The Department of Classical Studies believes that the literature, monuments, and social institutions of the ancient world, together with the reflections of the Greek and Roman thinkers about their own cultures, are of unique value in themselves, well worth our contemplation and understanding; and that as we attempt to learn about and appreciate classical civilization, we necessarily learn as well a variety of contemporary methodologies and disciplines.

The department offers three groups of courses for distribution, those in Classical Civilization (introductory courses that require no knowledge of Greek or Latin), courses in Classical Archaeology, and upper level language courses in Greek and Latin authors or genres. While only a few courses are repeated in yearly or biennial rotation, most courses are offered less regularly. This system guarantees that the instructor approaches the subject each time with fresh impetus. We believe in a healthy change and variation in our course offerings. The undergraduate advisor of the Department of Classical Studies will consider and, if appropriate, authorize other classical civilization, literature, and archaeology courses for distribution credit upon request by students during the first drop/add period each term.

Classical Civilization offerings include the general surveys of Greek and Roman civilizations (CC 101 and 102), which provide (through readings, lectures, and discussions) a broad understanding of the literatures, thought, and social development of ancient Greece and Rome, and thus provide the student with knowledge of and appreciation for our cultural origins, as well as an acquaintance with modern methods for understanding an ancient culture. These courses are taught each year. CC 101 is offered in the Fall and CC 102 is offered in the Winter. Other courses provide understanding of particular aspects of the ancient world, approached from a variety of disciplines and studies literary, philosophical, historical, sociological, and so on. Some students (particularly those who have already developed special interests in such disciplines) may wish to explore one of these topics without having had a broader introduction.

Classical Archaeology offerings include the broad surveys of the archaeology and monuments of Greece (Cl.Arch 221 offered in the Fall) and Rome (Cl.Arch 222 offered in the Winter) and a general introduction to archaeological field methods (Cl.Arch 323). Other courses use the material remains of specific cultures both to introduce students to the diversity of the ancient world and to demonstrate how, through a variety of multi-disciplinary approaches, the archaeological record can be used to reconstruct the life-ways of past societies.

Classical Archaeology (Division 342)

222/Hist. of Art 222. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).

The course will examine aspects of Roman civilization as revealed by archaeological evidence. The art and architecture of the Romans will constitute a major component of the course, with the city of Rome and the well-preserved towns of Ostia, Pompeii, and Herculaneum providing many examples. This Italian evidence will be supplemented by regional examples from around the Roman world. Mosaics, sculpture, wall paintings, and various classes of artefacts will be examined in detail. In addition, archaeological evidence will be used to shed light on how people lived in antiquity; studying situations ranging from palaces to tenement housing, from frontier forts to farms. There are no prerequisites for the course. The format is three illustrated lectures and one discussion section from the list of sections timetabled for the class. The grade is based on discussion and quizzes in sections and on a midterm and a final exam. Assigned books: F. Sear, ROMAN ARCHITECTURE (Cornell paperback); D. Strong, ROMAN ART (Viking Penguin paperback). [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Mattingly)

433/Hist. of Art 433. Greek Sculpture. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

See History of Art 433. (Root)

436/Hist. of Art 436. Hellenistic and Roman Architecture. Hist. of Art 101 or Class. Arch. 221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course focuses on the architecture of the Hellenistic and Roman worlds from about 100 B.C. to the reign of Constantine (early fourth century A.D.). Hellenistic influence on the Roman architecture is discussed, and then particular attention given to Roman innovations in building materials (concrete), building types, and designs and plans. The period from ca. 50 B.C. to 120 A.D. will be covered in the greatest detail. There will be a midterm, final, and one paper required. The text books for the course are Frank Sear, ROMAN ARCHITECTURE (paperback) and William L. MacDonald, THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, Volume 2 (Yale paperback). Supplementary readings will be given in course packs. Cost:2 WL:1 (Humphrey)

442/Hist. of Art 442. Late Antique and Early Christian Art and Architecture. Hist. of Art 101, 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See History of Art 442. (Thomas)

