Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the development of western civilization from the fall of Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages to the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern state. It is "introductory" not only because it presents a narrative history over a period of fourteen centuries, but also because it introduces students to the subjects and techniques that comprise the study of history. From biography and political narrative to demography and the history of science, from art to economics, the focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created the world in which we live. The reading will concentrate on primary sources works written by those who made this history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to various kinds of history and ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization. Essays will be short and based on the assigned readings. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Hughes)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

A survey of the last three centuries of European history, History 111 is an attempt to account for the changes that have shaped the modern world. It will emphasize broad themes of development, among others the expansion of the state; the growth of capitalism; industrialization and urbanization; the changing roles of social classes and family; religious change and the rise of secularism; the appearance of mass politics; and the intensification of international rivalries. The themes will be presented in various contexts, treated through a number of essential movements and episodes such as the Enlightenment, French Revolution, and unifications of Germany and Italy, the industrial revolution, two world wars, the Russian Revolution, fascism, imperialism and post-imperialism. A textbook provides the basic continuity, and other readings will permit students to sample major thinkers and important historical interpretations. The aim of the course is 1) to give the general knowledge of western history 2) to provide background for the further study of history, and of the social sciences or humanities, and 3) to engage the student in historical analysis. Students enrolling in the course will attend two lectures a week, a discussion section also meeting twice a week, and special exhibits and films when offered. Written work includes an hour exam, a final examination, and two papers (one short, one longer). Special topics or projects may be worked out on an individual basis as students may wish. [WL:Efforts will be made to accommodate all interested students] (Bien, Grew)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

This is an introduction to modern China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam from 1800 to the present. It describes and analyzes China's progressive decline and rejuvenation, the impact of imperialism, and the rise and development of the People's Republic; the struggles of Korea and Vietnam; the end of traditional Japan and the building of a modern state and economy, Japanese imperialism, and the rebuilding of Japan from 1950 to the present. Attention is also given to literature, the arts and society in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and the societies and histories of each major East Asian country are analyzed comparatively. This is a continuation of History/Asian Studies 121, but that course is not a prerequisite and no previous background is assumed. Three lectures and a section each week. A midterm and a final, but no paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3 (Murphey)

152/Asian Studies 112. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 112. (Lieberman)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The purpose of the course is to illuminate a few major episodes and issues in American history, 1607-1865. Among these are the nature of Puritanism, the texture of colonial society, the causes of the Revolution, the party division of the 1790's, the nature of Jacksonian society, and the causes of the Civil War. There is no textbook assigned, the readings instead being in separate books each week. These books include works by major historians, collections of contemporary writings, a contemporary analytical work (Tocqueville's DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA), and a novel (UNCLE TOM'S CABIN). The major theme of the lectures is an assessment of one pervasive idea, "The growth and development of American individualism" although there will be excursions into some areas developed in the reading. There will be two hour examinations and a final. One or more of these will be the take-home variety. The principal purpose of the section meetings will be to develop issues arising from the reading. (Livermore)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course examines the history of the United States since the Civil War. Although all aspects of these years are considered, primary emphasis is on three themes: economic development and its social consequences, the Afro-American role in the nation's history, and American foreign policy from the first World War to today's post-Cold War setting. Two lectures and two discussion sections each week. Textbook plus supplementary readings. Hour exam and final. [Cost:5] [WL:1] (Perkins)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).

A survey of Roman history from the founding of Rome in the eighth century B.C. to the emergence of a Christian Roman empire in the fourth century A.D. Topics to be discussed include the consolidation of Italy under Roman rule; overseas wars of expansion into the Mediterranean; the domination of military commanders such as Pompey and Julius Caesar; the establishment of an empire by Augustus; and the conversion of Constantine to Christianity. Readings will include a survey textbook and many ancient texts in translation. Classes will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussions led by TAs. Final grade is based on two tests, frequent quizzes, and participation in discussions. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. [Cost:1 or 2] [WL:1] (Van Dam)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (Excl).

