ROMANCE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS REQUESTING OVERRIDES FOR FRENCH OR SPANISH 101, 102, 103, 231 OR 232.

1. Try to find a section that will fit into your schedule, since the Department CANNOT GUARANTEE every student a space in a section of his/her own choice.

However, DO NOT register for a class that you cannot attend. You will NOT be eligible to override into the section of your choice if you are registered for ANY Section of 101-232, even if you cannot attend that section.

2. As it states in the TIME SCHEDULE, any registered student who misses MORE THAN ONE of the first five class meetings will automatically be dropped from the course, thereby leaving some spaces open for those students who have been closed out.

If there is ABSOLUTELY NO Section open which will fit your schedule, you should follow this procedure: (a) Start attending the section you would like to get into on the first day of class. You will receive a "Proof of Attendance" form which must be signed by your instructor every day. You must attend a class every day, but it does not need to be the same section. (b) On Tuesday, January 15 at 7:00 p.m., there will be a meeting in the basement of the MLB, rooms to be announced later, for each of the above courses. At these meetings, students will be assigned to remaining vacated spaces in the most fair and equitable manner possible, using a lottery system. At no time, however, will any class be allowed to exceed 25 students. STUDENTS MUST BRING THEIR CRISP OFFICIAL PRINTOUT OF CLASSES AND THE PROOF OF ATTENDANCE FORM TO THE MEETING!

3. Please note the you WILL NOT BE ALLOWED TO CHANGE Sections at the French meetings. Beginning, Wednesday, January 16, Elementary Language Supervisors will hear requests for section changes and fill those requests to whatever degree is possible.

4. Please ensure when adding with the override that you should also add modifiers for pass/fail, etc.

FRENCH AND SPANISH PLACEMENT TESTS:

If you are planning to take an elementary French or Spanish class and you are a new student, freshman or transfer student, or you have not yet begun the elementary language sequence on the Ann Arbor campus, you MUST take the placement test in order to register for the correct course. Here is an upcoming schedule of testing dates:

Monday, Nov. 19 7:00 p.m.

Monday, Nov. 27 7:00 p.m.

Sunday, Jan. 6 2: 30 p.m.

Monday, Jan. 14 TBA

If you have registered for a class prior to taking the test, you will still be required to take the test in order to verify that you are in the appropriate level class.

Both the Spanish and French test will be given at the above times; testing locations will be available from the Office of Orientation (764-6290) or LS&A Checkpoint (764-6810) as soon as they have been confirmed.

If you have already taken French or Spanish 101-232 on the Ann Arbor campus, or you have already taken the placement test once, you are NOT eligible to take the test again. For questions regarding the LS&A language requirement, please see a general academic advisor or call POINT-10.

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (FL).

Students with any prior study of French must take the placement test. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced in French 101, with an increased amount of reading in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying vocabulary and grammar, writing exercises and compositions, video viewing, and laboratory work (l 1/2 2 hours per week) on pronunciation, vocabulary, structural exercises, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes or tests as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations, listening comprehension and speaking tests. [Cost:3] [WL:See statement above.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103. It is STRONGLY suggested that transfer students see H.Neu or for advice regarding placement in the appropriate course. [Cost:1, Same texts as 101] [WL:See statement above.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (FL).

The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves at a rapid pace, covering about 60 percent of the French 101 materials by midterm, and about 60 percent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Videos will be viewed about once a week to complement lessons. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102. [Cost:2] [WL:See statement above.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. French 206 may be elected prior to French 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 206 is offered in the Winter Term.) It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 are the third and fourth terms of language study offered. It presents a comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and literary excerpts. Both courses include the use of French movies and video. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on topics of interest, to understand conversations on such topics. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. Homework consists of grammar study, written exercises, and laboratory work. There are comprehensive coursewide tests as well as the midterm and final examinations. [COST: 3] [WL:See statement above.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

See French 231. [Cost:4] [WL:See statement above.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward midterm students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 25 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Hagiwara)

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, but homework, attendance, and participation in classroom activities determine the Credit/No Credit grades. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Hagiwara)

