The Department of Classical Studies believes that the literature, monuments, and social institutions of the ancient world, together with the reflections of the Greek and Roman thinkers about their own cultures, are of unique value in themselves, well worth our contemplation and understanding; and that as we attempt to learn about and appreciate classical civilization, we necessarily learn as well a variety of contemporary methodologies and disciplines.
The department offers three groups of courses for distribution, those in Classical Civilization (introductory courses that require no knowledge of Greek or Latin), courses in Classical Archaeology, and upper level language courses in Greek and Latin authors or genres. While only a few courses are repeated in yearly or biennial rotation, most courses are offered less regularly. This system guarantees that the instructor approaches the subject each time with fresh impetus. We believe in a healthy change and variation in our course offerings. The undergraduate advisor of the Department of Classical Studies will consider and, if appropriate, authorize other classical civilization, literature, and archaeology courses for distribution credit upon request by students during the first drop/add period each term.
Classical Civilization offerings include the general surveys of Greek and Roman civilizations (CC 101 and 102), which provide (through readings, lectures, and discussions) a broad understanding of the literatures, thought, and social development of ancient Greece and Rome, and thus provide the student with knowledge of and appreciation for our cultural origins, as well as an acquaintance with modern methods for understanding an ancient culture. These courses are taught each year. CC 101 is offered in the Fall and CC 102 is offered in the Winter. Other courses provide understanding of particular aspects of the ancient world, approached from a variety of disciplines and studies – literary, philosophical, historical, sociological, and so on. Some students (particularly those who have already developed special interests in such disciplines) may wish to explore one of these topics without having had a broader introduction.
Classical Archaeology offerings include the broad surveys of the archaeology and monuments of Greece (Cl.Arch 221 – offered in the Fall) and Rome (Cl.Arch 222 – offered in the Winter) and a general introduction to archaeological field methods (Cl.Arch 323). Other courses use the material remains of specific cultures both to introduce students to the diversity of the ancient world and to demonstrate how, through a variety of multi-disciplinary approaches, the archaeological record can be used to reconstruct the life-ways of past societies.
222/Hist. of Art 222. Introduction
to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).
This course serves as an introduction to Roman art and archaeology from the foundation of the city of Rome through the fall of the Roman Empire. Emphasis will be placed upon important Roman contributions to the history of art and architecture, including portraiture and other forms of sculpture, vaulted and domed concrete architecture, and other feats of engineering. Weekly discussion sections will introduce students to the materials and methods of archaeological excavation and will make frequent use of original Roman artifacts (works of art as well as objects of daily life) in the collections of the Kelsey Museum. These might include examples of pottery, mosaic, painting, marble sculpture and architectural decoration, textiles and glass. There are no prerequisites for the course. Requirements consist of two short written assignments (about 3 pp.), a midterm and a final exam. (Hutchinson)
424/Hist. of Art 424. Archaeology
of the Roman Provinces. Class. Arch. 221 or 222;
or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).
The course will not attempt to survey all parts of the Roman empire chronologically or geographically. Instead, it will be organized thematically. The object will be to examine some of the new methodologies and approaches to the study of Roman archaeology. Topics will include aerial photography, field survey, quarrying, water supply, pottery manufacture and trade, and cemeteries and the study of skeletal remains. There will be assigned readings each week which will be discussed in class. There will also be a few short written assignments based on assigned readings. There will be one midterm exam and a final OR a paper. Background in another Roman archaeology or ancient history or classical civilization course is desirable. (Humphrey)
433/Hist. of Art 433. Greek
Sculpture. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor.
The course follows the development of Greek sculpture – both in the round and relief – from the renaissance in the late 8th century BC through the various phases of experimentation in the 7th and 6th centuries to the high points in the 5th and 4th centuries. Standing male and female figures are the principle types followed, with increasing attention given to architectural sculpture culminating in the majestic programs decorating the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and the Parthenon in Athens. Stylistic analysis, formal development, interpretation as social and artistic documents. (Pedley)
534/Hist. of Art 534. Ancient
Painting. Hist. of Art 101 and either Class. Arch.
