100. Public Speaking. Not open to seniors. (3). (Excl).
This course is recommended for students who will be pursuing degrees or careers in teaching, law, business, administration, or politics and others who are concerned with communicating effectively with the general public. Course topics include audience and speech analysis, source credibility, stage-fright, techniques of persuasion, and ethics. The ultimate purpose of the course is to encourage more effective communication by providing students with instruction and experiences which help them to be at ease before audiences and which encourages them to develop and present messages which have maximum audience impact. You must be present at the first two class meetings to hold your spot. WL:1

103. Introduction to Mass Communication. Not open to seniors. (4). (SS).
Providing an introduction to mass communication, this course examines the history and current processes involved in the creation of media products as part of American culture. The course analyzes political, economic, social and moral factors confronting television, radio, movies, news, advertising, public relations, book publishing, magazines, music videos and sound recording. Three lectures or viewings per week plus one discussion section. Three or four short writing projects required with emphasis on critical analysis of media. Two exams. [WL:1] (Campbell)

202. Freedom of Expression. (3). (SS).
This course focuses on First Amendment protection of speech and expression. There is study of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and general principles of First Amendment law. Emphasis is given to how discrimination against oppressed groups has been involved in struggles for free expression. Topics covered include civil rights protests, television and film censorship, book-banning, libel, advertising restrictions and free speech on university campuses. There are 3 exams of equal weight and students may write extra credit papers. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lowenstein)

250. Information Gathering for Mass Media. (3). (Excl).
This course teaches the strategies used in seeking information and evaluating its validity in a number of mass media applications, including journalism, broadcasting, marketing, media research and public relations. The basic approach combines research methods used by librarians and journalists in a problem-solving model that applies to many tasks in the information industry. Institutional, human, library and data base and special sources are examined. A computer game helps introduce the search strategy model. There are lectures and weekly assignments. There is a final project, not a final exam. Preference is given to Sophomores and Juniors who are Communication concentrators. The course should be taken prior to other writing courses in the department. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Marzolf)

301(401). Mass Communication Theory. (3). (Excl).
This lecture and discussion course will present a broad overview of the various theories of mass communication processes and effects on individuals and the social system. Mass communication effects on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals, as well as influences on the functioning and ideology of social systems will be covered. After initial review of basic social scientific concepts and methods necessary for an understanding of the reading material the course will give to the examination of theory and research efforts, proceeding, in general, from investigations of individual to societal-level processes. Critical reading and evaluation of social scientific theory and research is expected, and is developed. Grading will be based on midterm, a final, and a paper, in addition to occassional section assignments. Cost:2 WL:4 (Waks)

302. Writing for the Mass Media. Comm. 290, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits with permission of concentration advisor.
The course provides an integrated approach to mastering the basic concepts and techniques for feature writing for the mass media. It is anticipated students will offer their work to area media for publication. Multiple writing assignments will foster improved writing and test students' mastery of course material. It is anticipated students will write three papers of approximately five pages each, revised one or more times. In addition, students will write additional assignments on outlining, character development, and the analysis of other writing. Students will receive written criticism, as well as oral evaluation by the instructor. Students will also be expected to attend one or more readings by visiting writers, as well as participate in class discussion. Cost:1 WL:1 (Hall)

SECTION 004: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION. This course is designed to improve general writing skills and develop specialized media writing styles including news release, speech, brochure, advertising, business memorandum, broadcast, video mini-documentary, and technical writing for annual reports, position papers and marketing/public relations planning. Students are exposed to basic skills required in corporate communication. The current and future underlying management theories of the corporate culture and how corporate policy and goals affect American society and specific market populations will be analyzed and evaluated. Critical thinking regarding corporate responsibility for the 90's and into the 21st century will be encouraged. A final writing project replaces the standard final exam and represents sixty percent of the grade. Method of instruction includes lecture/discussion and writing lab work. For the Winter Term, 1992, Communication 250 and/or permission of instructor is required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Moseley)

310. Persuasive Communication. (3). (Excl).
This course presents an overview of the theory and application persuasive communication in modern society. Lectures and readings will cover theories of persuasion and the application of these theories in the contexts of sales, advertising, and political campaigns. Required discussions sections will be used for discussion of readings and related topics as well as completion of two class projects. Students are evaluated based on the two class projects, a midterm and final exam, and participation in discussion sections. (Heavey)

312. Communication and Contemporary Society. (3). (Excl).
The course will consist of a series of lectures by U of M and outside specialists on issues currently facing the mass media. The survey will cover radio, TV, film and print media from a number of legal, economic, historical and other viewpoints. There will be two required texts, two papers during the term and two exams, one midterm and one final. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Schumacher)

