General Near East (Division 439)

140. Introduction to Arabic Culture and Language. (3). (Excl).

This course will offer a general survey of the social, cultural, historical and linguistic aspects of the Modern Arab world as well as the origins and current status of the Arabic language. It will include an Arabic language instruction component focusing upon the basic communication needs of travelers and career professional. The course material will be explored through lectures and videos supported by listening and viewing guides and through discussions based upon the assigned readings. A good deal of one of the class sessions each week will involve brainstorming about effective outlining, writing, and oral presentation. Grades will be based upon class participation, short essays and a final exam.

204/Rel. 204. Islamic Religion: An Introduction. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to be a well-rounded introduction to Islam in theory and practice, and will deal with the following subjects: fundamental of Islam; principal intellectual pursuits of Muslims, with emphasis on the formative phase; and modern religious developments in the Muslim world. Two exams and a paper. Cost:1 WL:1 (Mir)

245. Great Books of the Near East I. (4). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is three-fold: (1) to get a broad overview of the Islamic literary endeavor, noting its diversity, (2) to identify the principle themes of Muslim literary works, and (3) to make an intensive study of a small number of those works. The texts to be read will be taken from several Islamic languages, but THE READINGS WILL ALL BE IN ENGLISH. An attempt will be made to include works representing literary activity in such different fields/genres as poetry, autobiography, parable, allegory, and travel and courtly literature. We will try to develop an understanding of the character of Islamic literature as a whole. It is a lecture course, though students will also elect a discussion group. Several short reports (one or two pages each) and class preparation will determine the grade. NO PREREQUISITES. Cost:1 WL:1 (Mir)

260. Ancient Egypt and its World. (3). (HU).

The general freshman and sophomore introduction through the culture of the ancient Egyptians. Special attention will be given to Egyptian religion, modes of thought, basic institutions, and Egypt's contributions to modern civilization. Hieroglyphic writing will also be taught. Cost:2 (Krahnalkov)

315/Rel. 315. Classics in the Study of Religion. Relig. 201 or 202, or any religion course. (3). (Excl).

See Religion 315. (Masuzawa)

398. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

This course is an independent study reading course which must be supervised by a Near Eastern Studies faculty member. It is normally taken by a student who would like to study some aspect of a subject within a course already taken in further detail. Arrangements for the course are made directly with the faculty member.

446. Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the modern literature of the Arab Lands, Iran, Israel and Turkey. The course is taught by four professors, each of whom will examine the literature in which he/she specializes. Lectures introduce major literacy figures and their works within the framework of the historical and social circumstances of their lives. Materials in English translation are reviewed wherever possible and discussions relate particularly to genre development and external influences on the literatures of the modern Near East. (Stewart-Robinson)

450. Near Eastern Issues. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

1419 EASTBOUND. Five centuries after the discovery of the New World, this course will deal with the meanwhile-back-at-the-ranch side of this event. 1492 marked also the fall of Granada and the Return to the East, ending some eight centuries of Arab-Jewish presence in Andalusia/Spain. The course deals with the effects of the Expulsion from Spain on the Arab and Jewish cultures, respectively and interchangeably. We will follow the Eastbound mind throughout the centuries, and examine different Hebrew and Arabic texts (in English translation) written in the aftermath, around the Mediterranean and in the Middle East, dealing with exile, displacement and redemption. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students who have an interest in issues Near Eastern, preferably with a literary background, are encouraged to register. Requirements for the course are a class presentation and a substantial Term Paper. Cost:2 (Shammas)

