Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 190 or 192. Psychology 190 is offered as a natural science course and stresses experimental psychology. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This is a course in cognitive psychology intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which will enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 172, 190 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

The course emphasizes the biological, experimental, and comparative approaches to psychology. Topics will include the biological foundation of perception, motivation, emotion, development, and psychological disorders. Also included are a discussion of learning theory, memory, cognitive development, intelligence, and personality. The students will be evaluated on the basis of three exams, short take-home essay questions and discussion participation. The course meets four hours per week, two hours in lecture and two hours in discussion sections taught by graduate teaching assistants. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Valenstein)

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 172 or 192. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

Students must register for the Lecture (section 001) as well as one of the Discussion sections (sections 002-013). This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, personality, and others. The course meets four hours a week, two hours in discussion sections taught by graduate teaching assistants. If a student is unable to attend the first lecture or discussion class for which they are registered, they must notify the Introductory Psychology office IN WRITING prior to beginning of classes to reserve their space in the course. [COST: 2] [WL:1] (Holden)

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170 or 171 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 170, 171, 190 or 192. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one-term survey which integrates material from Psychology 170 and 171. The course serves as a basic preparation for most advanced level courses in psychology. The aim of the course is to acquaint students with the major approaches psychologists use to understand people and the aspects of human thought, feeling, and action that psychologists have studied. Lectures and readings first present the major ways of thinking about psychological issues (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and biological) and then address the nature of thought, emotion, development from infancy through death, and interactions of individuals with family, social, and cultural forces. Discussion sections offer students the opportunity to discuss and critically examine what they are learning, to analyze case studies, and to participate in more experiential forms of learning. Students must keep Wednesday evenings open for course-wide examinations and occasional films from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. The final course grade is based on two course-wide examinations and additional work (research papers, etc.) assigned in section. [COST: 2] [WL:1] (Westen)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 170, 171, 172, or 190. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

Section 001. This course is designed to explore contemporary psychology. It will cover a broad area of topics: Part 1 presents a general introduction to Psychology (definitions, history, methods). Part 2 is designed to give an overview of four different levels on which psychological phenomena can be studied. First, the biological perspective will be discussed (evolution, genetics, nervous system). Second, some basic processes, namely perception, learning, information processing, motivation and emotion are studied. Third, the individual is in the center of attention (development, personality, clinical approaches). Finally, individuals in their social context will be considered (social cognition; intra-and intergroup processes). Part 3 of this course is devoted to the application of psychological knowledge to one specific problem, the adaptation to the transition from high school to college. This problem will be analyzed on the four different levels that were presented in part 2 of this course. Grades are based on two papers (one empirical group project, one literature review), five quizzes (spaced approximately biweekly) and one final exam. The text used is Gleitman, PSYCHOLOGY, 2nd edition, plus readings in a course pack. The format of the class is lecture and discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Inglehart)

Section 002. This course is intended to provide an in-depth survey of psychology, with an emphasis on the links between psychology and other disciplines, including philosophy, biology, medicine, law, and literature. Through exposure to the thought and writing of scientists and non-scientists who have applied their minds and sensibilities to the same subjects, we will consider some questions that have important implications for modern life, including the following: (1) How accurately do we perceive, remember, and think? (2) To what extent are intelligence, personality and action influenced by nature versus nurture? (3) What is the proper relationship between reason and emotion? (4) How are the thought and behavior of individuals affected by group membership? A variety of class formats will be used, including lecture, discussion, films, labwork, and class demonstrations. Readings include a textbook, two additional books (THE INSANITY DEFENSE AND JOHN W. HINCKLEY, and BORN RED: A CHRONICLE OF THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION) and a course pack consisting of diverse readings (essays, short stories, autobiographical accounts, etc.) that correspond to the topics presented in the textbook. The final grade is based on your performance on frequent quizzes, frequent papers, and a comprehensive final examination. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Landman)