400. The Media in American History. (3). (SS).
This lecture course places the development of American mass media in broader social, economic, and political perspectives. While there are no specific prerequisites, a general grounding in American history is recommended. Grades are based on one hourly exam which is a mix of short-answer and essay questions, plus a term paper and final comprehensive examination. Cost:3 WL:1 (Stevens)

403. Ethics of Journalism. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course will examine standards of performance and codes of conduct for journalists. Students will apply those standards and codes to real and hypothetical cases and situations faced by journalists in the gathering and reporting of the news. Class discussion will be emphasized. Cost:1 WL:1 (Bishop)

Section 002. Political campaign coverage. Understanding and developing the ethics paradagym by which to analyze, evaluate, and comment on journalistic accuracy, balance, in-depth reporting, integrity, and social responsibility in political ad campaigns, special powerful interest groups, and the possible personal bias of the reporter will be discussed in light of traditional theories regarding ethics. Campaign issues dealing with the economy, the military, domestic and foreign policy as well as issues of character, gender, race, class, and urban/suburban tension will be explored to some degree. A final writing project replaces the standard final exam and represents sixty percent of the grade. Method of instruction includes lecture/discussion/and class projects. Attendance is mandatory. (Moseley)

405. The Media and the Arts. Comm. 103 and upperclass standing. (3). (Excl).
SECTION 001. This course examines the role of popular arts as a creator of meaning and identity for audiences. Students learn interpretive and critical methods of looking at mass media products as artifacts or art forms. The course investigates cultural traditions as expressed through popular culture. The course considers feature films, the recording industry, the popular press, and performing arts. Critical papers are assigned. [Cost:2] [WL:1]

406. Mass Communication Research. (3). (Excl).
An introduction to the logic and techniques of social scientific research in mass communication. The course will address (a) methods of framing media research questions, and (b) techniques for gathering and interpreting empirical observations in an effort to answer these questions. It aims at enabling students to evaluate critically the validity of research findings and conclusions. In completing the course, students should also acquire an adequate background in communication research methodology to pursue their own ideas, if they choose, from initial conceptualization of the research question to final conclusions. Text: Babbie, E., THE PRACTICE OF SOCIAL RESEARCH, 4th edition, Belmont, CA.: Wadsworth, 1986, plus course pack. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Price)

409. The Michigan Journalist. Comm. 290 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The Michigan Journalist course introduces students to the subject editing the news. It coves the theory and practice of news-, story-, and copy-editing for daily and weekly newspapers. Students will learn the basics of assignment, supervision and editing for news value, sense, style, grammar, spelling, syntax and factual accuracy. Course covers newsroom structures and decisions about coverage and display. Guest editors will discuss organization, management and ethics in news. Students must have completed Comm. 290 or 302 or have equivalent news reporting/writing experience. Word-processing on computers required. Grading based on in-class work, homework and midterm and final examination. Instructional methods are lectures, discussions and laboratory work, including using desk-top publishing to produce an issue of THE MICHIGAN JOURNALIST. Cost:2 WL:3 (Friendly)

410. Introduction to Group Communication. (3). (Excl).
Emphasis is given to the oral communication process in small group problem-solving situations. Subject matter includes: group leadership styles; member functions; barriers and obstacles to understanding in small groups, and techniques for group discussion effectiveness. Methods of class operation include: class discussion; mini lectures; research reports; participation in small group processes; case problems, and class member evaluation of group discussions. Reading materials include selected readings on oral communication and small group research. (Heavey)

417. Analyzing Television. (3). (HU).
The daytime soap opera, the evening newscast, the prime-time situation comedy, and the late night talk show all of the familiar programs of popular American television are meaningful cultural documents that speak to the shifting values and the ongoing contradictions of modern life. This course challenges students to explore new ways of thinking about the social, moral, political, artistic, and economic implications of the television experience. Key topics addressed in the course include: narrative theory; authorship and readership; the representation of race and gender; stardom; genre theory; intertextuality. Students should expect to encounter several short writing assignments, as well as at least two exams (a midterm and a final). Cost:3 WL:1

420/Pol. Sci. 420. Politics and the Mass Media. Pol. Sci. 111, 300, 410, or 411. (3). (Excl).
See Political Science 420. (Semetko)