460. Archaeology of the Historic Near East. (3). (Excl).

Section 001 THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF SYRIA-PALESTINE FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PERSIAN PERIOD. This course provides a chronological survey of empirical evidence recovered from cultures which existed in the Near East during prehistorical and historical periods. Artifacts shall be analyzed against a backdrop of such themes as human evolution, society, economy and religion. Following introductory lectures on the geography and geology of Palestine, basic field methods, etc... we shall examine the Paleolithic Period and the transition from Neanderthals to Homo Sapiens. Next, the dichotomy apparent in the Natufian Culture between farmers and hunters shall be studied. Other topics of prehistorical interest shall include the origins of sedentism and farming communities in the Levant, the "Neolithic Revolution," and the mysterious Chalcolithic Culture. Study of the historical periods (Early Bronze Age-Iron Age) shall concentrate on such issues as the earliest appearance of "cities" in Palestine, dynamic relationships between urban and pastoral societies, Levantine trade contacts with western Mediterranean regions during the Late Bronze Age, the formation and history of Iron Age kingdoms such as Israel, Moab and Edom, and the effects of Assyro-Babylonian foreign policies on these local entities. A midterm, final examination and term project will be assigned. This course has no prerequisites and is suited to both undergraduates and graduates. Cost:2 WL:2 (Tappy)

467/Jud. Stud. 467. Topics in the History of Classical Judaism. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

JEWISH LAW AND SOCIETY. The Jewish legal tradition is over 3,000 years old. What is the secret of this longevity? In this course we will explore the sources of the dynamism and continuing vitality of the Jewish law. Students will be introduced to the concept of the Oral Law, and will study selections from the Talmud, codes, and responsa (Jewish case law). During the second half of the term current issues including abortion, euthanasia, and capital punishment will be examined from the perspective of Jewish legal sources. Course requirements include a midterm and final examination, and a 10-15 page research paper. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Glogower)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature; Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. [Cost:1] [WL:3 or 4] (Schramm)

472/Hist. 543. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (4). (Excl).

This course deals with one of the more important varieties of Islamic Civilization, the one formed in the area stretching from present-day Iraq across the Iranian Plateau to Central Asia. Perso-Islamic Civilization underlies the modern Islamic cultures of Afghanistan, Muslim Soviet Central Asia, Pakistan, Muslim India, and Iran, and it had a great deal of influence on the formation of Ottoman Turkish Civilization. Topics will include Ancient Iran's contribution to the formation of Islamic Civilization in Arabic, the emergence and maturing of New Persian literature, the impact of the Turkish invasions, Perso-Islamic Civilization on the eve of the Mongol invasion, and the transfer of this culture to India as an "émigré civilization" under the Delhi Sultanate. A paper or set of four critical reviews, a midterm and a final are required. Readings are from secondary materials and source translations in English from a reserve list and a course pack. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Luther)

481/Religion 481/English 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (3). (HU).

See English 401. (Williams)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LS&A Honor's Council. This course should be taken both terms of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per term. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors," or with "with Honors," in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

571(471)/Hist. 537. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. (3). (Excl).

This course will survey the history of this period, the Islamic High Middle Ages. Its emphasis will be on the central Islamic lands (in particular Egypt, Turkey and the western Fertile Crescent), and on Muslim encounters with other civilizations, especially the Crusades. Issues to be considered at length will also include the political fortunes of the different forms of Shi'ism, the "Sunni Revival," and the arrival of the Turks in the Near East. Prerequisite: NES/HIST 442 or permission of instructor. Requirements: midterm, final, and two papers, 5-8 pages each week. Texts will include P.M. Holt, THE AGE OF THE CRUSADES; F. Gabrieli, ARAB HISTORIANS OF THE CRUSADES; H.E. Mayer, THE CRUSADES. Cost:3 WL:4 (Bonner)

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

202. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. ABS 201 or equivalent. (3). (FL).

Lessons and exercises in a standardized form of the language of the Hebrew Bible. Presentation of grammar and vocabulary. Daily recitations and weekly quizzes. There is no prerequisite for course 201, but course 201 or the equivalent is prerequisite for 202. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Schramm)

280/Rel. 280. Jesus and the Gospels. (4). (HU).

The course will probe the gospels, including the some non-canonical versions (e.g., the Gospel of Thomas), as sources to the life and teaching of Jesus. The student will be introduced to the various scholarly methods used in gospel interpretation, in order that he/she will be able to apply these methods to the texts. This exercise will enable the student to appreciate the rich diversity of opinion which existed already in the earliest recoverable periods of incipient Christianity. There is no prerequisite for the course, but some familiarity with the gospels would be helpful. It is anticipated that there will be at least two exams and a term paper. The format of the course will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussions led by TA's. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Fossum)

496/Rel. 404/Anthro. 450. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (Rappaport, Gomez)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for review and practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult instructor of course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two or four credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1) A PROGRAMMED COURSE IN MODERN ARABIC PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT, by E.N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2)ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC PART ONE, by P. Abboud et al. Cost:1 WL:3 (Staff, Rammuny)

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course may not be taken until six hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on Arabic syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selections based on Arab culture, and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each term (50%) and scheduled comprehensive tests (50%). Textbook: ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, PART TWO, by P. Abboud et al. Cost:1 WL:3 (Rammuny)

202. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 201 or equivalent. (6). (FL).