This course examines the wars that were fought in and around Vietnam from 1945 to 1975, with primary emphasis on the period of heavy American involvement from the mid-1950's. The course seeks to explain the origins, strategy, and impact of U.S. intervention. At the same time the course will explain the motivation of the Vietnam Communists and of their domestic opponents. Thus the Vietnam war will be analyzed both as the longest and most controversial foreign war in American history, and as the climax to an Asian social revolution. Meets three times a week for 50 minutes, plus one 50-minute discussion section. Midterm and final exam. [Cost:4] [WL:4] (Lieberman)

221. Survey of British History from 1688. (4). (SS).

This course is an introduction to British history from the Revolution of 1688 to the present time. Its focus is necessarily on the main developments and the three centuries of history it covers. It will be taught by a visiting scholar, Professor Kirk Willis of the University of Georgia. In addition to treating the political and economic development that made Britain for much of its modern history a dominant world power, and in may respects a leader, Professor Willis will emphasize his own specialization in the history of British thought, from Adam Smith to Bertrand Russell. The format is three weekly lectures. (Willis)

251. Modern China. (4). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. Cost:2,3 WL:3 (A. Feuerwerker)

265. A History of the University of Michigan. (3). (Excl).

The University of Michigan has been a leader in shaping the modern American university. The course will examine this heritage and history from the perspectives of students, faculty, fields of study, administration, etc. It will explore the factors that have shaped the University and place it within the larger social, political, national, and international context. The only prerequisite is an interest in your University and its place in history. Presentation will be through lectures with slides. Grading will be based on essay/objective exams; term project or research paper; photo quiz to acquaint students with central campus, its architecture and embellishment. Readings will be from a course pack and 2 or 3 required texts. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Steneck, Steneck)

285(University Courses 265). Science, Technology, and Society After The Bomb. (4). (HU).

The enterprise of science changed dramatically after WW II, both intellectually and socially. The consequences of being able to split the atom and, more recently, to engineer biological blueprints have made science literally a life and death activity that touches every human. This course will explore the growth and implications of scientific and technological development from the end of WWII to the present. There will be two lectures and one discussion per week. Students will work in small groups on one problem during the term, e.g., energy, pollution, global warming, health care issues. Each group will hand in a jointly written report at the end of term. Three or four books will be assigned reading. Students will be expected to make use of the Message System and a course CONFERence. Grades will be based on the group project, a class diary, and participation. Cost:Under $50 WL:1 (Steneck)

286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (4). (Excl).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all concentrations, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantine's conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic and Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome), which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Considerable attention is given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of student's choice, an hour exam and a final are required. (J.Fine)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

319. Europe Since 1945. (4). (SS).

This course will provide a critical introduction to the literature of modern British history in the 19th and 20th centuries relevant to problems in social history and cultural studies. Though the immediate focus is Britain, it should be possible for students specializing in other areas of European history, as well as those with theoretical and methodological interests in cultural studies, to take this course. Themes covered will include: discourses of social reform; the relationship between class and the construction of sexuality; state intervention into moral and sexual regulations; theories of consumption and the market; gendered constructions of consumption; the debates over post-Fordism and/or post-modernism; and so on. (Mort)

333/Econ. 396/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396.. (Szporluk)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (Excl).

America's wars have been significant experiences both for the society and for millions of individual Americans. We will examine the effects of these wars over the past hundred years through books, films, lectures, and discussions. Personal perceptions of the wars will be seen particularly in novels and autobiographies. In larger perspective, we will study the society's response to war and peace issues, national mobilization in a capitalist democracy, images of allies and enemies, the peculiar attractions of combat, the accelerating importance of technology in war, the performance of the armed forces, and the roles of elites, women, African Americans and other minorities. There are no prerequisites for the course. Grades will be based on a midterm and a final exam and on participation in discussions. Juniors and seniors may apply for humanities distribution credit. Texts include Volume II of Mary Beth Norton et. al., A PEOPLE AND A NATION, 3rd ed., six paperbacks, and a course pack. Students are asked to register for only ONE of the lecture sections, plus one discussion section. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Collier)

371/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (4). (Excl).

This course will examine the varieties of women's historical experiences over the last century. Students will come to see how standard historical interpretations are altered by the inclusion of women into the historical record. The course will focus on four areas: women's relation to economic production; changes in women's sexual and familial lives; women's political activism; and the development of feminist consciousness. Representative topics are: women's reform activities and the emergence of the modern welfare state; the changing meanings of female friendships in the early 20th C; the consequences of the Great Depression for women; women's experiences in the civil rights movement and new left; women and rock 'n' roll. Throughout the course we will pay special attention to the ways women's experiences have differed according to race/ethnicity, class, age and region. Requirements include a midterm, final and two short papers related to the course readings. Films and slides will be shown. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Echols)

376/Amer. Cult. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (Excl).

