*INTRODUCTORY COURSES AND COURSES FOR NON-CONCENTRATORS.
*Astronomy 101/111 discusses our explorations of the solar
system. Astronomy 102/112 deals with stars and the rest of the
Universe beyond the solar system. Students in Astronomy 101 and 102 attend a weekly discussion section. Students in Astronomy
111 and 112 actively participate in a laboratory which meets in the evening each week. None of these courses is a prerequisite
for any of the others. High school mathematics through plane geometry
is useful. All students in each course will have opportunities
for a planetarium visit and for evening observations with the
telescopes mounted on Angell Hall.

**101. Introductory Astronomy: The Solar System. *** No
credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in
111, 130 or 221. (4). (NS). *

Astronomy 101 students attend the same lectures as Astronomy
111 students (see course description below). (Section 001:Sears;
Section 007:Bower)

**102. Introductory Astronomy: Stars, Galaxies, and the
Universe. *** No credit granted to those who have completed
or are enrolled in 112, 130 or 222. (4). (NS). *

Astronomy 102 students attend the same lectures as Astronomy
112 students (see course description below). Instead of laboratory
sections, Astronomy 102 incorporates weekly one-hour discussions
and associated homework, which is considered along with examinations
and quizzes for course grades. Cost:2 WL:4 (Section 001:Richstone;
Section 008:MacAlpine)

**111. Introductory Astronomy:
The Solar System. *** No credit granted to those who
have completed or are enrolled 101, 130 or 221. (4). (NS). *

This course presents an introduction to the field of astronomy
and astrophysics with an emphasis on the discoveries from space
exploration. The first third of the course deals with understanding the history of astronomy, orbits, gravitation, optics and the
properties of light and matter. The rest of the course explores the properties, origin and evolution of the major planets, asteroids, comets, the Sun and other components of the Solar System with
particular emphasis on comparative aspects with respect to the
Earth. The origin and formation of the Solar System and the origin
of life will also be discussed. This course is intended for non-science
concentrators with a basic high school math and science background.
Astronomy 111 has a two-hour laboratory section every week. Astronomy
101 has a one-hour discussion section. Course requirements include
assigned reading, section meetings, homework, observations, quizzes, midterm and a final examination. Laboratory sections include observations
with telescopes. COST:2 WL:4 (Section 001:Sears; Section 006:Bower)

**112. Introductory Astronomy:
Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe. *** No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102, 130 or 222.
(4). (NS).
Section 001. * This is an introduction to the tools, methods
and results of modern astronomy beyond the solar system. It is
suitable for non-science concentrators with only a high school
mathematics background. The course is independent of Astronomy
101 or 111. We will study the appearance of the night sky, the
structure, evolution and birth and death of stars, the synthesis
of the elements, the majestic dynamics of galaxies, the incredible
violence and energy of quasars, supernovae and accretion onto
black holes, and our present understanding of the universe as
a whole. We will seek to acquire some sense of both the current
state of the art and the principles of scientific problem solving.
The course grade will be based on quizzes, two exams and laboratory
or discussion exercises. Laboratory sections meet for two evenings
hours per week and include observations with telescopes. Cost:2
WL:4 (Richstone)

*Section 006. * This course is intended primarily for
non-science concentrators, who wish to understand the phenomena
and properties of the universe beyond our solar system. There
are no astromony prerequisites, and a basic high school math background * (e.g., *not calculus) will suffice. Students examine the
widest possible range of interrelated natural phenomena, from
sub-atomic particles to the Universe as a whole. Lectures inventory the different types of stars and examine how red giants, white
dwarfs, black holes, supernovae, and people all fit together in
one grand, remarkable scheme. The larger picture includes our
Milky Way galaxy, less hospitable exploding galaxies, and enigmatic
quasars. The present state of knowledge or speculation regarding the origin and ultimate fate of our universe will also receive
special attention. It all came from somewhere, but where...and why? Course grades will be derived from scheduled quizzes, a midterm
and a final exam, and laboratory exercises. Laboratory sections, which meet for two evening hours each week, will include planetarium
demonstrations and observations with telescopes (weather permitting)
mounted on Angell Hall. Cost:3 WL:4 (MacAlpine)

**204/AOSS 204. Introduction to Planetary and Space Science.
*** High school mathematics through plane geometry and trigonometry. (3). (NS). *