423. Film Practicum for the Writer. English 412 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This class is a writing practicum where the student will learn the role of the writer in the greater process of the production of media. Each student will participate in the various creative steps involved in bringing a narrative script to the screen. By developing an understanding of the way narrative films are shot and the way the other creative people involved approach one's written material, this course will enrich the student's visual vocabulary, improve dramatic writing skills, and increase their awareness of the collaborative process of film/video. The class will be structured such that every student will write a number of exercises, which someone else will direct, the writer, in turn, will direct another's writing and so on. We will also analyze the written and visual techniques in a number of contemporary films and videos. Every student will write and direct several short exercises in addition to a short, finished tape (5-7 min.). Previous classes or experience with video production and/or screenwriting advised. Cost:2 WL:1 (M.Hurbis-Cherrier)

427. Preparation of Radio and TV Continuity. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).
Sections 001 and 002.
Students will write several non-dramatic scripts of radio and television program material. The weekly writing assignments include commercials, editorials, commentaries, documentaries, entertainment reviews, and public service announcements. Students must creatively write their scripts in the proper television or radio format, and the scripts must read for a precise amount of time. Good writing skills are essential for success in the course. The course will consist of lectures, peer evaluation of written work, in-class writing exercises, and analysis of professional scripts that are on audio or video tape. Attendance at every class is mandatory and students must participate in class discussions. A final exam will be given, with material originating from the text or class lectures. (Mikula)

Sections 003 and 004. Students will write several non-dramatic scripts of radio and television program material. The weekly writing assignments include commercials, editorials, commentaries, documentaries, promotions, and public service announcements. Students must creatively write their scripts in the proper television or radio format, and the scripts must read for a precise amount of time. Good writing skills are essential for success in the course. The course will consist of lectures, peer evaluation of written work, in-class writing exercises, and analysis of professional scripts that are on audio or video tape. Attendance at every class is mandatory and students must participate in class discussions. A final exam will be given, with material originating from the text or class lectures. Cost:2 WL:1 (Oswald)

428. Writing Drama for Film and Television. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).
This course is a workshop in writing dramatic narrative scripts for feature length films or made for T.V. movies. The objectives of this class are to teach skills for the development of dramatic concepts (structure, character, dialogue, etc.), to provide a better critical understanding of the devices used by screenwriters and filmmakers, to encourage an appreciation for the writer's role in filmaking (both possibilities and limitations), and finally to teach the standard format of the screenplay. This class requires the completion of a feature length screenplay, analysis of several scripts, group critiques of work, and various other writing assignments. Cost:1 WL:1 (Hurbis-Cherrier)

450. Undergraduate Internship. Junior standing, concentration in Communication and permission of instructor. (2) (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be elected for a total of six credits.
Communication 450 is the Department's internship program, designed to give junior or senior Communication concentrators credit for appropriate practical work experience. Internships may be elected for 2 credits only and are given credit/no credit (may not be elected for a grade). Time requirement for a 2-credit internship is approximately 15 hours per week for a 14-week term. Student evaluation is based on satisfactory completion of the internship and recommendation of the internship sponsor. Internship credit is not retroactive and must be pre- arranged. For further information and approval, students should contact the internship coordinator in the Deaprtment of Communication. Cost:none WL: Registration is by P.I. only. Students must see the internship coordinator for required override.

462/Soc. 462. Cultural Theories of Communication. Comm. 103, Soc. 100, or Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl).
In this course we will look at the ways in which "culture" has been an object of sociological inquiry. We will first consider competing definitions of the term culture in the social sciences, and the competing approaches to its study. We will then consider several major themes in, and competing definitions of, the study of American culture. We will conclude with a discussion of subcultures within American culture, evaluating whether resistance to the dominant culture is possible in modern societies. Course requirements include a long research paper in which students will be asked to investigate a subculture within American society, as well as an in-class midterm and a take-home, essay, final examination. Students will often be asked to participate in class, and will be asked to talk about their research project to the class. WL:1 (Press)

500. Seminar. Open to senior concentrators. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
This seminar will look at the world of jazz through various approaches: historic, economic, and critical. Focus will be more on the history and impact than on the music itself but there will be extensive use of recordings and some live demonstrations. Students will present regular reading and listening reports and prepare one research paper. There will be midterm and final examinations. Cost:2 WL:4 (Schumacher, Brooks)

SECTION 002: JOURNALIST IN FILM. This seminar will examine the way the newspaper reporter and editor have been depicted in Hollywood films, from the silents to the present. Knowledge of film history helpful but not essential. Students will report on readings and film viewings. Eight to ten films will be viewed in class. One text. Grades will be based on discussions, reports and a term paper. Cost:1 WL:1 (Stevens)

