies, natural resources or the like. Cost:2 WL:4 (Clark)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

Section 001 FAMILY, WORK, AND POWER. This course teaches ethnographic analysis as a set of intellectual and practical tools students can use to define and answer questions about the implications of economic and social changes in their own lives and the world at large. You will learn to identify and debate the patterns of loyalty, authority and conflict established by specific relations in families and workplaces, whether described in readings or presented in actual situations. Family and work relations are continually recreated through social processes that can either keep them stable or produce rapid changes in the balance of power between members in different positions within society. We will consider a range of alternative social configurations from kin-based, peasant and industrial societies, following the unifying themes of residence, production, ownership, exchange, and historic change. For the student interested in issues of changing family values, world development and comparative economic systems, this course bridges the gap between the first general or cultural anthropology course and more specific advanced courses. Students not planning future course work will consolidate their introduction with concrete analytic and investigative skills useful in various contexts. Readings will concentrate on cases which have received attention from several authors with different approaches, to stimulate debate over the basis for alternative interpretations. Small fieldwork exercises will build understanding of the potential and limits of techniques authors have used. Evaluation will be based on four short essays and three fieldwork reports. Cost:2 WL:4 (Clark)

Section 002. LINES OF SIGHT: NATIVE AMERICANS. This course covers, in parallel sequences, a study of Native American visual arts and interpretive theories. We will use many perspectives to explore how graphic designs move; each student will choose a specific cultural and thematic focus of study for each paper. First, attention will be given to the power of formal structuralist templates (the house as cosmos, the house as body). This power will be expanded by looking at the distribution of visual motifs throughout cultural practices; cryptic motifs in other assemblages evoke new meanings. Second, processual analysis will add to the dynamic complexity (adopting new elements and materials available in time, elements reassemble in the shaman's bricolage). Third, semiotics will allow us to follow designs more freely, tracing aesthetic action while still keeping an overall sense of theoretical organization. Fourth, the body will emerge from being a key motif to an active player in performance analysis. Dynamics to be studied include ritual use, political theatre, mimesis and kinesthetics, gifts, and display. We will also explore intellectual tensions, as between convention and innovation, puns, irony and parody. In discussing antecedents and origins of signs, we will identify natural motifs and their cultural significance. We will particularly look for significance in oral traditions. How can ritual take the form of political theatre? How are visual arts maneuvered, set free for others' designation? What are the pragmatics and the ironies in tourist art production? And ethics: How can regard sacred images and objects? Definition of work is negotiable but four short papers or the equivalent in writing is required. (Clark)

Section 003 KOREAN CULTURE. In this course we will examine the institutional foundations of contemporary Korean society, with special attention paid to the dynamics of modernization. Sample lecture/discussion topics will include: the impact of rural-urban migration on village organization and family life; class structure and contemporary social mobility; the changing roles of Korean men and women; traditional belief systems (Confucianism, Buddhism, and shamanism) and the incorporation/exclusion of such beliefs in popular "new religions"; as well as the continuing human tragedy of a divided people. Course readings consist in the main of recent ethnographic case studies, all in English. Other course requirements include a take-home midterm examination and a 10-15 page final term paper. No previous background in Asian Studies is necessary. (Sayers)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Section 001. LEADERS AND THE LED THE SOCIAL DYNAMICS OF CHIEFSHIP. Perhaps the single most important transformation in the development of human society is the rise of elites and the establishment of systematic and pervasive social inequality. How do pre-state stratified societies operate? What are their common features? How do chiefs justify their authority, and what are the limits of chiefly power? These and related questions will be addressed in the context of native North American polities by the seminar. Topics discussed in the first half of the course will include ideology and the legitimization of chiefly authority, the sources and limitations of coercive force, manipulation of economic production for the support of elites, and political strategies for attaining, retaining and extending authority. The second half of the course will examine two ethnohistorical cases from North America: the Powhatan, a seventeenth century Virginian polity encountered by the English; and the Natchez, an eighteenth century polity described by the French. The roles of ideology, kinship, ambition, tradition and production in the rise and maintenance of chieftaincies will be discussed in light of the ethnographic and ethnohistorical readings. Students will prepare short presentations on aspects of chiefly societies from different parts of the world. In addition to the presentation, course requirements include midterm and final examinations and a 10-15 page paper. The paper may be based on the student's presentation or some other topic approved by the instructor. The course will be taught as a seminar, with an emphasis on student participation and discussion of scheduled topics and assigned readings. (Barker)

428. Ethnopersonality: Native Concepts of Self and Person. One course in cultural anthropology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