This course will present the development of space exploration
with a concentration on the major scientific breakthroughs resulting
from the exploration of the solar system by the U.S. and Soviet
spacecraft. The course is intended for non-science majors: high
school mathematics through plane geometry and trigonometry is
recommended. The emphasis will be on comparative atmospheric phenomena, and the impact its study has had on the understanding of our own
(terrestrial) environment. Topics will include the constraints that the environment of space places on the design of space probes, the history of space sciene in studying the Earth's environment, and the deep-space missions to the other planets and Comet Halley.
(There will be two one-hour lectures a week, a one-hour discussion
section, and two to three hourly exams. This course can be used
to satisfy the LS&A science requirement.

**222. General Astronomy: Astrophysics and the Universe.
*** Astronomy 221 and Math 115 or permission of instructor.
No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled
in 102, 112, or 130. (4). (NS). *

This course deals with the astronomy and physics of objects beyond the solar system. (1) Stars: distances, properties, interior structure, and evolution. (2) Our galaxy: structure, dynamics, interstellar
matter. (3) Galaxies: distribution and properties. (4) Cosmology:
present ideas about the origin, evolution and structure of the
Universe. A textbook and outside reading will be assigned. Laboratory
work will include observations with the telescopes on Angell Hall, experiments, and discussions. There will be homework problems, two midterm examinations, a final examination, and a required
term paper. (Teske)

**361. Astronomical Techniques. *** Astronomy
222 or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). *

This course is intended primarily for students concentrating in
astronomy, but other science and engineering students may elect
it. It is an introduction to various techniques for obtaining
and analyzing observational data. The areas covered are stellar
trigonometric distance (parallax), imaging and photometry with
electronic detectors, radiometric techniques, and interferometry.
In addition, early in the course there will be a series of lectures
on error theory and least squares, to provide expertise needed
in the analysis of observational data. Students will use telescopes
and instrumentation on the roof of Angell Hall and at the Radio
Observatory near Dexter to make observations. Three lectures and one two-hour laboratory period each week. Course work will also
include homework exercises and reading in original sources but there are no examinations. (Aller, Sears, Seitzer)

**422. Advanced General Astronomy. *** Astronomy
421 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). *

Text: * The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy, *
by Frank H. Shu (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA). This
course is a survey of the universe of stars, galaxies, and the
universe. Astronomy 421 is not required, but a level of sophistication
equal to junior or senior-level courses in physics or chemistry
is. Readings from the text are to provide a broad (but qualitative)
understanding of the field. Topical themes are covered in the
lectures. The following will be highlighted: Atomic and Molecular
Structure, Radiative and Convective Energy Transfer, The Structure
and Composition of Stellar Atmospheres, The Equations of Stellar
Structure and Stellar Models, Interstellar Matter, Chemical Evolution
of Galaxies, and Cosmological Models. Weekly problem sets are
given to develop analytical and computational skills. These problems
involve symbolic manipulation with MAPLE or MATHEMATICA as well
as pure number crunching exercises. Call 764-3437 for additional
information. Cost:2 WL:3 (Cowley)

**520. Cosmochemistry. *** Astronomy 421, 422
or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). *

This is a general survey of the chemical evolution of the universe
and its contents – from terrestrial materials to the contents of the most distant galaxies. The introductory sections cover traditional
differentiation, Goldschmidt's laws of ionic substitution and the Bowen Principle. There is a resume of thermodynamics and statistical
mechanics, since these disciplines provide the basis for an understanding
of many of the regularities of cosmic chemistry. Radioactive dating
is discussed within the context of the chemical history of moon
rocks and meteorites. Special emphasis is placed on the derivation
of a standard (cosmic) abundance distribution for the solar nebula, and the evidence for deviations from it. Sufficient nuclear structure
is introduced to allow an understanding of the synthesis of the
chemical elements through stellar and cosmological processes.
Students run programs that solve the CNO reaction networks illustrating
equilibrium abundance ratios and the rate of approach to them.
Atomic and molecular structure are reviewed and applied to the
chemical analysis of stars and diffuse matter (dust and gas) in
our own and external galaxies. Analytical models of the overall
chemical evolution of galaxies are compared to observations and more elaborate numerical predictions. Cost:1 WL:3 (Cowley)

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