This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. It is second of a year-long course whose primary goals are to enable the student to (1) understand familiar spoken literary Arabic, (2) converse with a native speaker of Arabic using simple terms, (3) read and understand the specific content of an elemental level and (4) write correct short responses within the scope of his/her vocabulary and experience. The method of instruction puts equal emphasis on the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course is conducted in Arabic except for grammatical explanations. It meets six hours weekly and requires approximately ten hours every week for outside of class preparation including listening, to lesson tapes in the laboratory or at home, writing assignments and review of material covered in class. Course grade is based on classroom preparation including written assignments and performance (25%), test, and quizzes (50%), and a final examination (25%). Required tests: Peter Abboud et al, ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, PART ONE AND TWO. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, 1975. Cost:2 WL:3 (Bariun)

402. Advanced Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 401 or the equivalent. (6). (Excl).

This is a fairly intensive course, with heavy emphasis on oral and written expression. IMSA Parts I and II will be used. Students will be encouraged to read and discuss lengthy original passages of literary and non-literary nature by modern Arab authors. They will also be required to produce compositions and presentations of their own on a regular basis. By the end of the Winter Term, participants should be capable of confronting unfamiliar Arabic tests (spoken or written) with reasonable assurance. Evaluation will be based on class participation, weekly quizzes, home assignments, and two examinations. Cost:2 WL:3 (Bariun)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

416. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 415. (3). (Excl).

This is a continuation of Arabic 415. In Arabic 415 the basic principles of pronunciation and grammar are emphasized through oral and pattern practice drills. In Arabic 416 the emphasis shifts to practical use of the dialect based on expanded vocabulary and texts containing more cultural and idiomatic content than the texts taught in the previous term. The course is accompanied by tape recordings of the pronunciation drills, the basic texts, the vocabulary, the conversions and the listening comprehension selections. Regular use of the language laboratory is required to reinforce class work and also to do the assignments which need to be recorded. The course grade is based on classroom performance, assignments, tests and the final examination. Textbooks: A COURSE IN LEVANTINE ARABIC, by E. McCarus and R. Rammuny. Cost:1 WL:3 (Khoury, Rammuny)

431. Arabic Phonology and Morphophonology. Arabic 402 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

This lecture-discussion course deals with the morphophonolgy of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Specifically, it deals in detail with the generative phonology of MSA as developed in M. Brame, ARABIC PHONOLOGY: Implications for Phonological Theory and Historical Semitic. Prerequisite: Arabic 430 or equivalent. Course grade will be based primarily on a term paper of final exam, plus class participation. Cost:1 WL:1 (McCarus)

434. Arabic Historical Linguistics and Dialectology. Arabic 402 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

Development of Arabic from Proto-Semitic and Proto-Arabic origins to interrelationships of contemporary literary and dialectual forms of Arabic. Classroom procedure: lecture-discussion. Grade based on class participation, homework problems and term paper. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (McCarus)

502. Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition. Arabic 501 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The objectives of this course are to develop fluency and accuracy in understanding, speaking and writing modern standard Arabic, and to expand students' awareness of Arab-Islamic life and culture. The course is based on a variety of literary texts and authentic cultural audiovisual materials including slides, videocassettes, and films. There is a special emphasis on active mastery of useful idiomatic and cultural expressions and the use of Arabic for oral and written communication. Occasionally, students are required to select their own topics and give brief presentations. Requirements include daily preparations, two weekly written compositions, occasional tests, and a final paper in Arabic. Course grade is based on classroom preparation and performance (10%), written compositions (25%), occasional tests (25%), and a final paper (40%). The course textbooks are ADVANCED ARABIC CONVERSATIONS AND COMPOSITION by Raji M. Rammuny, and ADVANCED ARABIC COMPOSITION. STUDENT'S GUIDE by Raji M. Rammuny. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Rammuny)