221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Following a brief survey of the painting traditions of the Near East, Egypt, and Greece, the course will focus on monumental painting from the Hellenistic through Roman Imperial times. Emphasis will be placed upon wall paintings, but mosaics and other two-dimensional art will be studied when appropriate. Questions relating to the style, decorative and social function, physical and historical context, and the artistic and intellectual milieux of the paintings will be addressed. Midterm and Final examinations will consist of slide attributions and essays. A paper will be required. (Hutchinson)
CLASSICAL GREEK (DIVISION 385)
101. Elementary Greek. (4). (LR).
In combination with Greek 102, this is the first half of a year-long introduction to ancient Greek and is designed to prepare students for the reading of Greek texts. Greek 101 concentrates on fifth-century B.C. Attic Greek which was the language of the "golden age" of Athens. The Greek language of that time and place represents a cultural and linguistic central point from which students can pursue their own interests within a wide range of Greek literature which extends from the Homeric epics to the Byzantine era and which includes the archaic, classical, and hellenistic periods as well as the KOINE Greek of the New Testament. The purpose of the course is to develop the fundamentals of the language so that these fundamentals can then be applied to whatever area of ancient Greek students wish to pursue. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Hinds)
102. Elementary Greek. Greek 101. No credit
granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103 or
310. (4). (LR).
Greek 102 is the second term of the elementary ancient Greek sequence and requires that the student has already completed Greek 101. Students who wish to begin Greek in the Winter Term should elect Greek 101. In Greek 102 students will supplement their study of syntax and grammar by reading Attic prose selections. There will be a series of quizzes and hourly exams in addition to a final exam. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Rappe)
302. Second-Year Greek. Greek 102 or equivalent.
The language requirement is satisfied with the successful completion
of Greek 301 and 302. (4). (LR).
Section 001. This course is the second half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. The primary goal of the student in Greek 302 is to learn how to read Homer; hence emphasis is placed on Homeric vocabulary and grammar. The class will translate and discuss readings from the Odyssey. Midterm and final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Cameron)
Section 002. This course is the second half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. The primary goal of the student in Greek 302 is to learn how to read Homer; hence emphasis is placed on Homeric vocabulary and grammar. The class will translate and discuss readings from the ILIAD. Biweekly quizzes and final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Seligson)
402. Greek Drama. Greek 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.
ARISTOPHANES. We shall read the Clouds of Aristophanes in Greek, using the text and commentary of K.J.Dover. There will be a midterm and a final examination, mostly translation; grading will be based on those exams, on class participation, and on one short class presentation/paper. Cost:1 WL:3 (Holmes)
484/ABS 482. Acts of Paul
and Thecla: Feminist Perspectives. Greek 401 or equivalent;
or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The work of the term will center upon the Greek text of the short Apocryphal Gospel, Acts of Paul and Thecla, and an attempt to clarify and define the feminine and feminist postures which this early, noncanonical Gospel develops – Thecla's youthful beauty and its appeal to suitors and Roman governors; Thecla's female supporters that include the women of the audience in the arena, a Christian patroness and adoptive mother, and a lioness among the wild beasts sent to attack her in the arena. A number of other, roughly contemporary texts that highlight heroines, as well as heroes, and that appeal to solidarity among women, will also be read (e.g., Longus' pagan novel Daphnis and Chloe; the Christian Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas), in conjunction with a number of recent scholarly investigations on the expression of sexuality and gender that were current in the later Roman empire. Special attention will also be paid to the intended audience for Thecla's narrative, as questions on the development of new literary genre and levels of literacy also come into play. Class members will be encouraged to concentrate upon special interests (e.g., textual, interpretive, historical), and the class will jointly prepare an introduction, translation, and commentary of the Acts with a view toward publication. (Hanson)
497. Senior Greek Seminar. Honors student
or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001: Aspects of the Ancient City.
"Many were those whose cities he viewed and whose minds he came to know." – Od. 1.3.
The primary subject of this course will be a consideration of how both the idea and the reality of the ancient city affect our understanding of classical antiquity. The course will feature literary, historical and material documents, and will employ a variety of approaches for their interpretation (anthropological, economic and archaeological among others). While most of the course will concentrate on using the city as a means to understand the ancient world better, time will also be spent on how modern ideologies have shaped our evaluations of the ancient city. The course will have a seminar format. Students will be expected to take a midterm translation exam, make a presentation to the class, and write a final paper. Reading knowledge of either Greek or Latin is required. Cost:2 (Dillery).