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. (3; 2-4 in half-term). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of materials on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet three times a week in section. All classes are taught in French. Audio activities (listening comprehension program), and videos, two novels. Bi-weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. NO AUDITORS. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course stresses the improvement of students' written and spoken French. Using a selection of literary and cultural material organized by theme as the basis of round-table discussions and written exercises, students will increase their ability to write and converse fluently as they think about the ideas that have shaped French culture and history. Material is both audio-visual and written, and includes fiction by authors such as Christiane Rochefort and Voltaire, films by directors such as Jean-Luc Godard and Jean Renoir, literary correspondence, songs, and press articles. Classroom activities and discussion topics vary with instructor. Required work in all sections include active participation in class, weekly compositions, and study of audio-visual material at the language lab. The course is designed as a bridge between the highly structured activities of language courses and the more independent work required in literature and civilization courses; grammatical difficulties will be treated as needed. Midterm and final examinations will test level of spoken and written fluency. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Graham)

363. French Phonetics. French 361 and 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to help students improve their pronunciation of French (1) through a study of the physical characteristics of each sound, the relationship between sounds and their written presentations, the rules governing pronunciation of "standard" French, and (2) through intensive oral practice in the production of French consonants and vowels, syllable structure, intonation, liaison, and in the delection/retention of the "mute E." The class meets three hours per week and is conducted in French. Regular attendance and participation are required. Students are expected to familiarize themselves with the assigned theoretical material before each class period. Oral exercises are to be prepared in the lab on a regular basis. Each student will record a speech sample during the first week of the term and will be informed of problem areas on which he/she needs to work independently throughout the term, using the audiotapes available in the lab and checking with the instructor periodically for individualized help. Evaluation of proficiency in pronunciation will be based on a final oral exam. Homework assignments, short quizzes, a midterm, and a written final exam will be given to evaluate ability to use the phonetic alphabet and knowledge of basic theory. Cost:2 WL:1 (Neu)

370/RC Core 370. Advanced Proficiency in French. RC Core 320, or French 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See RC Core 370. (Carduner)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding LE MOT JUSTE); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight, sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays. In the second half of the term, each student will work on his/her own short story, with the help of his/her own partners. Final course grade will reflect the students' progress and participation in class This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students concentrating in French. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Belloni)

411(409). Advanced Translation, English-French. French 372 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

As the course title suggests, the course involves advanced practice in translation of a variety of texts, literary and technical as well, from English into French. A previous course in translation and an excellent level of French are essential. Admission to the course will be done by permission of the instructor if no previous translation course was taken. There will be intensive oral translation practice in class and frequent at home exercises. Class participation, oral performance in class and quality in written translations will be the basis for the term's grade. Method of instruction: discussion. A course pack is provided. Cost:1 WL:3 (Mermier)

414(416). Advanced Business French. French 380 (Intermediate Business French). (3). (Excl).

As a follow-up to Business French 380, we will look further into economic and commercial matters in France such as banking, distributions, taxes, whether they apply to businesses or to individuals or both, with emphasis on functional and conceptual generalities. CASE HISTORIES will service as a basis for oral group presentations in class. They will involve such themes as launching of a product or service, relocation and closing-up shops, mergers, union conflicts, etc. In addition, some other topics will be touched upon such as the analysis of commercials, and export marketing in French. All classes are conducted in French. Three papers. NO AUDITORS. One section only. Cost:2 (Gabrielli)

425(480)/Rom. Ling. 480. Background of Modern French. Good reading knowledge of French. (3). (Excl).

See Romance Linguistics 480. (Leonard)

427(454)/Rom. Ling. 454. French Syntax. Permission of advisor. (3). (Excl).