See American Culture 372. (Doyle)

382. Jewish History from the Post-Biblical Period to the Early Modern Period. (3). (Excl).

This course will survey major trends in Jewish history from the end of antiquity to the early modern era, both in Islamic lands and in western Christendom. It will begin with the Jews of the Muslim world in the Gaonic period, devote considerable time to the rise and decline of the Jewish communities of Spain and northern Europe, and conclude with major trends in Jewish society during the breakup of the medieval world order the dispersion of the Spanish exiles, the impact of the Reformation and Counter Reformation, and emergence of a new center in Poland-Lithuania. The course will stress the interaction of Jewish society with the majority culture at various junctures, changing cultural trends within Jewish society, and the distinctive religious climate of the medieval period. (Stow)

383. Modern Jewish History to 1880. (4). (Excl).

This lecture course offers a survey of Jewish history in western and eastern Europe, America, and the Middle East from the mid-seventeenth century to the 1870's. It begins with the emergence of western European Jews from cultural and social isolation, discusses their acquisition of the full rights of citizenship, and traces their efforts to modernize Jewish ritual and belief to make them more compatible with their new situation. The focus then shifts to eastern Europe, where traditional values and patterns of behavior persisted until the end of the nineteenth century. The lectures on eastern Europe will focus on the religious and social character of Jewish life in Poland and Russia, the development of Hasidism, and the first glimmerings of enlightenment (haskalah) in the mid-nineteenth century. The course will conclude with a look at the growth of the Jewish community in America before the mass migration from eastern Europe and, turning elsewhere in the diaspora, with a brief survey of the Jewish communities of North Africa and the Middle East. There will be an essay-type midterm, a ten-page paper, and a comprehensive final. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Bodian)

395. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 hour course open only to history concentrators by written permission of the instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Registration is restricted to History concentrators by override only; priority will be given to seniors. Override information available from 3607 Haven Hall Mondays through Fridays 1-4 p.m. ONLY NO EXCEPTIONS.

Section 001. AMERICAN POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT. This course will attempt to provide an improved understanding of contemporary problems and controversies confronting the United States by considering them in relation to the national historical experience and the processes of change and development which the nation has undergone. The underlying argument is that political institutions, practices and values are formed in particular historical circumstances but persist long after those circumstances have changed. One consequence is political stability and the avoidance of radical and potentially disruptive change. A second consequence is that persistent practices, institutions and values can become problems themselves, and constraints on the capacity of the nation to respond to new needs and challenges. Thus a central goal of the course will be to assess for the contemporary period, the consequences of these patterns of persistence. To do so will require examination of aspects of the political development of the United States from the founding of the nation to the present. Grades will be based on several papers and class participation. [Cost:2] [WL:2] (Clubb)

Section 002 UNDERSTANDING THE MODERN PRESIDENCY: GERALD R. FORD, GOVERNING, AND LEADERSHIP, 1974-77. For this upper division writing and research seminar, students will study the modern American presidency using the administration of Gerald R. Ford for case studies. Course topics will include presidential decision-making, organizing the presidency, presidential leadership and "image," the 1976 campaign, and public policy in the 1970s. The class will meet for lecture/discussion at the Gerald R. Ford Library at 1000 Beal Avenue on North Campus. Students will conduct most of their research at the Library using documents and other historical material created during Ford's presidency. Small class size permits a student to meet often with the instructor to plan and conduct his/her research. Students should have a survey understanding of recent American history. Course objectives: learn how the presidency functions and how presidents govern; conduct successful primary research resulting in a 20-25 page paper; develop critical thinking skills; and learn about the 1970s. Evaluation will be based primarily on writing assignments. Broad choice of research topics available. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Mackaman)

Section 003 SOLDIERS, DIPLOMATS, MERCHANTS, AND MISSIONARIES: THE AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN MODERN JAPAN. This course deals with Americans who went or were invited to Japan and who played a part in the changes experienced by the Japanese in the last 150 years. It will deal with individual Americans from different walks of life: government representatives, military figures, businessmen, advisers, travelers, missionaries, teachers. It will explore their motives for going to Japan, their activities, and the consequences of their activities as well as the broader significance of the American role in modern Japanese history. Major emphasis will be given to critical reading, class discussions and several writing requirements. Some attention will also be given to the nature and methods of historical inquiry. Reading assignments will be included in a course pack. Grading will be based on oral and written reports, contribution to class discussions, and a take-home exam at the end of the term. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Hackett)

Section 004 APPLYING HISTORY TO POLICY MAKING. This course is a primer on ways to use social memories and experience - both one's own and, vicariously, that of hundreds of others from the historic past to determine how best to make decisions in a real, imperfect, present-day world. Through discussions and required readings, beginning with Thucydides but concentrating mainly on case studies drawn from 20th century U.S. history, we will discover how much those who govern and manage public affairs have learned by looking backward in order to look forward and how often they were misled by the exercise. There will be no examinations. [Cost:3] [WL:2] (Achenbaum)