531/Hist. of Art 531. Aegean Art and Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

We will follow the developments of societies in the lands around the Aegean Sea from the sixth millennium to ca. 1000 B.C. We will address such issues as the complex means that held (or did not hold) together Neolithic societies, the changing nature of political authority in the third millennium and its basis, and the formation and demise of large scale hierarchical polities in the period of the Anatolian, Minoan and Mycenaean palaces. We shall place emphasis on regional differences, and on the processes that led to the centralization of the economy in some regions and inhibited it in others. Lectures will be regularly followed by class discussion. Readings will include (a) general surveys of Aegean prehistory, (b) a series of articles on particular problems of the Aegean prehistory, and (c) theoretical papers of relevance to prehistoric societies in general. Students will earn their grades by writing a paper (to be presented in preliminary form in class) and a final exam. Previous exposure to archaeology is essential. (Fotiadis)

534/Hist. of Art 534. Ancient Painting. Hist. of Art 101 and either Class. Arch. 221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See History of Art 534. (Stern)

539/Hist. of Art 539. Greek Architecture. Hist. of Art 101, and Class. Arch. 221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce the student to the techniques and design principles of Greek architecture and to acquaint the student with the stylistic development of the major forms of Greek architecture, sacred and secular, from the eighth through roughly the second centuries B.C. The course will be divided into a series of units each treating a specific building type as it changed through time. Units will include the Doric temple, the Ionic temple, the treasury, the stoa, and the theater. The course will also explore the organizational principles of larger architectural spaces in both cities and sanctuaries. Assigned texts will be J.J. Coulton, ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTS AT WORK and A.W. Lawrence, GREEK ARCHITECTURE. There will be a final examination and a research paper (about 15 pages). [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Pfaff)

Classical Greek (Division 385)

Elementary Courses

101. Elementary Greek. (4). (FL).

In combination with Greek 102, this is the first half of a year-long introduction to ancient Greek and is designed to prepare students for the reading of Greek texts. Greek 101 concentrates on fifth-century B.C. Attic Greek which was the language of the "golden age" of Athens. The Greek language of that time and place represents a cultural and linguistic central point from which students can pursue their own interests within a wide range of Greek literature which extends from the Homeric epics to the Byzantine era and which includes the archaic, classical, and hellenistic periods as well as the KOINE Greek of the New Testament. The purpose of the course is to develop the fundamentals of the language so that these fundamentals can then be applied to whatever area of ancient Greek students wish to pursue. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Pfaff)

102. Elementary Greek. Greek 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 103 or 310. (4). (FL).

Greek 102 is the second term of the elementary ancient Greek sequence and requires that the student has already completed Greek 101. Students who wish to begin Greek in the Winter Term should elect Greek 101. In Greek 102 students will supplement their study of syntax and grammar by reading Attic prose selections. There will be a series of quizzes and hourly exams in addition to a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Huyck,Seligson)

302. Second-Year Greek. Greek 301 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course is the second half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. The primary goal of the student in Greek 302 is to learn how to read Homer; hence emphasis is placed on Homeric vocabulary and grammar. The class will translate and discuss readings from the ILIAD. Midterm, paper, and final exam. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Scodel)

Intermediate Courses

402. Greek Drama. Greek 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

EURIPIDES, MEDEA. The aim of this reading course will be to make detailed exploration of one of Euripides' most celebrated plays, and to use it as a point of access to Greek tragedy in general. Two class hours per week will be devoted to close reading of the text, and third will be devoted to various kinds of discussion and presentation. We shall consider the play's language and themes, its staging, its social and religious context, its mythological background, its place in a history of gender or sexuality, and its reception in ancient literature (esp. in Apollonius, Ovid, and Seneca) and in modern criticism. Of the translation load, between one half and two thirds will receive a full in-class review; students will be expected to study the remaining portions on their own (with some help in problem solving from the instructor). Commentaries will be available from Shaman Drum bookstore, one specifically designed for the intermediate student (Elliot) and the other more advanced and 'technical'. Either or both may be purchased. There will also be two course. packs from Accu-Copy on William and Maynard. Requirements will include a midterm; a final; a class presentation; and an eight-page paper, which may be based upon the class presentation. Cost:2 WL:3 (Hinds)