Section 003. This course provides a broad introduction to the field of psychology. We will cover such topics as physiology and behavior, sensory and perceptual processes, states of consciousness, learning and memory, thinking, intelligence, development across the life-span, motivation and emotion, personality, stress and adjustment, abnormal behavior and therapy, and social psychology. The text is Morris PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION (7th edition) supplemented by a book of readings PSYCHOLOGY 90/91. Each student will also be expected to participate at least three times a week in a computer conference set up for the course. Grades are based primarily on three exams and participation in the computer conference. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Morris)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 55 agencies in which you can provide direct service to children in day care settings, adolescents in after-school programs, handicapped children and adults, retarded and emotionally impaired, agencies dealing with women's issues, physically ill adults and children, persons legally confined to institutions including mental health and criminal; social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. All sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work and course information for the Fall Term, 1990, will be available at a Mass Meeting on Thursday, November 15, 1990, 6-8 p.m. in Aud. A Angell Hall. If you are unable to attend the Mass Meeting, stop by the Outreach Office in L-218 Winchell House of West Quad to pick up a description booklet. For information, call the Outreach Office at 764-9179 or 764-9279. Psychology majors electing two separate sections in Psychology 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. [COST: 1, not including $15 lab fee.] [WL:1. After classes begin, go to Outreach Office L218 Winchell House, West Quad.] (Miller)

Section 001 CHILD CARE FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AT-RISK. The child project provides practicum experiences in a variety of child care settings for children who are determined to be at-risk for developing intellectual and emotional problems.

Section 002 EXPLORING CAREERS. Discover the career that best meets your needs and abilities, improve your strategies and techniques for making a career decision, learn to evaluate your own skills and talents.

Section 003 NEIGHBORHOOD CENTERS. Enables you to establish a meaningful friendship with a child in an after-school program, to help tutor and to plan activities.

Section 004 JUVENILE JUSTICE: Interact and assist people whose behavior is in conflict with the laws and rules of our society, learn about criminal behavior, justice and the law. Institutionalization and rehabilitation.

Section 005 SPECIAL NEEDS. Providing supervised occupational, physical, educational and recreational therapy, providing social, emotional, and academic support for children with a variety of special needs, serving as teacher aides and models for socialization.

Section 006 WORKING WITH WOMEN. Provides an opportunity to deal with women and various issues they encounter during the life-span; includes rape counseling, discussion groups, eating disorders, etc.

Section 007 MENTAL ILLNESS. Work with psychiatric patients living in institutional settings and those who have been "deinstitutionalized" and assisting patients to practice social skills, examining issues such as attitudes and prejudices about "mental health."

Section 008 SOCIAL CHANGE. Work with local agencies involved in and learn about Racism, Sexism, Homophobia, Homelessness, Domestic Violence, Environmental Destruction, Teen-aged Runaways, The AIDS Crisis, Rape, etc.

Section 009 ONE TO ONE. A chance to develop a meaningful relationship with a child on a one to one basis, to share in activities, and to enjoy being together.

Section 010 MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY. Serve as a non-medical liaison between staff, family and patients, offering empathy and emotional support in waiting rooms, and other settings, observing interactions between staff and patients and how people cope with stress.

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course. [WL:5, P.I. only]

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course. [WL:5, P.I. only]

255. Patterns of Development. Enrollment in the Inteflex Program or permission of instructor. Inteflex students electing a concentration in psychology may use Psych. 255 as the introductory prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 457. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended for students in the Inteflex program. It is a life span human development course, surveying conception to death, and providing theoretical and empirical material on physical, perceptual, cognitive, social/emotional development. Opportunities to work directly with children or special groups are optional but available. Grades are based on three exams and paper (library or practicum). [Cost:2] [WL:1] The course is geared to Inteflex students, and they have first priority. (Nadelman)

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309. The field practicum course offers an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation. [WL:5, P.I. only]

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

Section 001 WORKING WITH CHILDREN. Directed experience with children aged eighteen months to five years at the University of Michigan's Children Center and Children's Center for Working Families for approximately six to ten hours per week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a child care setting. [Cost:1] [WL:5, Permission of instructor required for all students] (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. [Cost:2] [WL:1]

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS).

This course surveys the field of Biopsychology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Biopsychology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Biopsychology courses. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Berridge)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be elected for credit more than once.