Section 005 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE. In recent decades, historians have begun to appreciate the importance of families and local communities as the fundamental units of social organization and social identity. This small discussion course will examine the nature and significance of community and family structures and functions in early modern Europe. The broad definition of the chronological and geographic focus of the course will allow us to read the best and most recent studies on family and community throughout Europe. The readings will include important monographs and case studies as well as some more theoretical, anthropological works. Among the readings will be primary source materials and at least one novel. The last few weeks of the course will be devoted to individual research and writing up papers on topics of the students' choice. Assignments will include five short papers spaced throughout the term and a longer research paper. There will be no exams, and there are no prerequisites. Cost:4 WL:2 (Kivelson)

Section 006 MICHIGAN IN THE ERA OF INDUSTRIALIZATION. This course will focus on the period in Michigan history from 1880-1920. It will examine several themes in that period including immigration, industrialization, settlement patterns, etc. A general familiarity with United States history is required. History colloquia are conducted in the seminar format and are limited to a small number of students. As a result, emphasis is placed on student participation in discussions. Each student will be required to write a major research paper that will draw on the resources of the Bentley Historical Library, which contains original historical records relating to the history of the state. The course provides an opportunity for students to gain familiarity with a critical period in the history of the state and to do original historical research. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, class discussion, and a seminar paper. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Blouin)

Section 007 LAW AND SOCIETY IN AMERICAN HISTORY. This course deals with several major themes in American legal history from the Colonial period to the early twentieth century. The themes include: tensions between formal legal rules and widespread social attitudes in various setting, including the local community, the family, and the larger economic order; changes in concepts regarding the nature and source of law and the relationship between those concepts and the roles of legislation, judicial opinions and informal or "customary norms"; concepts of human behavior as they relate to legal and social ideas regarding both the theory of criminal responsibility and the practical uses of institutions to enforce the law and to "correct" offenders; the relationship between socio-economic development and legal change regarding issues of class, gender, and race; the various meanings of the "rights tradition" in America. These subjects will be pursued through analysis of a selection of recent books (paperbacks) and articles. Attention will be paid both to the substantive matters listed above and to the manner in which historians have formulated issues and employed evidence in setting forth arguments regarding specific historical contexts. Students will be expected to write at least 30 pages, including a term paper of their choosing. The term paper will be an analytical essay on one of the main themes of the course and will draw upon several of the works read for the course. [Cost:4] [WL:5. Specific times for interview with Prof. will be listed in History Department.] (Green)

Section 008 THE REVOLUTIONARY MENTALITY: DOCUMENTS ON THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. An overall view of the American Revolution, with emphasis on the presence of democratic dissent within the revolutionary movement in the years 1776-1789. We'll take a very close look at, and spend most of our time discussing, a set of documents on the debate over forming a revolutionary constitution within Massachusetts in the years 1778-1780. But we'll examine the wider implications for our revolutionary heritage of the kinds of dissent seen in Massachusetts, and will consider as well the implications of the revolution for women's role and status. Main thing, though, is to learn to read documents carefully and sensitively, and to have some fun doing it. We'll read only 25-150 pages a week but read them very, very closely. Two quizzes, and a final paper involving outside reading. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Lockridge)

Section 009 IVAN THE TERRIBLE AND HIS TIME. Ivan the Terrible, Tsar of Russia from 1533 to 1585, is one of the most familiar and yet least understood figures of Russian history. Responsible for significant reform legislation as well as for incalculable killing and destruction, Ivan has posed a challenge to historians for centuries. In this small discussion class, we will read a wide variety of interpretations and will try to distinguish interpretations stemming from the historians' own biases from interpretations based on and consistent with evidence. Assignments will include primary source material, folk tales, historical accounts, and films. Written assignments will include five short papers spaced throughout the term and a longer research paper. Cost:3 WL:2 (Kivelson)

Section 010. REINTERPRETING THE AMERICAN FRONTIER: IDEOLOGY AND HISTORY. How do images of what the United States is today and ought to be in the future shape the interpretation of the American past? What do historians presume about human intention and behavior? How are histories grounded on moral and political judgments? To what extent should a history book be read as a structure of interpretation as opposed to a structure of factuality? This course will examine these and similar questions through the example of the continuing reinterpretation of the nature and significance of the American frontier in the history of the United States. The course readings will range from Frederick Jackson Turner's classic essays on this topic to such books as W.P.Webb, THE GREAT PLAINS; H.N.Smith, VIRGIN LAND; R.Dykstra, THE CATTLE TOWNS; W.Cronon, CHANGES IN THE LAND; and P.Limerick, LEGACY OF CONQUEST. Students will write a five-page paper on each of the assigned books. The papers and books will be the basis of the weekly discussions. Cost:3 WL:2 (Berkhofer)