This course combines an introduction to linguistics and an in-depth review of French syntax. We will explore the basic concepts of modern linguistic theories, including discourse analysis, and see how they are applied to French. We will also compare typical linguistic approaches to language analysis with traditional grammar rules. From this analysis of French we will proceed to exercises designed to increase your competence in grammar and awareness of French stylistics. These exercises involve comparison of French and English, various sentence recombinations, analyses of sentence structures from simple to complex pattern, including literary and conversational passages, a study of the relationship between word order and the "highlighting" devices and rhythmic patterns of French, correction of grammatical errors made in speech and compositions by French lycee students as well as American students learning French, and translations from English to French. The course will be conducted in French, and the class room work will consist of lectures and readings (60%) and TRAVAUX PRATIQUES (exercises). The materials for the course include an instructor-prepared manual (approximately 200 pages) containing derivational trees, supplementary explanations, examples, and exercises, and a course pack of four or five articles on French linguistics and stylistics. A third-year level review or reference grammar book and a good bilingual dictionary are strongly recommended. Course grades will be based on attendance, the completion and quality of the assigned homework (exercises), and three one-hour take home examinations. Prerequisite: French 362 or equivalent. Cost:1 WL:3-4 (Hagiwara)

Literature

386/387/388/389 INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE. The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

386/MARC 386. Introduction to French Literature (Beginnings to 1600). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The goal of this course is to introduce students to methods of literary study through the discussion of selected texts of the medieval and Renaissance period. We will examine the significance of formal characteristics of literary works (narrative, theatre, and lyric poetry), and develop techniques of analysis suited to each type. We will also explore, in the earliest texts of the French literary tradition, the relationship between literary form and social context. What prompted the inhabitants of Gaul to create a new literature in the vernacular, where none existed before? How did this literature serve to define a political identity in opposition to the trans-European language, Latin? How did this identity deal with otherness in its midst (women) and at its edges (Islam)? The answers to these questions still define our modern notions of literature, nationality and sexuality. This course is intended for students of French culture and literature, and will be conducted in French. No previous study of literature or of medieval and Renaissance history is required. Readings, in modern French, include the following: Marie de France, LAIS; LA CHANSON DE ROLAND; lyric poetry of Guillaume IX; Beroul, LE ROMAN DE TRISTAN ET ISEUT; LA FARCE DE MAITRE PIERRE PATHELIN; and a selection of Renaissance poetry. Required work: 4 short papers (3 pages), midterm and final examination. [Cost:3] [WL:3] (Graham)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course will focus on five of the most important writers of 19th century French literature, namely Balzac, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Zola and Maupassant. Emphasis will be placed on the literary aspects of the works read as well as the historical, political and artistic context of the day. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty pages of a given work and preparing to discuss them in class. Students will write four papers in French (three or four pages in length). Each paper will be corrected for grammar, choice of expression and content. The course grade will be based on the results of written work and on classroom participation. Regular attendance is required. There is no final examination. The course is conducted in French. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Gray)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).

Section 001. This course will deal with the novel and the poetry, first of the generation born around 1870 (with titles of Gide, Colette, Proust, and Valery) and then of the last twenty years (with two short novels by Modiano and Wittig respectively, and poems by Guillevic and Char). Two short papers and a term paper will be required. (Muller)

Section 002. Literature reflects both the changing attitudes of society and the special insights of individual authors. Freedom and constraint, love and death, fear, alienation, moral values, and the notion of self-concept: the evolution of these fundamental concerns of twentieth-century society as understood by major French authors is the primary focus of the course. Students will also be encouraged to think about the nature of literary expression itself, its functions and its forms. Class discussions in French will analyze the special insights and literary techniques of five or six authors such as Gide, Colette, Proust, Valery, Sartre, Camus, Robbe-Grillet, Sarraute, and Duras. Three or four short papers and a final examination. Cost:2 (Nelson)

450. Independent Studies. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

The work to be done should not be the same as that offered in a regular course. A written description of the project together with an appropriate bibliography must be submitted for initial approval to the proposed instructor of the course and then to the concentration adviser for final approval prior to the beginning of the term during which the independent study is to be undertaken. (Gray)