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. MAY NOT BE ELECTED FOR CREDIT MORE THAN ONCE. [WL:5, P.I. only]

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include work-related attitudes; motivation; leadership; decision-making; group-behavior; organizational design; organizational change; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be a general lecture and one group discussion section. The discussion section will review the materials of the readings and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. (Sandelands)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Hesse, Lessing, Eliot and Feild. There will be short papers assigned weekly. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Mann)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams and classroom contributions. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Hilton)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

Section 001. This lecture and discussion course looks at the family from both a developmental and clinical perspective. Developmental topics include dating, marriage and family life cycles. A variety of theoretical frameworks for understanding and evaluating the family are also presented. Primary emphases are on family systems, ecological and intergenerational theories of family functioning. The course paper requires the student to evaluate and design a family therapy intervention for one family in a work of modern fiction. The midterm and final have a multiple choice, short answer and choice of short essay format. (S.Bermann)

Section 002 This course will examine the clinical and research literature concerning the contemporary family. We will begin with the history of marriage as a cultural institution and trace the development of the modern family. The course will also focus on alternatives to marriage and the nontraditional family (e.g., divorce, single parent families, remarriage families, families headed by gay partners, etc.). Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and will be evaluated on the basis of examinations and assignments. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Leary)

391. Junior Honors: Research Methods in Psychology. Honors concentrators in Psychology. (3). (Excl).

Section 001. This course is designed to help the student prepare to carry out a research project for a senior Honors thesis. We will focus on the selection and development of topics, literature reviews, and research design. Class time will be devoted to discussions in which students can share their questions, knowledge, and interests about the problems and practices of contemporary psychology. Evaluation will be based on short papers and presentations, and on a larger paper describing a proposed research project. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Shatz)

Section 002. The principal purpose of this course is to help students progress toward development of the senior thesis project. One aspect of this is the selection of a topic area that is sufficiently challenging and interesting. To facilitate this process, students prepare a series of short papers that lead to a thesis proposal by term's end. In addition, the course will contribute to the thesis formulation process by examining various aspects of research design. This course is only open to students who have been admitted to the Psychology Honors Program. (R.Kaplan)

401. Special Problems in Psychology as a Social Science. Introductory psychology; intended for freshmen and sophomores. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits). An introductory psychology course is a prerequisite, and a previous course (or strong interest) in history or political science is recommended. This course offers a survey of ways that psychological factors affect political behavior, and vice versa. It begins by considering leadership and war-versus-peace as two important topics involving both politics and psychology. Then we address how to measure psychological characteristics of people (political leaders, national groups) who cannot be studied directly but must be studied "at a distance." Next, we consider several specific psychological-political processes: political socialization and "political generations," political cognition, new and old ideologies and organizations of political beliefs, voting and other links between the personal and the political, and gender and politics. The course concludes with a discussion of breakdowns in the political process (rebellion, terrorism) and the restoration of the political process (negotiation and mediation). Evaluation by exams and a series of 2-4 page "mini-papers." Lectures and discussion sections. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Winter)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 475 or 575; and permission of instructor. (See LS&A Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (Excl).

This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 475 or 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning on the first day of early registration. Enrollment is limited to eighteen students who are graduating seniors. Non-graduating seniors may place their names on the waitlist which will be used to fill any remaining spaces after graduating seniors have been accommodated. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric treatment setting. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examinations, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. [COST: 1] [WL:1] (Heitler)

433. Biopsychology of Motivation. Psych. 331, or equivalent background in introductory physiological psychology. (3). (NS).

How do brain systems generate emotion and motivate behavior? How does motivation differ across species? How does learning influence basic motivations? What are the neural mechanisms of pleasure and pain? What are the mechanisms of sleep and dreaming, hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression? How does the brain translate motivation into goal-directed behavior? These questions are the focus of the course. Our emphasis will be upon the critical analysis of theory and evidence from opposing points of view: students are expected to construct and defend their own conclusions in essay exams, papers, and presentations. Format is a mixture of lecture and discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Berridge)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

This course reviews our psychological knowledge about thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. We draw upon a number of sources: laboratory research, field studies, cross-cultural research, biographical material, cognitive theory, computer simulations of thought, and other interdisciplinary findings. There will be a special focus on thinking, reasoning, and problem solving in the context of everyday activities. This includes an analysis of how artifacts and other people play a role in cognition. We will cover this material through lectures, demonstrations, discussion, and active class participation, with a stress on the practical effects of the psychological knowledge we examine. There will be 3 one-hour exams, plus a number of short written projects. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Olson)

447/Ling. 447. Psychology of Language. Introductory psychology. (3). (Excl).