Section 011: POLITICS, POWER AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN AMERICA, 1830-1930. How did the public sector in America take the shape that it did? This course attempts to answer this question by combining the theoretical and empirical work of historians, political scientists, and sociologists in order to analyze the development of the public sector in pre-New Deal America. It therefore combines a review of theories and models which have served to frame and inform inquiry into this topic with historical case studies of the development of the public sector in this period. Case studies of public sector activities will include education, social welfare, and economic regulation. Students will meet weekly to discuss reading assignments of about a book a week. Brief papers will be written weekly and, in addition, there will be a midterm paper of five to eight pages and a final paper of 15-20 pages. Both of the longer papers will be done in drafts. (McDonald)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Registration is restricted to History concentrators by override only; priority will be given to seniors. Override information available from 3607 Haven Hall Mondays through Fridays 1-4 p.m. ONLY NO EXCEPTIONS.

Section 001. CUBA: HISTORY AND REVOLUTION. This course takes a historical approach to the evolution of Cuban society, beginning in the late eighteenth century and continuing through to the Cuban revolution of 1959 and its aftermath. We will trace the development of political and economic structures, class relations, and social organization, as well as Cuba's relationship to other countries. Special emphasis will be placed on the nineteenth century and the role of slavery and sugar plantations in the formation of Cuban society. The aim of the course is twofold: to examine the sources of change and continuity in Cuban history, and to understand how one goes about analyzing that history, specifically how one uses primary data to develop different interpretations. Course requirements include two brief essays, with accompanying oral reports, on selected supplementary readings, and a longer essay on a subject of the student's choosing. The format of the course will be that of seminar. Readings will include Perez, CUBA; Moreno Fraginals, THE SUGARMILL; Scott, SLAVE EMANCIPATION IN CUBA; Lockwood, CASTRO'S CUBA, CUBA'S FIDEL; Perez, CUBA AND THE UNITED STATES; Stubbs, CUBA: THE TEST OF TIME; Brenner et al, THE CUBA READER. (Scott)

Section 002 THE JEWS OF THE RENAISSANCE. This course will offer an in-depth look at one of the most complex and fascinating subjects in Jewish history - the Jews of Renaissance Italy. Among the subjects to be discussed are the frequently intimate cultural and social relations between Jews and their neighbors, the often conflicting attitudes and policies of the Church in regard to the Jewish community, the unprecedented cultural activity of Jews in both the secular and religious spheres, and the economic life of Jews, especially their concentration in an increasingly narrow range of occupations. Students will read a variety of primary and secondary sources, which will be discussed at weekly class meetings. (Stow)

Section 003 TOPICS IN AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY. For the most part, the natural world has been largely overlooked by historians. Recently, however, some historians have sought to integrate nature and ecology into their work. In this course, we will be exploring the new field of environmental history. How has the ecological order shaped the making of history? What were the environmental consequences of American history as we know it? These will be the fundamental questions to be addressed in this course. We will start by examining the intellectual roots of this new field of history. From there we will survey American environmental history from the settlement of the continent by Europeans through to the 20th century. Topics will include: the biological consequences of European settlement; the contrast between European and Native American ecological beliefs and practices; agriculture and ecology; the settlement of the forest ecosystems; the conquest of the West and the question of common property; industrialization and relationship between technology, law, and nature; the changing ideology of the conservation movement; and the relationship between gender, ecology, and production. Class discussion and oral presentations will be the primary method of instruction. One research paper will be required. [Cost:3] [WL:3] (Steinberg)

Section 004 HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN GERMANY, 1648-1914. This colloquium will deal with the major issues in the history of German Jewry from 1648 to 1914. It will deal first with the conditions of Jewish resettlement after the Thirty Years' War and the role of court Jews in the centralizing German states. It will examine the Enlightenment debate on the status of the Jews in the late eighteenth century and the related "Jewish Enlightenment" in Berlin. The dramatic changes in nineteenth-century German Jewish society - ideological and social will be studied in light of the opportunities and pressures associated with the struggle for Emancipation. The reaction against Jewish Emancipation within German society and the rise of modern antisemitism will be examined up to the eve of World War I. [Cost:2] (Bodian)