453(487/488). Literature of the Seventeenth Century. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The history of dramatic literature numbers four great creative periods: the fifth century B.C. in Greece, the Elizabethan age in England, the Golden Age in Spain, and the 17th century in France. This had the particular distinction of establishing in both tragedy and comedy a tradition which was to determine the subsequent development of European drama. This course will focus on the works of the three most important and seminal dramatists of the time, the tragedies of Corneille and Racine and the comedies of Molière, first of all as literary texts, but also in relation to the social and political context of 17th century France. Grades will be based on class room participation (regular attendance is required), and on three papers (5-8 pages each) on assigned topics. The course will be conducted in French. (Gray)

457(451/452). Introduction to Twentieth-Century French Literature. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Le cours porte essentiellement sur la generation nee vere 1870, et dont les annees de maturite se situent donc dans le premier tiers du vingtieme siecle. Les ecrivains choisis pour representer cette generation sont: Marcel Proust, Paul Claudel, Andre Gide, Colette et Paul Valery. Nous etudierons aussi l'oeuvre poetique de Guillaume Apollinaire (1881-1918) et l'apport du Surrealisme avec les MANIFESTES et des poemes d'Andre Breton. Les devoirs (au nombre de trois) seront rediges en francais per les studiants qui se specialisent dans cette langu; les autres sont autorises a s'exprimer en anglais. (Muller)

460(442). Topics and Themes in French Literature. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 LE POUVOIR, EN THEORIE. Since World War II, a major issue in French theoretical thought has been the nature of power. Within the historical context of the cold war and "decolonization," both before and after the events of 1968, and from a number of different perspectives (Marxist or "Left," anticolonial, feminist, etc.), power has been perceived as posing a central problem: that of its "diffuseness" and "invisibility," features that arise in turn from its shared (albeit unevenly shared) quality. As a result, two groups of questions consequently recur in various forms: (a) how to unmask power and its operations? how does power work? and (b) what field of possibility or space of maneuver does power open up (precisely because it is shared) for opposition and change? We will work IN FRENCH two days out of every three (discussion and clarification of readings) and on the third day IN ENGLISH (discussion of larger issues, including comparisons with local and person experience). Students will be asked to give oral reports on the reading and to write two 5-page papers in French (one a critical analysis of reading, the other an examination of issues relating to power). Any graduate students will be asked to write a term-paper of approximately 12-15 pages. Texts: MYTHOLOGIES, R. Barthes; ARTS DE FAIRE, M. de Certeau; PEAU NOIRE, MASQUES BLANCS, F. Fanon; SURVEILLER ET PUNIR, M. Foucault; LES VOLEUSES DE LANGUE, C. Hermann; short course pack of readings (Irigaray, Althusser, Lyotard, Memmi, Debord...). Estimated cost: $65. WL:1 (Chambers)

469(479). Contemporary Theatre. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Twentieth-century French theatre at its most conventional has sought to be anti-conventional, AVANT GARDE, quite outside the realist tradition. This creates obvious problems of interpretation for directors, scene designers, and actors. If a play's action does not occur in a recognizable place, what should the set look like? If characters do not represent people like those we know, what strategies can we use to decide to act out their roles? The course, conducted in French, will propose solutions to such problems. Its main task will be the analysis of meanings to be found in ten or twelve plays by such authors as Claudel, Cocteau, Giraudoux, Anouilh, Beckett, Genet, Ionesco, and Duras. but it will also consider problems of characterization, set design and costuming for these plays. In connection with characterization, course work will include some practice in play reading and acting. Students will write two papers in French one proposing meanings for an AVANT-GARDE play not treated in class (about 10 pages; a list of plays to treat will be available), and one suggesting costumes and set designs for this play (5 pages). Cost:3 WL:4 (Nelson)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with parallel emphasis on conversation. Text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 101 covers the first half of the text Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination. Cost:2] [WL:4]

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden the student's knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also emphasized. The course covers the second half of the text with workbook and lab manual; readings supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

205. Italian Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Italian 205 emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is for students who have had at least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading materials from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short stories, etc.) which will be discussed in class. Use of the language laboratory will provide additional conversational material on various aspects of Italian life. Class will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading is on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework and participation in classroom activities. (Habekovic)

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian, including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a continuing review of grammar, and the elements of composition. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