This course will provide a survey of topics and methods in the field of psycholinguistics. Topics will include speech perception, speech production (including "slips of the tongue"), word meaning and categorization, sentence processing, conversations and communication, language and social organization, bilingualism, language acquisition, and language disorders. Throughout the course the focus is on alternative explanations of language: as a cognitive, social, and biological phenomenon. Focus will be on current psychological research. Students will be evaluated by three exams and two short essays. This is primarily a lecture course, but student discussion is greatly encouraged. [WL:1] (Gelman)

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310. (3). (NS).

This course covers basic issues in human memory, as well as advanced topics such as autobiographical memory, emotion and memory, neuropsychology, and computer simulation. The focus will be experimental laboratory research, but other sources including clinical cases of patients with memory disorders will be considered. Lectures will be supplemented by class discussion and frequent demonstrations of real memory phenomena. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Heit)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This course surveys theory and research in personality psychology, including psychodynamic, social learning, and cognitive-motivational perspectives. Personality development and change will be considered from each perspective, and current research brought to bear in evaluating each perspective. Topic areas, such as social learning and aggression or gender role differentiation will be considered as ways of illustrating the empirical methods in personality psychology. The course format will include lectures and discussion sections; evaluation will be based upon two in-class exams and a short paper. No special background is required. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Cantor)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

Section 002. This course will focus on children's social and emotional development with a particular emphasis on the various agents that play a part in children's socialization. A major assumption underlying this course and guiding its content is that growth in social and emotional competence emerges from children's experiences in their relationships with other people, especially parents, siblings, and friends. We further assume that socialization is bidirectional, that is, that children influence their relationships even as their relationships influence them. A partial list of topics includes: biological influences on development, infant-caregiver attachments, the development of children's friendships, parental beliefs and behaviors, the role of fathers in child development, sex-role development, the development of prosocial behavior, the development of the self, the development of achievement motivation, schools as socialization agents, day care and maternal employment, and divorce and single-parenthood. Grading is based on exams. Cost:2 WL:1 (Parker)

455. Cognitive Development. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course examines cognitive development from infancy to old age. It will cover the major theoretical perspectives on concerning cognitive change (i.e., Piaget's theory and Information Processing) and the specific domains where changes occur (i.e., language, intelligence, conceptual knowledge, social cognition, memory). The course will consist of lecture and discussions. Evaluation will include a variety of exams, short papers, and group projects. Cost:3 WL:1 (Rosengren)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 255. (3). (SS).

Section 001. This course surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the development of the child from conception to adolescence. Physical, cognitive, perceptual, language and social/emotional developments will be examined. The main goal of the course is to familiarize students with current theories, research, and methodology used to study the development of children. There will be three non-cumulative exams and a number of short written assignments. Cost:3 WL:1 (Mangelsdorf)

Section 020. This course is a survey course in child development from birth to adolescence. Physical growth, cognitive development, language development and social and personality development are examined. Students are expected to read approximately 100 pages per week and to attend lectures. Grades are based on a midterm exam, a final exam, and term project. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Hoffman)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

Section 001. This section of Psychology of Aging takes a broad view of aging. It is based on the premises that individual aging is a life long process that cannot be understood as an isolated phenomena but is a function of the physical and social changes that accompany psychological developments as well as of the social and historical context in which an individual ages. The course will draw information from the traditional specialties of the psychology of aging (such as memory; intelligence; personality; social relationships, and psychopathology and treatment) as well as from health and social gerontology (i.e., disease, treatment, and prevention; institutionalization; retirement; social stratification, and housing). Emphasis is on information based on research and evaluation of the methodologies used in generating the findings. The course is organized into lecture and discussion sections; some contact with an older person outside of class is also required. Course requirements are two brief papers and two exams. A text and supplemental readings will be used. (Hertzog)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Psych. 363 or equivalent or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The course discusses psychological perspectives on group behavior. Topics include the formation and development of groups, their decision-making and problem-solving processes, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The class focuses on the understanding of groups in organizations Both experiential and didactic teaching methods will be used. The course material will include research literature, case studies, and examples from contemporary organizations. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Rafaeli)

468/Anthropology 468/Women's Studies 468. Behavioral Biology of Women. Introductory psychology or anthropology. (4). (Excl).