Section 005 AFROAMERICAN AUTOBIOGRAPHY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT. The search for self has been one of the more intriguing features of American literature. No vehicle has been more important in allowing writers to define and validate self than the autobiography. Because of their less than privileged place in the broader society, the Afroamerican autobiographer, in a search for an authorial voice, has been acutely aware of the need to frame self. From the very outset an attempt was made to present a "truthful" self, one that suggested authority and purpose and invoked images of mobility and progress. Americans of African descent first turned to autobiographies as a way of defining "self" in the nineteenth century. Slavery robbed most of their contemporaries of a valid place in the evolving society, those fortunate enough to gain their freedom and to write about their lives bore a responsibility to the collective, the subordinate status of the majority of Afroamericans, however, framed what they wrote. This term we will explore shifts in the Afroamerican autobiographical voice by examining those who wrote after 1880. Slavery was no longer the dominant point of reference. Increasingly, African Americans entered a world undergoing tremendous industrial change. Such a fundamental structural shift caused Blacks to redefine the meaning of "self." In the process, they also reassessed the meaning of race, class, gender, and progress. To place the subject in historical context, each autobiography will be paired with an appropriate biography, if one exists. For example, Booker I. Washington's UP FROM SLAVERY will be paired with a biography by Louis Harian. We can make similar pairings for Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Langston Hughes and W.E.B. Du Bois. In other instances, it will be our job to place the individuals and their writings in historical context. Our primary objective will remain the exploration of the inner world of Black America during the industrial age, through the lens of the Afroamerican autobiography. Cost:4 WL:3 (Lewis)

Section 006 ASIA THROUGH FICTION. See Asian Studies 441. (Murphey)

Section 007 SEXUAL ETHOS IN PREMODERN JAPAN. How did Japan's premodern society (to 1600) regard body, sex, and women? This course is designed to broaden and redefine our understanding of the meaning of sexuality within a comparative framework. Through our analyses of concrete Japanese experiences, we will reconsider some of the theoretical assumptions prevalent in today's scholarship. Were women universally subordinate to men? Did the "nature-vs-culture" opposition between women and men hold true for Japanese society? Does our understanding of the "normal" and the "deviant" fit in a society devoid of Judeo-Christian influences? Although the focus of the course is premodern Japan, we will also cover some aspects of modern Japanese society. Course requirements include active participation in our weekly discussion and submission of three papers. (Tonomura)


398. Honors Colloquium, Junior. Honors students and junior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course is a methods seminar required of juniors who are members of the History Department Honors Program. It is not available for general enrollment. [Cost:1] [WL:5] Must be admitted by letter from Honors Committee. (J. Fine)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them.

413/MARC 413. Intellectual History of the Italian Renaissance. (4). (Excl).

The course will commence with a discussion of the culture of the Northern and Central Italian city-states in the 13th century. Emphasis will be placed on the civic and public nature of city life, and it is in this context that the ideas of Dante and others of his generation will be considered. Next we shall treat the emergence of Italian humanism tracing its religious and political strands leading from Petrarch in the 14th century to his more civically minded successors in the following century. After this, we will evaluate the leading ideas of Italian Neoplatonists and their impact on fields as varied as poetry and science. Machiavelli and Machiavellianism will be examined for an understanding of the rise of a new political ethic. Courtly society and courtly culture will be studied in order to appreciate the social and political transformation occurring in Italy in the 16th century. The course will close with an analysis of scientific developments leading to the New Science of the 17th century. [Cost:2] [WL:2] (Becker)

417. Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present. (4). (Excl).

The Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present is a lecture discussion of the chief ideas of "modernity" from the inception of the symbolist movement and the anti-positivist revolt to the beginnings of the post-modernist period following 1945. The course will consist of lectures and bi-weekly discussions of five books chosen to illuminate particular ideas and problems dealt with in the course. There will be a midterm and a final examination. An effort will be made to give a coherent account of the impact of symbolism and elite aesthetic and social theory on the development of art, literature and politics. Elite theories of socialism, anti-democratic biological, cultural and social theories, the rise of authoritarianism and ideology, the loss of religious faith and the growth of Irrationalism, the revolution in science and technology and the anti-technological response will all be discussed. Books to be purchased and read by the student: Renato Poggioli, THE THEORY OF THE AVANT-GARDE; Ernst Nolfe, THREE FACES of FASCISM; Vladimir Lenin, WHAT IS TO BE DONE, BURNING QUESTIONS OF OUR MOVEMENT; Georges Sorel, REFLECTIONS ON VIOLENCE; Walter Laqueur, WEIMER, A CULTURAL HISTORY. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Tonsor)