519. Aeschylus. (3). (Excl).
A close study of Aeschylus' Agamemnon with special attention to issues raised by M.L.West's recent edition and to interpretive problems. Term paper and exam. (Scodel)
102. Elementary Modern Greek, II. Elementary
Modern Greek 101 or permission of instructor. (4). (LR).
The course follows the same paidagogical scheme as MGr101, with class room dialogues, non-competitive group games and improvised scenarios. Instruction in more advanced grammar and syntax is effected through both formal methods and drills. By the end of the term students are exposed to approximately four-fifths of modern Greek grammar and syntax and are expected to be linguistically competent in a variety of everyday contexts. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, a one hour midterm exam and a final. (Graduate students should elect this class as 502.) Cost:1 WL:1 (Kyriazis)
202. Second Year Modern Greek, II. Modern
Greek 201 or permission of instructor. (4). (LR).
This is the final term of the Modern Greek language sequence and students will be able to fulfill their language requirement. The course focuses on expanding vocabulary through reading more complex journalistic prose and literary texts (20th century poetry and prose) and discussion of those texts. Special attention is paid to the historical depth of the language through instruction in etymology. The proficiency gained by the end of Modern Greek 201 should enable students to express themselves in Modern Greek on topics of interest; students ought to be able to read, with dictionary help, all writings in Standard Modern Greek. Class participation, comprehensive tests, one midterm and a final examination will determine the final grade. (Gagos)
Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential grammatical facts are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Students acquire a working vocabulary and demonstrate understanding of the reading by writing a readable translation. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.
In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 194, 231, and 232. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit the department office in 2016 Angell Hall, 764-0360, or contact Professor Knudsvig in 2012 Angell Hall, 764-8297.
101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 193, or 502.
All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hours examinations, and a final. [Cost:1] [WL:3]
102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit
granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 193 or
502. (4). (LR).
All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. [Cost:1] [WL:3]
194. Intensive Elementary Latin II. Latin
193 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed
or are enrolled in 221, 222, 231, 232, or 503. (4). (Excl).
This is a continuation of Latin 193, a beginning language course which will have covered, by the end of the Fall Term, the essentials of Latin accidence and syntax, with some experience in reading continuous Latin prose. The second term of this introductory sequence will continue the reading of prose and will then include one of the first six books of Vergil's AENEID. Students need not have taken Latin 193 to enroll in Latin 194. Initially there will be a systematic review of Latin grammar, and throughout the term attention will be paid to details of grammar to ensure a command of language necessary for increasing ease in reading. Therefore, anyone with a knowledge of elementary Latin could profit from the course. The AENEID has been chosen as the main text because of its inherent importance for later European poetry and literature, and will be considered in class discussion as such – not simply as an exercise in translation. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (001:D.O.Ross; 002:Myers)
231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin
102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed or are
enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).
This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from such authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D. as Caesar and Livy. Class discussions center upon the readings. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. [Cost:1] [WL:3]
232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221.
No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled
in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).
SECTION 001. This class will ask you to bring together and apply the knowledge and skills you have acquired in studying Latin to the reading of the greatest work of Latin literature. We will attend especially to Books I-VI, working closely with the text, slowly and methodically learning techniques of translating Vergil's poetry into clear and precise English prose. We will review grammar as necessary. We will also study Vergil's epic in English translation. By term's end we should have both a good understanding and appreciation of what the AENEID is all about and an ability to confront a Latin passage of the poem with some skill and comprehension. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Wallin)
SECTIONS 002-004: The goal of this course is simple: to learn to read extensive passages of Vergil's AENEID, with comprehension and enjoyment. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and time of the Emperor Augustus. Quizzes, hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. [Cost:2] [WL:1]
402. Imperial Prose. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Petronius, Satyricon. This course will be a close reading (translation and analysis) of a selection of prose passages from Petronius' comic `novel' of the Neronian period, the Satyricon. The main reading will consist of the Cena Trimalchionis (Text: Smith, Oxford 1975), a highly entertaining description of the dinner party of a freedman millionaire. This work presents an absolutely unique portrait of a section of Roman society not usually treated in literature and it raises numerous interesting problems for literary and social historians. The primary aim of this course is to improve proficiency in translation, but class time will be divided between translation and discussion of these broader literary, cultural, and historical issues. There will be midterm and final examinations (primarily translation), a class presentation, and a short paper based on the presentation. (Myers)
410. Poetry of the Republic or Later Empire. Latin
301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated
for a total of 9 credits.