What does it mean to be a woman? This course approaches this question by beginning with an even more fundamental question: What does it mean to be FEMALE? Evolutionary theory will provide a framework for comparing human females with females in other animals, especially primates. These comparisons illuminate the evolutionary origins of universal features of human female behavioral biology, including, for example, menstrual cycles, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause. To understand how such universal biological features affect individual women, the course will examine the relationship between mind and body (psychology) and the ways particular cultures influence a woman's experiences and sense of self (anthropology). The course will introduce students to recent and innovative research on women in the fields of biology, psychology, and anthropology. Students will consider the relevance of this information for their own lives and for current social and political issues, such as fertility, birth control, eating disorders and body imagery, premenstruation syndrome, women's friendships, and competition between women. The course will include two one and one-half hour lectures each week plus an hour of discussion section to be arranged during the first week of classes. A substantial amount of reading will be assigned. Grades will be based on one in-class midterm, one take-home final, an essay describing an interview conducted with an older woman about her life, and participation in a computer conference discussing issues raised by the course. (Smuts)

475. Abnormal Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course overviews abnormal psychology, emphasizing psychological explanations of such problems in living as anxiety, depression, drug abuse, and sexual dysfunction, as well as their treatment by psychological means. There are two lectures and one discussion per week. Grades are based on examination performance and activities assigned in discussion sections. Books include Rosenhan and Seligman's ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY (2nd ed.). Readings may be assigned. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Peterson)

Section 020. This course will review classifications of psychopathology and consider various theories of the causes and treatments of psychological disorders. The emphasis will be on case studies and psychological explanations and treatments. We will examine a wide range of disorders including schizophrenia, depression, personality disorders, phobias, and sexual dysfunctions. The emphasis will be on case studies and psychological theories of psychopathology. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Hansell)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (Excl).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psychology 170, 172, 190, 192, or 310, and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MEMORY. (3 credits). (Prerequisite: Psych. 331 or equivalent). This lecture/discussion course surveys current ideas and findings and neural mechanisms of learning and memory. One-third of the course deals with the neurobiology of learning and memory; the rest, with the neuropsychology of human memory. Evaluation is based on a term paper and final exam. course pack readings; no text. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Butter)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 DREAMS AS MODELS OF PERSONAL CONFLICTS AND RESOLUTION. The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving hence clinical data will be made the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others) the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class) and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

Section 002 CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits) The course deals with comparisons of psychological processes and development of individuals living in diverse cultures. Emphasis is placed on cognitive, personality, and social development; discussions of disturbances in development, maladjustment, and remedies are included. A number of cultures are discussed, but many of the examples are drawn from the cultures of Asia and the United States. A beginning course in psychology provides the necessary background. Student evaluations are made on the basis of two examinations and a term project, which, depending on the size of the class, may be in the form of an individual research project. There is no textbook; a course pack is used. Reliance is placed primarily upon lectures, but discussion sessions are held before examinations and conferences are held concerning the term project. Cost:2 WL:2 (Stevenson)

Section 003 SELECTED TOPICS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND THE LAW. (3 credits). The purpose of this course will be to acquaint the student with an overview of the manner in which courts function to resolve conflicts and the role that psychology plays in a variety of legal processes. The topics to be covered will illustrate the use of psychological theory and data in judicial decision-making and the function of expert psychological testimony in the courtroom. Recent developments in law which have brought more psychological testimony and evidence into the courtroom will be reviewed through the class room lectures and the selected bibliography of readings. Through the readings, class room lectures and discussion the student will be expected to acquire a better understanding of the role that psychological theory and data play in the courts and the legislatures. Some of the areas to be covered in this course include:

Juvenile Courts/Rights of Minors

Expert Witnesses in Abuse/Neglect Cases

Medical Malpractice

"Psychic Injuries"