Other Language and Literature Courses

360. Italian Culture and History, Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries. (3). (HU).

This course, treating the 18th century through the 20th century, emphasizes the political, social and cultural difficulties that Italy encountered once it had lost the privileged position it held in Europe during the Renaissance. The importance of European movements, such as Illuminism and Romanticism, will be stressed as both artistic and political manifestations. Particular attention will be given to the mid-19th century struggle for the unification of the country, and the conditions that allowed the Fascist takeover. The Fascist period will be analyzed, considering in particular Mussolini's control over the mass-media, his promotion to the movie industry and the position of the intellectuals toward the dictatorship. The achievements of Italy after the second World War will be the focus of the last part of the course. We will take into consideration the economy, the political system, the social structures, the geography and the standard of living of contemporary Italy. Selected works by the following authors will be read: Vico, Verri, Beccaria, Goldini, Parini, Alfieri, Foscolo, Mazzini, Manzoni, Leopardi, Carducci, Verga, and early 20th-century figures. Students will be required to write two or three short papers during the term. Cost:3 WL:4 (Frisch)

362. Advanced Italian. Italian 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Further proficiency in oral and writing skills will be stressed in Italian 362. Reading materials will include short fiction and non-fiction, as well as lengthier assignments of outside reading on which various written and oral assignments will be made. Participation in class discussion, occasional oral presentations, weekly compositions based for the most part on assigned readings, the subject matter of which will deal primarily with subjects of topical interest. Continuing grammar difficulties will be treated as they arise. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly. (Habekovic)

380. Italian Cinema and Society. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU).

ITALIAN CINEMA AND SOCIETY SINCE 1945. This course, which will be taught in English, traces the historical development of Italian cinema from the postwar advent of neorealism to the mid 1980s. The course has several aims: to understand the political, economic, and cultural contexts which generated and supported the neorealist movement; to explore and analyze the theoretical bases of neorealism and its reception, both friendly and hostile, in Italian intellectual/political circles; to examine the various aspects of the movement beyond neorealism proper in films of the 1950s and 1960s by Fellini, Visconti, Antonioni, Olmi, Bertolucci, and Bellocchio; and to expose the re-thinking and re-evaluation of the neorealist aesthetic as carried out by Brusati, Scola, and the Taviani Brothers in the 1970s and 1980s. The course requirements, beyond class participation, will be three 6-8 page papers. A knowledge of Italian is useful, but is not required. A lab fee will be charged. Cost:2 WL:4 (Frisch)

468. Studies in Modern Italian Literature. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This is a course in the development of the historical novel in Italy. We will begin with Manzoni's THE BETHROTHED, the "founding father" of modern Italian narrative. Then we will read Verga's MASTRODON GESUALDO, Lampedusa's THE LEOPARD, and Morante's HISTORY: A NOVEL, all with an eye toward sociohistorical as well as literary questions. In each case, the concept of history as re-presented in fictional narrative will be our central concern. Course requirements include two short papers (4-6 pp.), an in-class presentation, and a final exam. Readings will be in English and/or Italian. (Lucente)

482/Rom. Ling. 482. Background of Modern Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent, and a thorough reading knowledge of Italian. (3). (Excl).

Historical development of the Italian standard language, with discussion of the starting point, Classical vs. Spoken Latin, early changes in common with French and Spanish, the earliest attestations of written Italian (10th C.), regional dialects, the earliest Literary Languages (north, center, and south), the three great Florentine writers, Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch, non-Tuscan influences, the Renaissance, the printing press and the QUESTIONE DELLA LINGUA, French and Spanish influence, political stability. The text will be Migliorini and Griffith, The Italian Language, (London, Faber and Faber), with sample texts from other sources as handouts. There will be a midterm and a final exam. Graduate students will be expected to do some extra reading in Italian. Cost:1 WL:4 (Leonard)