Advanced Courses

457. Greek Orators. Greek 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The study of representative works of selected Attic orators of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C., set against the background of the development of rhetorical techniques and artistic prose. Cost:5 (Garbrah)

506(411). Advanced Greek Composition. Greek 410 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The writing of continuous Greek prose: including the writing of versions i.e., rendering of original English passages into classical Greek, and free compositions in Greek. Not open to undergraduates. Cost:5 (Garbrah)

509. The Homeric Epic. Permission of instructor required for undergraduates; advanced ability to read Greek. (3). (Excl).

The emphasis in this course is on acquiring a solid grammatical background, and speed and proficiency in reading Homeric Greek, rather than on detailed treatment of problems of interpretation. Some attention will be paid to historical phonology and morphology, and on 'linguistics of the text'. Reading target: three books in class, five more to be prepared outside of class. This course is open to graduate students and undergraduates. (Slings)

Modern Greek (Division 433)

102. Elementary Modern Greek, II. Elementary Modern Greek 101 or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The course follows the same paidogogical scheme as MGr101, with class room dialogues, non-competitive group games and improvised scenarios. Instruction in more advanced grammar and syntax is effected through both formal methods and drills. By the end of the term students are exposed to approximately four-fifths of modern Greek grammar and syntax and are expected to be linguistically competent in a variety of everyday contexts. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, a one hour midterm exam and a final. (Graduate students should elect this class as 502.) Cost:1 WL:1 (Gagos)

Latin Language and Literature (Division 411)

Elementary Courses

Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential grammatical facts are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Students acquire a working vocabulary and demonstrate understanding of the reading by writing a readable translation. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.

In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 194, 231, and 232. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit the department office in 2016 Angell Hall, 764-0360, or contact Professor Knudsvig in 2012 Angell Hall, 764-8297.

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 193, or 502. (4). (FL).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hours examinations, and a final. [Cost:1] [WL:3]

102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 193 or 502. (4). (FL).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. [Cost:1] [WL:3]

194. Intensive Elementary Latin II. Latin 193 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 221, 222, 231, 232, or 503. (4). (Excl).

This is a continuation of Latin 193, a beginning language course which will have covered, by the end of the Fall Term, the essentials of Latin accidence and syntax, with some experience in reading continuous Latin prose (Caesar). This second term of this introductory sequence will continue the reading of prose and will then include selected readings in the first six books of Vergil's AENEID. Students need not have taken Latin 193 to enroll in Latin 194. Initially there will be a systematic review of Latin grammar, and throughout the term attention will be paid to details of grammar to ensure a command of language necessary for increasing ease in reading. Therefore, anyone with a knowledge of elementary Latin could profit from the course. The AENEID has been chosen as the main text because of its inherent importance for later European poetry and literature, and will be considered in class discussion as such not simply as an exercise in translation. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (001 D.O. Ross; 002 Huyck)

231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from such authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D. as Cicero and Caesar. Class discussions center upon the readings. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. [Cost:1] [WL:3]

232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (FL).

Section 001. This class will ask you to bring together and apply the knowledge and skills you have acquired in studying Latin to the reading of the greatest work of Latin literature. We will attend especially to Books I-VI, working closely with the text, slowly and methodically learning techniques of translating Vergil's poetry into clear and precise English prose. Book II (the fall of Troy) will occupy most of our attention. We will review grammar as necessary. We will also study Vergil's epic in English translation. By term's end we should have both a good understanding and appreciation of what the AENEID is all about and an ability to confront Latin passage of the poem with some skill and comprehension. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Wallin)

Sections 002-004 The goal of this course is simple: to learn to read extensive passages of Vergil's AENEID, with comprehension and enjoyment. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and time of the Emperor Augustus. Quizzes, hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. [Cost:2] [WL:3]