Patients' Rights in Psychiatric Settings

Psychological "Syndrome" Testing

Scientific Testimony in the Courtroom

Forensic Psychology and the Insanity Defense

Forensic Psychology and the Diminished Capacity Defense

Patients, Therapists, and Informed Consent

Witness Credibility and Reliability

Prediction in Psychology and the Courtroom

Reading material for the course will consist of: journal articles, trial transcripts, appellate court cases and selections from books and essays relating to current issues in psychology and the law. The course is planned as a three-credit hour offering to advanced undergraduates who have had introductory courses in psychology and related areas such as sociology or political science. (Guyer)

Section 004 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF GROUPS. (3 credits). (Psychology 382 is prerequisite). A broad review of the theoretical and empirical literature on group processes. Covers such topics as social influence, conformity, group structure, leadership, group decision-making, and intergroup relations. Grade based on midterm and final exam. Each exam made up of 3-4 essay questions. Students may choose to do a paper for extra-credit. Lecture and discussion. Cost:2 WL:1 (Burnstein)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 HUMAN MATE SELECTION. (2 credits). This seminar will focus on human mate selection, broadly conceived. Processes prior to the actual decision to mate will be examined (e.g., competition for mates). Components of the selection process will be examined in detail, including features associated with mate quality, mate preferences, and sex differences in decision rules. The aftermath of mate selection will be examined next. This includes tactics used to retain or guard mates (from vigilance to violence), tactics of mate poaching, resistance or susceptibility to alternative mates, and life-history patterns of mate selection. Evolutionary theory generally, and sexual selection theory specifically, will be used as the overarching theoretical framework within which these facets of human mating will be examined. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Buss)

Section 002 PSYCHOLOGY, CREATIVITY, AND THE ARTS. (3 credits). The course will deal with three topics: the origins and hazards of creativity in the arts (literature, the visual arts, music); the psychological impact or "meaning" of the work of art; the relation between life history and the work. We will give much of our attention to the depressive-alcoholic pattern which has been so commonplace among the artistically gifted, especially this century's American writers and painters, and also to the less frequent but equally revealing examples of paranoid personalities and episodes. Grades will be based on a term paper and on contributions to class discussion. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Adelson)

Section 003 ADVANCED TOPICS IN HUMAN PERCEPTION. (3 credits). This section of Psychology 502 is intended as a continuation of Psychology 444 (Perception). The topics to be studies will include selective attention, perceptual learning, and perception as symbolic representation. Particular emphasis will be given to the consideration of social, cultural and linguistic influences on perception. Both objective and subjective perspectives about perception will be explored, as well as the relationship between the processes of perception and imagination. All of these topics will be integrated into the main theme of the course, which will be the question of how an individual's conception of reality is related to his or her perceptual experience. Thus, the material in the course should be relevant to students with interests in social, clinical, and developmental psychology, as well as those interested in language, cognition and sensory functions. The reading material in the course will be drawn from psychological, philosophical and literary sources. Authors to be discussed will be selected from among: Barfield (SAVING THE APPEARANCES, WHAT COLERIDGE THOUGHT), Bach (ILLUSIONS), Bruner (ACTUAL MINDS, POSSIBLE WORLDS), Heidegger (WHAT IS A THING? INTRODUCTION TO METAPHYSICS), Keller (THE WORLD I LIVE IN), Kinsella (SHOELESS JOE), Neisser (COGNITION AND REALITY), and Whorf (LANGUAGE, THOUGHT AND REALITY). The class size will be kept small (15-20 students) in order to maximize discussion and interaction. An MTS Conference will also be organized. Grades will be determined entirely by two short papers (5-10 pages) and one longer paper (10-15 pages). [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Pachella)

Section 004 COMPUTER SIMULATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES. (3 credits). This course is intended for upperclass psychology concentrators with very little experience in computer programming who would like to explore the ways in which computers can be used to simulate basic psychological processes. Students will develop a simple animated display and then give the characters in the display the ability to see and identify other objects, to remember what they have seen, to make decisions, and to solve problems. Toward the end of the course students will give various characters distinctive personalities. Some prior exposure to the fundamentals of Pascal programming and to Macintosh computers is required, though the first few weeks of the term will provide a review of Pascal as well as an introduction to Macintosh programming. Software is provided at no charge. The required text is J.H. Reynolds, COMPUTING IN PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING METHODS AND CONCEPTS. (Morris)

Section 005 INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE SCIENCE. (3 credits). For Winter Term, 1991, this section is jointly offered with University Courses 325. (Smith)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