What questions do people in other cultures ask about psychological matters and what theories of the mind and emotion do they draw on in formulating their answers? How do peoples of other cultures assess persons, situations, and states of mind? Do concepts as basic to OUR theory of the mind as person and self vary cross-culturally? These are some of the major questions addressed in this upper-level lecture/seminar. Ethnopersonality involves the cultural analysis of native categories of self, mind, person and identity, categories central to the way human social behavior is motivated and rendered meaningful. Increasingly, this topics has attracted the attention of scholars in both anthropology and psychology. We will look into this work as well as the anthropology of Mauss, Nadel, Hallowell and Geertz which inspired it. This is followed by an examination of several indigenous models of self and person in their expression in life cycle rituals, kinship systems, systems of power and rank, deviance, mental illness and healing, and other cultural domains. Prerequisite: one course in anthropology or psychology. Course requirements: Active participation in class room discussions, two essay-type exams, and an independent research paper. (Hirschfeld)

439. Economic Anthropology and Development. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces students to economic anthropology and development in rural, village-based, tribal, peasant, urbanizing and industrializing societies and cultures of the Third World: Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America and the Middle East. The FIRST PART reviews the nature of economic anthropology, its scope, objectives, basic concepts, theories and methods of investigation. It discusses economic anthropology as it relates to conventional/development economics. The SECOND PART examines anthropological (social science) perspectives on development and underdevelopment: progress, modernization, acculturation, socioeconomic growth, etc. The THIRD PART is concerned with specific case studies of problems of Third World development and underdevelopment: rural/urban poverty and inequality; women and development; international migration; etc. The course CONCLUDES with an overview of global issues in Third World development and underdevelopment. The course is recommended for anthropology concentrators and all students with serious interest in comparative cultures and Third World development and underdevelopment. Junior standing or permission of instructor. Lecture/discussion format. Films shown in class when available. Final grades based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussion. Basic texts: Lucy Mair, ANTHROPOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT; Polly Hill, DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS ON TRIAL. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Owusu)

450/ABS 496/Relig. 404. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (Rappaport, Gomez)

453/CAAS 454. African-American Culture. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This lecture-seminar course will examine the Afro-American as one example of how humans live. It will place distinctive Black behavior within its social context and its history. That behavior is distinctive but it occurs among a population that is the same as all others and belongs to the one species that is man (humans). Why and how is that adaptive behavior interpreted and manipulated by others for social and political ends? Because the focus of the course will be distinctive Black behavioral styles our attention will be directed toward the poor urban Afro-American. But that attention requires a discussion of American society and the history of human development. The course will offer some suggestions for Afro-American dilemmas the underclass, urban gangs, addictions, unemployment, and single-parent families. Those suggestions will require an examination of contemporary American society and the nature of modern man (humans). How de we become this and how can we change? Course objectives:

1. Introduce the subdisciplinary field of Afro-American anthropology,

2. Demonstrate how anthropological tools can be used in contemporary society,

3. Develop skills in critical thinking and analysis,

4. Present the relationships between culture, subculture, and the nature of man (humans),

5. Enable students to understand and identify the nature of institutions and values that determine the life styles and behavior of Afro-Americans.

Course Requirements: class attendance, class participation, midterm and final exams, two written assignments. Lecture and discussion. Cost:2 WL:3 (Williams)

457. The Film and Other Visual Media in Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to promote and improve the use of visual media for anthropological purposes. We will examine film and its use in the field, classroom and public showings, as documentary, as art, and as tool of the social scientist. A central concern will be the making, use and appreciation of ethnographic film, but video-tape, still photography, television, and other media will be considered and compared. Films shown and discussed will include early classics and samples of the newest and best of current film-making; ethnographic films on pre-industrial societies and ethnographic film makers, of anthropologists and of students. There will be one evening session each week, during which we will view 1-2 hours of ethnographic films (these will be open to the public and free of charge). In addition, there will be two class meetings a week devoted to lectures, discussions and some more visual materials. A workshop will be held (for those who need it) on video techniques. Class requirements include a midterm and final examination and a team produced ethnographic video production. Prerequisites: any introductory course in EITHER cultural anthropology OR film and television studies. (Lockwood)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.

Section 001 STUDIES IN THE NATIONAL ORDER OF THINGS. The first part of this course will be a critical, anthropological review of some well-established theories of nations and nationalism. The second and more important part will explore the ways in which "the nation" has come to appear as an inevitable, natural unit of the contemporary political and cultural order of things, and how it shapes whole orders of knowledge. Key connections to be discussed include: the nation and gender; the nation and ethnicity; nationalism and racism; displacement and transnational identities. (Malkki)


531. Social Organization of Tribal Societies. Senior or graduate standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course investigates (1) the modes of relationship that enter into the organization of pre-modern tribal societies, e.g., kinship, descent, marriage alliance, siblingship, residence, etc., (2) the nature of structural models in which these modes of relationship are combined to produce a comprehensive account of particular forms of social organization, and (3) the relationship between structural models and the social behavior they seek to account for and explain. Anthro. 531 is primarily designed for graduate students and senior concentrators with considerable background in anthropology. The format is one hour of lecture followed by a half hour of discussion. Evaluation is based on a final take-home exam. (Kelly)


473/Ling. 473. Ethnopoetics: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Verbal Art. Two courses in anthropology, linguistics or literature, or permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