Intermediate Courses

302. Catullus and Cicero. Latin 194, 222, 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course will provide an introduction to the prose and poetry of the late Roman Republic (First Century B.C.), and is designed for students who have completed Latin 194, 222, 232, or the equivalent. Class time will be spent primarily in translation and discussion of several of Cicero's speeches and a selection of the poems of Catullus. Emphasis will be placed on a further mastery of Latin grammar and translation skills. There will be several hour exams and a final. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Knudsvig)

402. Imperial Prose. Latin 301 or 302, or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

SUETONIUS. The reading for this course will be Suetonius' life of Julius Caesar and his life of Augustus in Latin. All the biographies will be read in English, along with a selection of relevant texts from other authors (available in a course pack from Accu-Copy on Maynard Street). Class time will be divided between translation (two hours a week) and analysis of broader literary and historical topics (once a week). The topics that we will be examining include the place of Suetonius in the history of biographical writing, Suetonius' own personal and intellectual background, Suetonius' conception of character, the way that Suetonius assembled material for his biographies, the implications of writing biography rather than history, the reason for including a life of Julius Caesar in the corpus, the value of the information for Caesar's early life in Suetonius, Suetonius on the civil war of 49-45, Suetonius on the assassination of Caesar, Suetonius on the rise of Augustus, Suetonius on the reforms of Augustus, Suetonius on the character of Augustus. We will also be looking at the ways that Suetonius dealt with inconsistencies in the sources that he had at his disposal. The course requirements will be an hour exam, a final exam (both primarily translation), a class performance and an 8-10 page paper (which can be based on the class presentation). (Potter)

410. Poetry of the Republic or Later Empire. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

THE LATER OVID: METAMORPHOSES BOOK 8 AND TRISTIA BOOK 1. This reading course will be devoted to the central book of Ovid's remarkable mythological epic, and to the first book of his elegies from exile. Two class hours per week will be devoted to close reading of the text, and the third will be devoted to various kinds of discussion and presentation. MET 8 contains the stories by Scylla, Ceadalus and Icarus, the Calydonian boar, Philemon and Baucis, and Erysicthon: we shall examine the background of these myths, and explore how Ovid relates them to each other and to the broader concerns of his epic. TRIST 1 is separated from MET 8 by a brief interval of time, but by a huge change in the poet's circumstances. Ovid offers in this book his first public reaction to the catastrophe which ruins him in 8 CE at the height of his powers and fame, vix. his banishment to the Black Sea by the emperor Augustus. We shall consider the effect of the poet's exile upon his creative output; we shall explore the tensions between life and literature which inform his depiction of the journey into exile; and we shall ask how effective these elegies are as pleas for imperial clemency. Of the translation load, between one half and two thirds will receive a full in-class review; students will be expected to study the remaining portions on their own (with some help in problem solving from the instructor). Commentaries will be available from Shaman Drum bookstore, and a course pack from Accu-Copy on William and Maynard. Requirements will include a midterm; a final; a class presentation; and an eight-page paper, which may be based upon the class presentation. Cost:2 WL:3 (Hinds)

Advanced Courses

421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. I: (3); IIIb: (2). (Excl).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of modern linguistic theories that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Knudsvig)

426. Practicum. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. I and II: (3); IIIb: (2). (Excl).

Permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed primarily for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Knudsvig)

467. Horace, Satires. (3). (Excl).

The Satires of Horace will be selectively read. The course is directed to improving the student's reading skills in Latin, and to develop awareness of the dimensions and conventions of the Roman literary genres of satire. Two hour examinations, final examination. Cost:1 (Witke)

500. Special Reading Course in Latin. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to meet the needs of beginning graduate students who must perfect their ability to read and analyze Latin literary texts, especially at sight. It is therefore not recommended for undergraduates. Texts will include a wide selection of Latin literature, including both prose and poetry. Class will be devoted to prepared translation from these works, sight translation from other works, and grammatical review. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Scodel)

Classical Civilization (Division 344)

Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who have not had time or opportunity to learn these languages but who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