Section 001 LABORATORY IN RELIGION AND PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits). This lab will explore techniques for describing and analyzing the process of spiritual development. We will be examining the records of prior laboratory groups as well as creating a new culture of our own. The techniques used will be primarily those of thematic analysis and ways of describing the evolution of groups. THE PREREQUISITES (Psychology 370 or 403 or Religion 369 or 424) WILL BE ENFORCED, and the required permission of the instructor may be obtained at L-218 Winchell House, West Quad. There will be weekly writing assignments and one final, integrative essay. Early in the term students will be trained in the use of MTS and CONFER which will be used to create an electronic conference containing both the data and the commentary of the lab members. [Cost:2] [WL:3, Permission of instructor only. THE PREREQUISITES (Psychology 370 or 403 or Religion 369 or 424) WILL BE ENFORCED. Student must fill out application form which can be obtained at L-218 Winchell House, West Quad.] (Mann)

Section 002 ADVANCED LABORATORY IN ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits). (Prerequisite courses are 363 or 464 or 382 and junior or senior standing). This advanced laboratory will cover several approaches to enhancing individual, group, and organizational effectiveness. We will focus on role analysis and negotiation, competencies of an effective consultant, impression management, group planning and decision making, diversity, goal setting processes, types of organizations, and work redesign. The instructor will introduce each topic to the class members by giving a brief overview of the framework, lecture or workshop to provide some firsthand experience with the concepts and phenomena we are studying. Subsequently, the class will reflect on the presentation and discuss relevant readings, processes and assignments. Finally, students (individually and in groups) will conduct field research projects, deliver class presentations and complete written reports which will then be delineated in class. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Beale)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval. [COST: NA] [WL:5 P.I. Only]

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval. [COST: NA] [WL:5 P.I. only]

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402; and Psych. 382 or prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (Excl).

Section 001 INFERENCE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR. This section will demonstrate a variety of techniques of experimental social psychology. Special emphasis will be placed on the study of social inferences - judgments that we make about ourselves and others. Students will carry out their own study or experiment. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Hilton)

Section 002 AND 003. "Do the life stories of leaders of highly-active political groups sound like the life stories of leaders of highly-active religious groups?" "When members of extremist groups discuss their family lives, do we hear dimensions that also arise when they discuss national events?" Questions of this order questions that try to link social and political events to currents within the lives of individuals are the subject for our inquiry by both quantitative and non-quantitative methods. The ideal student is one hungry to explore because she has a rather deep need to understand social and political developments they are not casual interests. She also is ready to work in a collaborative, independent fashion with other students and the instructor. Each student will work out a research question of her own and will pursue it for the term probably as part of a loosely-structured team. She should arrive at class with a good start toward identifying those aspects of the environment that raise deep needs for understanding on her part. We will need attendance at all class meetings and some nine additional hours of work each week. A rewarding course for independent souls with active minds and social passions. [Cost:1] [WL:1. Must attend the first two meetings] (Ezekiel)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (Excl).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, socio-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course: students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Several different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize students with the techniques that personality psychologists use in making empirical questions about human nature. The first half of this course will emphasize various methods commonly used in personality research. We will cover both laboratory and field approaches to personality research, as well as learn a variety of observational methods, assessment techniques, and experimental designs relevant to the study of personality. In the last half of the course students will form small groups to design, develop, and conduct an actual research project with human subjects on a personality topic of their own choosing. Students will analyze their data and produce a written research report of their results. Evaluation will be based on examinations, a written literature review, and the written research report. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Norman)

530. Advanced Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 368, 369 or 430 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course presents a detailed examination of animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Students must have a basic understanding of modern Darwinian theory (e.g., Psych 430, Psych/Anthro 368 or 369) and an interest in applying this theory to a rigorous analysis of various issues in animal behavior. Topics include:

(1) the level of selection (genes, individuals, and kin selection),

(2) altruism, cooperation, and reciprocity,

(3) the evolution and ecology of social systems,

(4) the evolution and ecology of mating systems,

(5) sexual selection and mate choice, and

(6) strategies of reproduction by males and females.