A play of Seneca will be read in depth. Senecan drama, with its mythological themes, affords a dazzling exploration of human psychology, especially its pathological dimensions. Attention will be primarily directed toward the Latin language as a mediator of Seneca's view of myth. Attention will be paid to grammar and syntax, as well as to the literary dimensions of the text. Cost:1 (Witke)
421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. I: (3); IIIb: (2). (Excl).
A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of modern linguistic theories that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Knudsvig)
426. Practicum. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. I and II: (3); IIIb: (2). (Excl).
Permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Knudsvig)
436/MARC 441. Medieval Latin
II, 900-1350 A.D. Two years of college Latin or equivalent.
A detailed study of an author, period, or genre of later Medieval Latin literature, to be decided upon in consultation with students enrolled. Two years of college Latin or equivalent. Latin 435 (Marc 440) is not a prerequisite. Midterm, final, and paper. (Witke)
490. Martial and Roman Epigram. Latin
301 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Section 001: Problems in Martial. Problems of text and interpretation will be assigned individually and then discussed in class. Participants will need copies of the O.C.T. of Martial. Attention will also be paid to Shackleton Bailey's edition (Teubner, Stuttgart 1990). (Shackleton Bailey)
497. Senior Latin Seminar. Honors students
or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001: Aspects of the Ancient City. See Greek 497. (Dillery)
506. Advanced Latin Composition. Latin
403. (3). (Excl).
The writing of continuous Latin prose: includes the writing of versions i.e. rendering of original English passages into classical Latin, and free composition in Latin. Not open to undergraduates. (Garbrah)
551. Elegiac Poets. Latin 401 or equivalent.
Section 001: Propertius. The class will focus on the third and fourth books of Propertius. We shall aim to read both books very closely indeed. The elegies will be considered individually and as parts of a collection. Their narratives of generic self-definition will be traced, and their intertextual resonances investigated. We shall follow the poet's negotiation with various discourses and ideologies in Augustan Rome, literary, social, sexual, and political. Propertius is a difficult poet, whose difficulties have been exacerbated by extremes of textual corruption and editorial intervention: the consideration of these will be integral to our work. Class time will be divided between translation and discussion. This is an advanced course, aimed at graduates, and at undergraduates who have already taken one or two courses at the 400 level and have acquired some confidence in both supervised and unsupervised translation. Final exam, class presentation, term paper. Cost:2 WL:1 (Hinds)
558. Cicero, Philosophical Works. (2).
Cicero's Philosophical Dialogues: Academia, De Finibus, Tusculan Disputations. In this course we will read selections from three of Cicero's philosophical works as a basis for the exploration of problems in Hellenistic philosophy. We will approach the dialogues through the study of key topics in Stoic ethics and epistemology, with attention to the scholastic controversies that enliven our dialogues. Topics include: the Criterion of Truth; Doubt and Dogmatism; Knowledge and Sense Impressions; Pleasure and Virtue; Passions; the Sage. This course does not assume a knowledge of Hellenistic or Classical philosophy in general, but presupposes an interest in the development of philosophy in Rome under the influence of three major schools viz., Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics. Emphasis is not only upon reading the primary sources, but also upon familiarity with secondary literature in the field. The course requirements are a translation exam, oral presentation, and research paper. (Rappe)
Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.
102. Classical Civilization II: The Ancient Roman World
(in English). (4). (HU).
This course serves as a general introduction to the history, literature, life, institutions, and contributions of ancient Rome – that is, to Roman civilization. In order to achieve some focus, we will consider in detail four periods of change or crisis: the founding of the Republic (509 BC); the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 BC); the Augustan "peace"; and the established principate of Nero. We will thus be able to follow the development and failure of institutions of government and society, and to trace the changing attitudes and values of the major writers of each period as they tried to give shape and meaning to their world and times and searched for order and consolation in times of civil war and the collapse of the social structure. We will read historians (Livy, Sallust, Tacitus), poets (Catullus, Vergil, Horace) and other writers (Cicero, Petronius). Lectures will follow certain common ideas and themes, with occasional presentations of special topics (e.g., Roman law; slavery; the ancient book; gladiators). Attention will be given to daily life through slide lectures. There will be two short papers (50% of the final grade), and a midterm (15%) and final (35%) exam. Cost:2 WL:3 (D.O. Ross)
345. Slavery and Ethnicity in the Ancient World. Junior
standing or permission of instructor; general familiarity with
American history. (4). (Excl).