431. Byzantine Empire, 867-1453. (4). (Excl).

A survey taking the Byzantine Empire from the accession of the Macedonians till the Empire's fall to the Ottomans. The course focuses on both internal political history and foreign affairs (relations with the west; the great Church split between Rome and Constantinople; relations with Crusaders and with Slavic neighbors Russians, Bulgarians, and Serbs, relations with the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks). The main texts are: Ostrogarsky's HISTORY OF THE BYZANTINE STATE, and Jenkins' BYZANTIUM: THE IMPERIAL CENTURIES; and for the final two centuries, Nichol's THE LAST CENTURIES OF BYZANTIUM. Flexible requirements: Besides the final examination, various options exist: 1) a short paper and hour exam; 2) a longer paper and no hour exam. (Lindner)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (Excl).

This course surveys the history of the Soviet Union, beginning with the prerevolutionary formation of social groups and political movements through the revolutionary years, the Civil War, Stalinism, to the present crisis over the survival of the USSR. Emphasis is on social and political transformation, and the complex, multinational character of Soviet society will be explored. Students will be required to attend two lectures and one discussion section each week, write a paper, and take two take-home examinations (midterm and final). [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Suny)

448/CAAS 448. Africa in the Twentieth Century. (4). (Excl).

This is the second of a two sequence lecture course designed to introduce students to central themes in Sub-Saharan African history from 1850 to the present. It will deal with such issues as the abolition of the slave trade, the rise of legitimate commerce, European penetration and imperial systems, physical confrontation, colonial subjugation, underdevelopment, nationalism and decolonisation. Cost:4 (Atkins)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (4). (Excl).

This course describes the modern European conquest and transformation of Southeast Asia, and the indigenous responses to external influences. Geographic coverage will include the principal countries of the mainland (Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam) and the island world (Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). The course will conclude with an examination of post-World War Two developments, including the Vietnam Wars. In particular the course attempts to explain why individual Southeast Asian countries have developed military, Western parliamentary, or Communist regimes. Lectures and readings assume no prior knowledge of the region. There will be a midterm, a final, and an optional term paper. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Mrazek)

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; and the presidencies of Carter, Reagan, and Bush. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Review sessions will be scheduled. [Cost:3] [WL:4, a student may also visit the faculty office to see about getting on a Waitlist into the course.] (S. Fine)

476. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (4). (Excl).

This course will examine the colonial period in Latin American history from the initial Spanish and Portuguese contact and conquest to the nineteenth-century wars of independence. It will focus on the process of interaction between Indians and Europeans, tracing the evolution of a range of colonial societies in the New World. Thus we will examine the indigenous background to conquest as well as the nature of the settler community. We will also look at the shifting uses of land and labor, and at the importance of class, race, gender, and ethnicity. The method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Each student will write a short critical review and a final paper of approximately 10 to 12 pages. There will be a midterm and a final. Readings will include works by Inga Clendinnen, Nancy Farris, Karen Spalding and Charles Gibson, as well as primary materials from Aztec and Spanish sources. The text will be Burkholder and Johnson, COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA. (Scott)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (Excl).

See Economics 493. (Roehl)

516. History of Ireland to 1603. (4). (Excl).

This is a survey of political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from the earliest times to the destruction and close of the Gaelic order at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The course is conducted mainly by lecture in which, complementing the treatment accorded in textbooks, we will endeavor to realize the historical reality of a millennium of Irish Gaelic history, in itself and in relation to the rest of the medieval world. Two relatively brief papers and one extended one, and a final examination. There is no prerequisite for this course, only a willing and competent zeal for learning of a culture much more diverse from contemporary experience than you will readily imagine. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (McNamara)

535/Armenian Studies 535. Armenia and the Armenians in the 20th Century. History 287 recommended but not required. (4). (Excl).

This course investigates the modern history of the Armenian people, both in historical Armenia and in the diaspora. It begins with the revival of Armenian culture and the national movement of the late 18th century, proceeds through the years of political formation and the rise of Armenian nationalism, to the 20th-Century genocide, the establishment of Soviet Armenia, to the current crisis over the future of the Soviet Union. The course will be of interest to people in Middle East studies, Soviet studies, as well as those interested in Armenian history specifically. The course is based on lectures, discussions, and readings. One research paper is required as well as an oral examination at the end of the term. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Suny)

537(441)/GNE 571. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. (3). (Excl).

See GNE 571. (Bonner)

543/GNE 472. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (4). (Excl).

See GNE 472. (Luther)

550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (4). (Excl).