485. Directed Reading. May be elected only with permission of concentration adviser in Italian. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Section 002 RENAISSANCE AND MODERN ITALIAN LITERARY THEORY. This will be a course in directed reading for two credits. The subject matter will be contemporary Italian criticism and theory as regards, first, Medieval and Renaissance texts (and in particular paleographical studies), and second, modern texts and textual theory. The course will be introduced by Professor Gregory Lucente and then will be taught by a series of three visitors from Italy, Armando Petrucci, Franca Nardelli, and Romano Luperini. Course requirements include a seminar paper in English, Italian or French. (Lucente)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to give students the ability to understand the Portuguese of everyday life, to be understood in typical situations of everyday life, and to read non-technical Portuguese of moderate difficulty. Portuguese 102 covers units 12 to 18 of the textbook FALANDO, LENDO, ESCREVENDO PORTUGUES (Lima and Iunes). Class room work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structures through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises ranging from meaningful sentences to compositions. Grading will be based on six quizzes, two tests, final exam, and class participation. The instructor's office provides some audio-visual material (videos, newspapers, magazines, etc.), and other material is available at the Language Lab. Portuguese 102 is offered only in the Winter Term. Cost:2 WL:4

232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 231 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).

Second year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. (See description above). It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. The required text is PARA A FRENTE! (King and Suner), complemented by selected short-stories and other reading materials made available as hand-outs. Class room work involves an intensive grammar review, the study of finer points of Portuguese grammar, oral presentations and discussion of short-stories and texts from newspapers and magazines. Homework involves studying grammar, preparing oral presentations, and writing guided essays. Grading is based on quizzes given every other week, oral presentations, essays, class participation and two exams. Portuguese 232 is offered only in the Winter Term. Cost:2 WL:4 (de Sa Rego)

350. Independent Study. Portuguese 232 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed must be submitted to the concentration adviser no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course. (de Sa Rego)

450. Independent Study. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of six credits.

See Portuguese 350. (de Sa Rego)

473. Introduction to Brazilian Literature. A reading knowledge of Portuguese. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to the literature of Brazil, through the analysis of the evolution of THE IMAGE OF THE "INDIAN" IN BRAZILIAN LITERATURE. Readings will range from reports of the first colonial encounters between the European and the natives, in the 16th century, to the most recent avant-garde texts proposing an "anthropophagous" or "cannibalistic" interpretation of the national identity of Brazilian literature, art, and culture. The text is a course pack, in Portuguese. Classes conducted in Portuguese. Class format is lecture and discussion. Midterm and final exams, oral report, and term paper. Cost:2 WL:3,4 (de Sa Rego)

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

454/French 427. French Syntax. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See French 427. (Hagiwara)

480/French 425. Background of Modern French. A thorough reading knowledge of French. (3). (Excl).

The history of the French language from Latin to the Renaissance, with emphasis about equally divided between historical events or movements that impinged on the development of the language and the formal changes that the language underwent (historical grammar). A series of texts will be examined and discussed. No previous knowledge of Old French is assumed; proficiency in modern French is essential, though students of another Romance language are encouraged to consult the professor before electing the course. There will be a midterm and final exam (and graduate students will be required to prepare a paper on a relevant topic). Format of course: lecture with class discussion of texts. Prerequisite: A thorough reading knowledge of French. (Leonard)

482/Italian 482. Background of Modern Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent, and a thorough reading knowledge of Italian. (3). (Excl).

See Italian 482. (Leonard)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and writing Spanish. Grade based on three departmental exams, quizzes, written work and daily oral work. (Spanish 101 AND 102 are the equivalent of Spanish l03.) [Cost:2] [WL:4]

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental exams, three oral exams, other examinations, quizzes, written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. Cost:Same texts as 101. WL:4

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this GUIDE.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish 103 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature, history and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on a series of quizzes and exams designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on three exams, designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish, plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have already received credit for high school or college Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

Other Language Courses

358. Spanish Conversation for Non-Concentrators. Spanish 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 358 is a text based conversation course for non-concentrators interested in the Spanish language and in contemporary Hispanic culture. Texts include journalistic prose as well as journal formatted videos aimed at increasing students' knowledge of current affairs in Spain and Latin America. Audio tapes will be employed to improve pronunciation, vocabulary and listening skills. Class format includes open and group discussions, debates, oral presentations and role-playing. Attendance and participation will be mandatory and will constitute a large part of the course grade. Grades will also be determined by examination of students' listening and expressive skills. Finally, students will practice writing in various practical formats such as newspaper articles, book or movie reviews, etc. These written exercises will form the final component of the course grade. (Pollard)