Slavery has existed worldwide, but only ancient Greece and Rome are usually classed as "slave societies" like those of the Americas. Ancient slavery, not based on race, was still inseparable from ideas of racial and ethnic otherness. With a comparative perspective, we will look as such questions as: how did the ancients conceive "race"; why was manumission so frequent; what was the relationship between democracy and slavery; why was slavery rarely questioned; how did early Christianity see slavery; why did slavery decline; how did the ancient experience influence modern thought? Three 5-6 pp. papers, hour exam, final. (Scodel)
462. Greek Mythology. (4). (HU).
Greek Mythology is designed to acquaint the student with the major myths and epic cycles of ancient Greece from the creation myths and their Near Eastern prototypes through the Trojan War and the wanderings of Odysseus. The development of various myths will be illustrated through Greek literature and art. We will also discuss the use and treatment of Greek myths in English literature, modern psychoanalytical theory, and comparative anthropology. Required texts will include Homer's ODYSSEY, parts of Hesiod's THEOGONY and WORKS AND DAYS, the HOMERIC HYMNS, and a selection of tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. An additional course pack will provide readings for discussion sections which will meet once a week to consider a variety of theoretical approaches to mythology, and other critical questions. Course requirements include two hour tests and a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Herbert)
464. The Ancient Epic. (3). (Excl).
Section 001: Homer and his Readers. The course will concern itself with the Homeric poems and their legacy, in particular the cultural difference which the poems never ceased to signify, from their very first audiences to their later readers. The main issues to be covered in the course will be: (i) the Iliad and Odyssey (selections) as bearers of cultural difference; (ii) the related "Homeric question" about the authorship and status (oral or literary) of the two epics, and so too, the wider question of orality and literacy as factors in the reception of Homer; (iii) canonization and decanonization in ancient literature and literary criticism; (iv) literary "reading" as "rewriting" (the Greek tragedians as readers of Homer; the Argonautica and other Alexandrian revisions of Homer; Porphyry's Cave of the Nymphs ). Finally, Derek Walcott's Omeros poem (1900), if it appears in an affordable paperback edition in time, may be included as one last instance of a reading of Homer, from across the millennia, and transposed into the contemporary Caribbean. Requirements: active participation in class, and a final paper (12-15 pp.). Tests (required): Homer, Iliad and Odyssey (tr. Lattimore); Aeschylus, Agamemnon (tr. Lloyd-Jones); Sophocles, Ajax (Chicago Series); Euripides, Hecuba (Chicago Series); Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica (Penguin); Porphyry, Cave of the Nymphs (tr. Lamberton). (Porter)
466/Religion 468. Greek
Religion. (1). (Excl).
Section 001: Late Antique Polytheism. This course will address the problems of cultural change by asking what became of polytheism in the Mediterranean and adjacent regions during late antiquity (third to sixth centuries A.D.). After an introductory session on the "The last polytheist century: Caracalla to Constantine," the remaining four meetings will deal in turn with late polytheism's most important innovation, the doctorine of theurgy; with Proclus and Athens, and by extension with how to use our two main categories of evidence, archaeological and philosophical biography; with polytheist universalism, or the attempt to construct a self-image capable of withstanding Christianity's assault; and finally with "conflict and survival," the l
472. Roman Law. Not open to freshmen.
This course acquaints students with the fundamental concepts of Roman private law, with their origin in the society and government of the High Roman Empire, and with their all-important influence in the development of Western European legal theory. and institutions. The course aims primarily to meet the interests of undergraduates with a bent toward law as a profession, but it is open to all students (except freshman). We will use a direct application of the American case-law method to the teaching of Roman law. Our basic text will be a series of actual problems from the Roman jurists, which we will discuss in class; only as the occasion demands will the instructor "fill in the gaps" with short lectures on other relevant legal material. Thus students should develop a feel for legal analysis and for the contribution made through such analysis by the Roman jurists; at the same time, students will learn Roman law in a form that will be directly relevant to future legal studies. Besides the handouts, one general introduction to Roman law (ca. 250 pages) will be required reading. There will be one hour test on material covered in class, in addition to the final examination; one paper (10 pages) will allow the student to analyze in detail a particular legal problem. Cost:2 WL:1 (Frier)
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