How do we understand the verbal art of non-western peoples without imposing our pre-conceived folk ideas about form, performance, authorship, and textuality? If poetic form, devices and traditions vary from culture to culture, how can we even hope to understand them? And if we do manage to understand how another culture patterns its verbal art in performance, how do we translate and represent it without parodying the other culture? This course will consider some recent (and some not-so-recent) efforts by anthropologists, linguists, poets, folklorists, and literary theorists to address these questions at several levels: First, we want to develop a methodology which allows us to discover 'unsuspected devices and intentions' which form indigenous poetries and texts, and "unsuspected" in that they draw upon aspects of language which our own traditions by-pass, and "unsuspected" in that they have often been collected and published without cognizance of those devices and intentions. This forces us to develop a view of language which is adequate to interpret 'oral literatures' as they shape and are shaped by the cultures of which they are a part. What relevance does such a view of language have for our culture's theories of verbal art, text, and performance? Finally, in what ways can it contribute to reshaping anthropology itself? (Mannheim)

478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 442. (Preston)

576. Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. Two courses in anthropology or biology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the basic issues and approaches of linguistic anthropology. Among the major topics addressed will be linguistic relativism, sociolinguistics, semiotics, ethnopoetics, speech acts, semantic theory, and historical linguistics. We will pay particular attention to the relevance of linguistics for the other fields of anthropology. Readings will range from founding figures, such as Boas, Sapir, Whorf, and Saussure, to current articles and books. The course assumes no linguistic background, but students are expected to be familiar with some branch of anthropology. Classes will combine lectures, discussions, and student presentations. Take-home midterm and final exams. Cost:3 WL:3 (Keane)


386. Early Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

EARLY NEW WORLD CIVILIZATIONS. This course considers the ancient prehistoric civilizations of Middle America and Andean South America. The primary objective is to show how anthropological archaeologists attempt to understand the evolution of complex society. The course begins with a general discussion of cultural evolution, continues with a general discussion of information from each study area, and concludes with a general consideration of what the archaeological study of prehistoric civilizations might tell us about the behavior of modern cultural systems. No special background is assumed. Students are evaluated on the bases of two in-class exams; a midterm and a final. The text is the most recent edition of PATTERNS OF PREHISTORY, by R.J. Wenke (Oxford Press). There will also be a course pack of relevant journal articles. The primary method of instruction is lecture, although some in-class discussion is encouraged. Cost:1 WL:3 (Parsons)

387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (Excl).

Humans have inhabited North America for over 10,000 years. This class surveys the varied adaptations and lifeways of these peoples and explores how and why they changed through time. Because this class seeks to reveal culture history, as determined through archaeology (including prehistoric, historic and underwater), our coverage will include a discussion of Native American, European and African interaction during the 16th through 18th centuries. In general the area north of modern Mexico will be discussed with special attention on the Eastern Woodlands and southwest United States. It is suggested that students planning to enroll in Anthropology 387 take Introduction to Archaeology, Introduction to Cultural Archaeology or another area course in archaeology. If you are uncertain about your background please see the instructor before enrolling. Instruction will be by lecture supplemented by slides and films. Some artifacts will be used for illustrative purposes. Evaluation will be based on examinations and a written project. The final will be cumulative. Cost:2 WL:2 (Skowronek)

489. Maya and Central American Archaeology. (3). (SS).

This course emphasizes the cultural evolution of the ancient Maya, whose civilization once extended from eastern Mexico through Guatemala and Belize into El Salvador and Honduras. Stages of development include hunters and gatherers, egalitarian villagers, emerging rank, and the state. Topics include religion, social organization, architecture, political hierarchies, subsistence strategies, settlement patterns, exchange systems, and hieroglyphic writing. The last part of the class covers other tribes and chiefdoms that occupied lower Central America. A take home midterm and a final paper are required. (Marcus)

494. Introduction to Analytical Methods in Archaeology. One course in statistics or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the application of analytical techniques in archaeology and to provide an understanding of the role of numerical analysis in archaeological research. Course coverage will range from the most basic use of numbers in data presentation to the consideration of a variety of more complex techniques which have been developed specifically to cope with the unique character of archaeological research. The course will be organized around sets of lectures and class exercises, and a basic familiarity with archaeological research and common statistical methods will be assumed. Students will require a good hand calculator for regular class use. Readings for the course will be drawn from a variety of sources, and as such no core text will be assigned. Evaluation of student performance will be based on a series of assigned projects designed to highlight the student's control over the subject matter of the course. (Whallon)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

496. Museum Techniques in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

The goal of this course is the introduction of museum collection management and exhibition. It will acquaint students with the ethics of collecting anthropological artifacts and archaeological objects, their proper storage, conservation, computer cataloging, procedures for lending and borrowing, and methods for exhibiting the collection. The course serves as an introduction to museum employment as a career and to general knowledge about the "behind the scene" operations in a museum. Lectures will be complimented by tours to laboratories, storage areas, and a student organized exhibit. Students will write short critiques of museum exhibits and complete a final examination. No prerequisites are required. (Ford)

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