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. (3; 2-4 in the half-term). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to increase the accuracy of students' Spanish and to increase vocabulary and cultural knowledge through the reading of journalistic prose. The course is centered on a grammar-review text. Students do readings in Spanish, prepare translations and other exercises, and expand vocabulary. Time is allotted to class discussion of readings on contemporary Hispanic life and especially to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are taught in Spanish. The final grade is based on weekly translations, tests, and class participation. Cost:1 WL:4 (Pollard)

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to introduce students to the concepts, vocabulary and techniques needed to read, understand, discuss, and write about literature, journalism, and critical writing in Spanish. Compositions are assigned weekly, class discussions are based on the readings and other topics selected by the instructor. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in class discussions or presentations. Cost:2 WL:4 (Pollard)

Literature

350. Independent Studies. Permission of concentration adviser. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit more than once with permission.

This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Concentration Adviser no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course. (Goic)

351(251). Collegiate Fellows Seminar: From Orality to Literacy. (3). (HU).

This is a Collegiate Fellows course; see page 3 for a complete list of Collegiate Fellows courses and the Time Schedule for details of time and place.

Section 001 THE CONFRONTATIONS OF LANGUAGE AND CULTURE DURING THE COLONIZATION OF THE NEW WORLD. In this interdisciplinary course, which emphasizes critical thinking, the general nature of speech and writing in human culture will be examined first in order to critically evaluate the consequences of literacy in the colonization of the New World during the XVth and XVIth centuries. The early confrontations between Western and Amerindian cultures and the signification of literacy in the colonization process will be, finally, seen in the context of Latin American cultural history and current issues related to literacy, culture and domination. The course will consist of four parts. The first will be devoted to the critical examination of current views about orality and literacy; the second, to the process of alphabetization and Christianization in colonial Mexico (basic readings: selections from the writings of Franciscan missionaries); the third, to the encounter between the alphabet and the Amerindian's oral and written traditions (basic reading: THE POPOL VUH); and the fourth to alphabetization, liberation and critical consciousness (basic reading: Rigoberta Menchu, AN INDIAN WOMAN FROM GUATEMALA and selections from Paolo Freire's work). Language of instruction is English. Reading: English and/or Spanish, according to the needs and competence of the student. Lecture, students' oral presentations, and a strong emphasis on class discussions. Bi-weekly short written reports. (Mignolo)

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

How does a literature begin? This course discusses the development of a literary language, the themes and forms of literary expression from the Middle Ages into the Golden Age of Spanish Literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. How does a "medieval" period become a "Renaissance" much less a "baroque" period in literary terms? Ballads, epic and lyric poetry, the first picaresque novel, LAZARILLO DE TORMES, and at least one play will constitute the readings. Conducted in Spanish. Term paper, hour and final examinations or equivalent. Cost:2 WL:4 (Valis)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

The Enlightenment, Romanticism, Realism, the Generation of '98, and the years around the Spanish Civil War are the periods represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems, and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, and an effort is made to show how they exemplify their historical and cultural contest. Representative authors who may be studied are Larra, Zorilla, Espronceda, Becquer, Galdos, Unamuno, and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of quizzes, a term paper, and a final examination. The course is conducted in Spanish. Cost:2 (Hafter)

382. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will examine contemporary poetry and prose by major Latin American writers. Beginning with the VANGAURDISTA movement in poetry, we will explore the works of Vicente Huidobro, Nicolas Guillen, Pablo Neruda, Cesar Vallejo, Borges, Rosario Castellanos, Alejandra Pizarnik, Gabriela Mistral, and Claribel Alegria, paying attention to the functions of poetry and poetic language in relation to social, political, and gender issues. Latin American narrative will include short stories and prose pieces by Borges, Cortazar, Fuentes, Garcia Marquez, Poniatowska, Luisa Valenzuela, Rosario Ferre and others. A short novel, PEDRO PARAMO, by Juan Rulfo, will also be analyzed. Despite the diversity of narrative voices exhibited by these writers, the ambiguity of structures and language, REALISMO MAGICO, the neo-fantastic and feminist writings are all venues for the exploration and interpretation of a complex Latin American culture and reality. Students will be graded on the basis of short, written essays and class participation. (Aparicio)