A lecture format is used supplemented with class discussion of course pack articles. Grades are based on two or three take-home essay exams. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (W.Holmes)

533. Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys current knowledge of human brain-behavior relations and the neural processes underlying perception, movement and cognitive function (including learning, memory and language). Much of the content concerns the effects of damage to specific brain regions on behavior and cognitive function. Other special topics include an introduction to neuroanatomy, neurological disorders and techniques of neurological diagnosis, cerebral asymmetry, sex difference in brain organization and behavior, and neural adaptations contributing to recovery of function following brain damage. Evaluation based on three multiple-choice, short-answer type exams. Lecture and discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Butter)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (Excl). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Marsden)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (Excl).

This course examines the adolescent period, largely from the points of view offered in personality, clinical, and social psychology. Although the course emphasizes the normal processes of adolescent development, for example, the achievement of ego identity, and the growth of mature modes of thinking and reasoning, it will also give close attention to such characteristically adolescent phenomena as delinquency and eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia. We will also try to understand the extraordinary increase in severe pathology among adolescents during the last two decades. There is a two-hour seminar discussion once each week; and the class members will also meet in groups of five or six once every two weeks. There is a term paper and a final essay examination. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Adelson)

560. Human Factors Psychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

People interacting with their immediate environment constitute a system. A pilot controlling an aircraft or a computer operator at a terminal are examples. This course emphasizes the people side of the system, assessing their capabilities and limitations. The human senses (information intake), memory and cognition (information processing), and actions (performance) are studied in relation to the goal of making machinery and equipment easier, safer and more efficient to use. As an example, displays and controls will be considered. (Is your auto, F-16 fighter plane, safer to operate with a Head-Up Display i.e., HUD?) Facility with algebra is necessary. A nodding acquaintance with probability and calculus is desirable. Examination and laboratory exercises are used for student evaluation. Cost:2 WL:1 (Weintraub)

565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 363 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on the functioning of organizations as systems. It examines how various aspects of organizations as systems (their culture, technology, design, image, strategy, power, decision making and communication processes) contribute to overall organizational effectiveness. Student evaluations depend upon three short papers, a midterm and final exam, and group project. The course will rely on class discussions, case analyses, mini-lectures and fieldwork in actual organizations. We will use ORGANIZATION THEORY AND DESIGN (Daft, West Publishing Company, 1989) as the text, as well as supplementary cases. [Cost:3] (Dutton)

572. Development and Structure of the Self. Introductory psychology and junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course examines major psychological conceptions of the self. It is organized around such topics as the self as meaning-maker, identity achievement in young adulthood, the emerging self of infancy, the integration of self, the gendered self, the moral self, the self and social institutions. It is designed for a group of 20-25 students who have a general background in psychology. It will emphasize the critical examination of a relatively small number of texts. The class format will be centered in discussions of assigned readings, and will regularly require brief prepared reactions to them to open class discussion. Student evaluation will be based on class participation, a paper, a midterm, and a final examination. (Fast)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of 2 short papers, a midterm, final examination and term paper. [COST: 2] [WL:1] (Miller)

574. Clinical Psychology. Psych. 474 or Psych. 575 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, and papers) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2) to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Lohr)

575. Perspectives in Advanced Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, 475, and 558. (3). (Excl).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

578. History of Psychology. Two advanced concentration courses. (3). (Excl).

The course will cover the intellectual history of the discipline of psychology. It will concentrate on its modern period from 1850 to the present but its intellectual roots before that will be reviewed. Students should be juniors or seniors with a background in either psychology, philosophy, science or intellectual history. The course is open to graduate students as well. Grading will be based on class participation and on a long paper which will center on the tracing back through time or the development of the work of a current psychology department faculty member. Each student will choose a faculty member, interview them, read their current work and trace their intellectual, methodological and content mentors from the past. Readings will be extensive and tailored to each student's project as well as a base of common background texts. The format will be as close to seminar style as the number permits. [Cost:2] [WL:3,4] (Brown)

591. Senior Honors Research II. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

The main business of the course is ensuring the completion of the Senior-Honors thesis. The goal is a thesis that makes student, tutor, and Psychology 591 instructor proud. Basic statistics may be taken up in class, dosage as needed. Thesis authors have an obligation to present a talk based on their thesis at the Psychology Honors Colloquium in April. Cost:1 WL:3 (Section 001 Weintraub; Section 002 Marsden)

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