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Continuation of the development of basic communication skills of reading, writing and speaking modern standard Hebrew. Class drills, class discussions in Hebrew, language laboratory drills. (Coffin)

302. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 312. (5). (FL).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. In addition to continued study of morphology and syntax, some reading selections in fiction and non-fiction prose will be introduced. [Cost:1] [WL:5, try another section first. If all others are closed, then no. 1] (Etzion)

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

305. Hebrew Communicative Skills. Hebrew 302. (2). (Excl).

Continuation of the development of advanced communication skills. The emphasis is on the acquisition of language speaking and listening skills and expansion of vocabulary. (Berkovitch)

402. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 401. (3). (Excl).

An encounter with the "Israeli Experience" through dealing with current literature and poetry, non-fiction articles, plays and films. Emphasis is placed on developing communicative skills and expanding student's vocabulary. (Etzion)

404. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

A continuation of 403. Emphasis on readings, listening and speaking skills. The social genre of the communications media (newspapers, radio and television) will serve as the basis for discussion of current events. Unedited newspaper selections will be read and news broadcasts and television programs will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. Grades will be based on two exams and a special project. (Etzion)

546. The Literature of the Hebrew Bible. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Intensive and rapid reading of text, with attention to spotting problem areas. Prerequisite ABS 402 or Hebrew 402. May be repeated for additional credit covering new text material.

554. A Survey of Modern Israeli Novels. Hebrew 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Section 001 ISRAELI NOVELS. War and Peace Themes in Israeli literature will be explored through works of fiction and non-fiction prose, poetry, theater and film. Among the authors included in this course are A.B. Yehoshua, Amos Oz, Y. Ben Ner, Yehuda Amichai, Amia Lieblich and others. (continuation of themes explored in Hebrew 553, however Hebrew 553 is not a prerequisite). Cost:1 WL:4 (Coffin)

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

402. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 401 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course is a continuation of 401. The emphasis will be increasingly on reading, composition, and dialog with the objective of achieving intermediate competency. The two main textbooks are Windfuhr-Bostanbakhsh, Modern Persian, Intermediate Level II. Additional materials include tapes and videos. Special needs or interests of the students will be taken into consideration. Cost:1 (Windfuhr)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

551. Modern Persian Fiction. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course offers a "hands-on" introduction to contemporary Persian fiction by way of selected readings. At the same time students will be introduced to close reading and literary analysis. Students will increasingly be responsible for analysis and interpretation. It is open to all students interested in the topic, including native speakers of Persian. Grades will be based on assignments and a term project. Cost:1 (Windfuhr)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course is the sequel to Turkish 201 and is the second half of Elementary Turkish. We will focus on speaking and writing the language of Modern Turkey. Course topics include the phonological structure of Turkish, basic sentence patterns, and basic vocabulary. The aural-oral approach is emphasized and serves as the basic course format. There are tapes which accompany the text, Turkish for Foreigners. Student evaluation is based on written and oral quizzes, and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:3 (Ozsoy)

402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 401 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in Modern Turkish. The course is designed for students who have completed Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It provides further study of Turkish grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Comprehension and oral and written expression will be developed through translations and compositions. Readings will be emphasized. Special needs of the students as to subject matter will be taken into consideration. Reading material will be provided. Evaluation will be determined on the basis of class quizzes and performance, a midterm and final examination. (Stewart-Robinson)

412. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 411. (3). (Excl).

Second half of first year Ottoman intended to sharpen skills in the handling of a variety of styles, topics and scripts through the reading and analysis of specially selected texts. Quizzes and a final examination required. (Stewart-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

551. Modern Turkish Prose Literature. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Part of sequence in required language courses for majors, M.A. and Ph.D. candidates. The objective is to continue to develop comprehension ease in modern Turkish through the reading of the literary products of modern Turks. Recitation type course includes reading, translation, and discussion of content and style. Quizzes and a final exam are required. The texts are: A. Tietze, TURKISH LITERARY READER; and specially selected Xeroxed material. (Stewart-Robinson)

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