This is a systematic analysis of state, society, men, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: 1) the concept and structure of empire; 2) soldiers, diplomacy, and war; 3) society, cities, and literature; 4) barbarian challenge, economic development, and social change; 5) state, society, and culture in early modern China. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Chang)

554. Economic History of Late Imperial and Republican China, 1500-1949. A course in Chinese history or on the Chinese economy or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

History 554 studies the nature and quantity of the remarkable "premodern" economic growth achieved in late imperial China, and the difficulties encountered in initiating "modern" economic growth in the 19th and 20th centuries. Prior to the great economic changes which began in the 17th century, the absolute performance of the Chinese economy and the social and individual standards of living that it supported were arguably unrivaled in world history. How had this premodern growth been achieved? And why did not China go on easily from that basis to accomplish some variety of modern economic development such as Europe experienced, and which from the 19th century confronted imperial China with an unprecedented challenge or threat? While the focus of the course will be on economic organization and performance in "traditional" China, the boundaries between the economy and Chinese state and society will be continuously examined. And Chinese economic history will be placed in a broad comparative context of European and Asian economic history over five centuries. A previous course on the history of China (e.g., History 250, 251, 550, 551, 670 or 671) or on the Chinese economy (e.g., Economics 455) is a prerequisite. Lectures, assigned readings, class discussion, and a course paper. Cost:2 WL:3 (A. Feuerwerker)

559. U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (4). (Excl).

This course examines American diplomacy since the outbreak of World War I. Major topics include entry into and participation in the two World Wars, the origins and development of the Cold War, the war in Vietnam and the diplomacy of the post-Vietnam era. Although extensive attention is given to the world setting in which America acted, the primary emphasis is upon the formulation and execution of American policy, including investigation of the forces, domestic and foreign, which influenced it. A textbook and reading for a term paper are required. In addition to the paper, an hour exam and a final examination are required. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Perkins)

580. The History of American Constitutional Law. (4). (Excl).

This course is a survey of the evolution of American constitutional law from 1789 to the present. It will rely primarily upon reading the selections from the opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court to be found in A.T. Mason and D.G. Stephenson, Jr., eds., AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, and Stanley Kutler, ed., THE SUPREME COURT AND THE CONSTITUTION. The goal will be to discover how the different material circumstances and social and political assumptions of each age in American history have been reflected in the Supreme Court's shifting conceptions of the meaning of the Constitution. In this way, we will seek to define how beliefs about the essential character of American republicanism have been altered through time, and in addition, to appreciate the Supreme Court's changing understanding of its own role in the constitutional order. There are no prerequisites for the course, but History 160-161 or an equivalent understanding of the general structure of American history is assumed. There will be a midterm examination of ninety minutes, a ten-page term paper, and a two-hour final examination. (Thornton)

587. History of History I. (4). (Excl).

"The History of History, I" is a survey of historical writing, historical method and philosophy of history from the mythic mode of archaic society to THE NEW SCIENCE of Vico. The course will be a combination of lecture and discussion. Students will be expected to read widely in historical literature and to write a term paper on a topic chosen by the student in consultation with the professor. Students will be graded on the basis of midterm and final examinations and term paper evaluation. The development of historical writing as an ordering system in Western to the beginning of the 18th century constitutes the subject matter of the course. The historical will be distinguished from the mythic and the legendary. History as the providential order of God as exemplified by the Old Testament and history as the story of civic virtue as exemplified by classical historiography will form the first third of the course. The Christian conception of history will carry the story up to the Renaissance and Reformation. The invention of critical history in the period from the 15th to the 18th century will form the final third of the course. An effort will be made to demonstrate the interrelation of methodology, philosophy of history and rhetorical utility in the writing of history. Cost:2 WL:5. There is no danger of its being closed. Enrollment is usually less than 25. (Tonsor)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 PROBLEMS IN THE VIETNAM WAR. Selected texts, Western and Vietnamese in translation accounts by historians, journalists, writers and artists, memoirs and documents from between 1941 and 1990 will be read and discussed to find out how perceptions of violence and progress relevant to Vietnam have changed through time. The Vietnam War will be studied primarily as a clash of different visions of the Vietnamese civilization. Each class participant is required to complete a short critical paper over the course of the term on one of the text assigned in addition to a full-length historiographical paper on an aspect of The War. Students interested in Vietnam and/or historiography are welcomed. The method of instruction will be discussion. Cost:3 WL:4 (Mrazek)


593. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. Juniors, seniors and graduates. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 APPROACHES TO ASIAN AMERICAN HISTORY. For Winter Term, 1991, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 496.002. (Nomura)

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