392. Junior Honors Course. Permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

In Spanish 392, selected readings chosen from Spain and Spanish America are studied and analyzed through class work, conferences with a senior member of the faculty, written reports, and term papers. This course exists to enable students who have been admitted to the Honors Program to begin research supervised by a faculty sponsor. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Honors Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Honors Committee. The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course. (Goic)

435(450). Independent Study. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 3 credits.

See Spanish 350.

459(485). Don Quijote. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

DON QUIJOTE es la obra cumbre de la literatura espanola y una de las mas importantes de la literatura universal. En ella estan presentes tanto los problemas e ideales de la epoca de su autor como los de todos los tiempos. La lectura del QUIJOTE es un ejercicio de la mas alta calidad, reconfortante al mismo tiempo que produce una excepcional emocion estetica. El curso tiene como objecto que el estudiante haga una introduccion a la obra que le permita disfrutar tanto de los mundos ideologicos de la obra como de su gradeza artistica. El estrudiante debe leer detenidamente la obra y hacer dos trabajos sobre un tema especifico, segun la metodologia que el profesor require. Cost:1 (Lopez-Grigera)

470(463). Latin-American Literature, Sixteenth to Nineteenth Centuries. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Section 001 GREAT POEMS OF THE SPANISH AMERICAN COLONIAL PERIOD. The course will deal with four great poems of the Spanish American Colonial Period, Renaissance and Baroque. It will include Alonso de Ercilla's LA ARAUCANA (1569-1597), Mateo Rosas de Oquendo's SATIRA (1598), Bernardo de Balbuena's GRANDEZA MEXICANA (1604), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz's PRIMERO SUENO (1689), and references to many other. The approach will be close-reading of the above mentioned poems. The format will be lecture and discussion. Students will be required to write a number of assignments, a midterm paper and a final paper. Text: C. Goic, HISTORIA Y CRITICA DE LA LITERATURA HISPANOAMERICANA. Barcelona, Editorial Critica, 1988, vol.I. Epoca Colonial. Cost:3 WL:3 (Goic)

475(488). Latin American Narrative of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 9 credits.

Section 001 ESCRITORAS LATINAS Y LATINOAMERICANAS CONTEMPORANEAS. Taught in both Spanish and English, we will read texts written in both languages by contemporary Latina and Latin American women writer, along with literary criticism and theory about "minority" and "Third World" women writers. One of the objects of the course will be to identify points of similarity and difference between the writing of Latinas and latinoamericanas. Course requirements: In-class presentations and final paper at the end of the course. Cost:4 WL:1 (Perez)

485(489). Case Studies in Latin-American Literature. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Section 001 ESCRITORAS LATINAS Y LATINOAMERICANAS CONTEMPORANEAS. See Spanish 475. (Perez)

Section 002 APPROXIMACIONES A CHICANO CULTURE. Some reading knowledge of Spanish is required since we will be reading bilingual (English-Spanish) texts. The course approaches Chicana/o literature from a broader, cultural approach, looking primarily at post-1960s literary and visual (painting, performance and film art) production from some of the political and historical contexts in which they arise. Course requirements: In-class presentations and a final term paper. Cost:4 WL:1 (Perez)

491. Senior Honors Course. Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Students who successfully complete the Junior year Honors sequence are eligible to elect the senior year sequence (Spanish 490 and 491). In Spanish 491 the focus is upon selected topics, authors, literary movements, or genres chosen from Spain or Spanish America depending on the needs of the student. The student will study and analyze the subject supervised by a senior member of the faculty. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Honors Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Honors Committee. The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course. (Goic)


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