102. Classical Civilization II: The Ancient Roman World (in English). (4). (HU).

This course serves as a general introduction to the history, literature, life, institutions, and contributions of ancient Rome - that is, to Roman civilization. In order to achieve some focus, we will consider in detail four periods of change or crisis: the founding of the Republic (509 BC); the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 BC); the Augustan "peace"; and the established principate of Nero. We will thus be able to follow the development and failure of institutions of government and society, and to trace the changing attitudes and values of the major writers of each period as they tried to give shape and meaning to their world and times and searched for order and consolation in times of civil war and the collapse of the social structure. We will read historians (Livy, Sallust, Tacitus), poets (Catullus, Vergil, Horace) and other writers (Cicero, Petronius). Lectures will follow certain common ideas and themes, with occasional presentations of special topics (e.g., Roman law; slavery; the ancient book; gladiators). Attention will be given to daily life through slide lectures. There will be two short papers (50% of the final grade), and a midterm (15%) and final (35%) exam. Cost:2 WL:3 (D.O. Ross)

325/Women's Studies 325. Women in Classical Athens. (2). (HU).

This course will explore the lives of women of the most celebrated period of Greek culture, from about 460 to 360 BCE. Because no text or work of art by a woman survives from this period, the study of Athenian women must be an exercise in using inherently limited evidence. The course will be based on extensive reading in primary sources, including forensic orations, inscriptions, art (primarily painted pottery and grave reliefs), tragedy, comedy, medical texts, and philosophical works. The course will emphasize the complexities and paradoxes of women's position: pervasive misogyny/respect and affection for wives; exclusion from the public sphere/central role in civic cult; model of the invisible woman/aggressive tragic heroines. All reading will be in English. There will be two lecture/discussions. Students will write a short paper and there will be a final exam. Enrollment will be limited to 50 students. (Scodel)

462. Greek Mythology. (4). (HU).

Greek Mythology is designed to acquaint the student with the major myths and epic cycles of ancient Greece from the creation myths and their Near Eastern prototypes through the Trojan War and the wanderings of Odysseus. The development of various myths will be illustrated through Greek literature and art. We will also discuss the use and treatment of Greek myths in English literature, modern psychoanalytical theory, and comparative anthropology. Required texts will include Homer's ODYSSEY, parts of Hesiod's THEOGONY and WORKS AND DAYS, the HOMERIC HYMNS, and a selection of tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. An additional course pack will provide readings for discussion sections which will meet once a week to consider a variety of theoretical approaches to mythology, and other critical questions. Course requirements include two hour tests and a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Dillery)

472. Roman Law. Not open to freshmen. (3). (HU).

This course acquaints students with the fundamental concepts of Roman private law, with their origin in the society and government of the High Roman Empire, and with their all-important influence in the development of Western European legal theory. and institutions. The course aims primarily to meet the interests of undergraduates with a bent toward law as a profession, but it is open to all students (except freshman). We will use a direct application of the American case-law method to the teaching of Roman law. Our basic text will be a series of actual problems from the Roman jurists, which we will discuss in class; only as the occasion demands will the instructor "fill in the gaps" with short lectures on other relevant legal material. Thus students should develop a feel for legal analysis and for the contribution made through such analysis by the Roman jurists; at the same time, students will learn Roman law in a form that will be directly relevant to future legal studies. Besides the handouts, one general introduction to Roman law (ca. 250 pages) will be required reading. There will be one hour test on material covered in class, in addition to the final examination; one paper (10 pages) will allow the student to analyze in detail a particular legal problem. Cost:2 WL:1 (Frier)

473. Roman Decadence. (3). (HU).

This course surveys and analyzes the phenomenon of decadence in the Roman world from the beginnings of the Roman Empire to the fourth century. Works read (in English translation) include Vergil's AENEID; Ovid; Petronius; Seneca; Juvenal; Apuleius; Augustine; and others. Areas of concern include literature, society, religion and philosophy as they undergo crisis and conflict in an age of anxiety. Hour examination, final examination. Lecture and discussions. Cost:2 (Witke)

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