SECTION 003: VIDEO ART HISTORY/CRITICISM. This course is an introduction to and exploration of the emergence and ongoing development of video art the form and the critical discourses which it has spawned. The first component of this class is an historical survey to video art from its inception in the 1960's to the present. We will also examine the various approaches to alternative video such as image processing, "new documentary", performance, personal, political, etc. The emphasis will be on watching tapes and discussing the historical context, aesthetic characteristics, political implications as well as the means of production. There will be at least two visits from working video artists. The second component of this course will involve reading theoretical/critical texts on video. Students will be encouraged to participate in the new discourse which has developed for this new medium/art form. Video art is currently defining itself as separate from the other avant-garde media (i.e. avant-garde film) and therefore the old methods of classification (experimental, narrative or documentary) and analysis do not apply. An entirely new vocabulary is developing for the discussion of this new art form. This class will become acquainted with the writings of the pioneers of this new criticism. The writings will come from the artists themselves as well as writers whose work examines post-modern aesthetics. However, the students will also be required to become a part of this discourse as they will confront issues of description and analysis for the vast amount of images being produced. (K.Hurbis-Cherrier)

SECTION 004: JOURNALISTS AS COMMUNICATORS. This course is a seminar to discuss the techniques and consequences of the way journalists communicate with sources, readers, viewers and with each other. The goal is to develop a clearer, more sophisticated understanding of how journalists serve as communicators. Among the issues to be explored are: the theoretical versus the practical role of journalists; reportage on and off the record; ethical considerations in gathering information (Is it justifiable to steal information for a story, or ask others to do so?); journalists' responsibilities from a personal and corporate viewpoint; and recognizing and dealing with biases on a personal, professional, societal and informational level. Students will discuss whether reporting and presenting stories is the only role played by journalists? Can there be fair reportage? Is it okay to make up a story, quotes? Would Machievelli have been a good journalist? The course is for students who want to wrestle with some tough issues, who want to think deeply about some contemporary issues in journalism and their ramifications. A series of readings, videos and guest speakers will form the foundation for class discussions. Each student will be required to write a paper on a topic of their choice. WL:3. Permission of instructor. (Hall)

501. Departmental Tutorial. Open to senior concentrators. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.
Intended for individualized research and writing instruction in subject areas not covered by scheduled courses. Must be arranged with the faculty member.

521. History of the Motion Picture. Upperclass standing. (3). (HU).
Emphasizing the Hollywood studio system during the 1930s and 1940s, this course challenges students to make sense of the complex economic, technological, and social influences governing the history of the American sound film. During Black History Month, the course focuses on African American images in Hollywood films and the history of Black independent filmmaking. About half the class meetings are devoted to lectures and the other half to viewing representative films of Hollywood's major and minor studios. In addition to these in-class screenings, students must also attend a required Tuesday night viewing lab. Scheduled exams (of the essay and fill-in-the-blank type) account for 66% of the final grade; a 10-15 page history paper accounts for the other 33% of the grade. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Reeves)

553. Media Economics. (3). (Excl).
Detailed examination of the economics of the media, including technology, market strategy and industry trends, buying and selling, management and product development. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Nielsen)

555. Media History. (3). (Excl).
This course offers the student of Communication the opportunity to study a history of the Documentary Film and potentially gain a background reference for this visually influential medium. This survey course presents selected examples of the genre from 1922 to 1982, which are screened for purposes of comparative analysis. Lectures and discussion relate the Documentary with its historical, political and social contexts. The course is designed to also introduce various structural forms and techniques used by historically recognized film directors in building what has come to be known as the "Documentary Tradition". Basis of student evaluation: Written film analyses, term paper, oral participation. Methodology: Lectures, 16mm film screenings, discussion. Cost:1 (Rideout)

SECTION 002: THE SOCIOLOGY OF MASS COMMUNICATIONS. This course is intended as an interdisciplinary graduate seminar debating sociological issues in the study of mass communications. Among the topics covered will be the relationship of "mass communications" to culture; issues concerning "high culture" and "popular culture"; factors determining the shape of popular culture in our society; influences on the production, distribution, and interpretation of images in our society: How shall we understand the place of mass-manufactured, mass-marketed images in the life of modern societies? What kind of social process unifies, or disunifies, the production and consumption of images? What sort of politics takes place in the production of them? The history of theoretical debates about these questions in sociology will be considered. Readings will include selections from Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School, the neo-Marxist British New Left ("British Cultural Studies"), French Cultural Theory (Bourdieu), Feminist Cultural Theory (French, British, and American). We will also look at the way cultural issues have been researched in sociology and in communications, and evaluate the different research methodologies which have been used. Students from all disciplinary backgrounds are welcome! Cost:3/4 WL:4 (Press)

557. Media Law. (3). (Excl).
A case method study of the First Amendment and other legal principles related to the rights and responsibilities of the mass media with emphasis on news gathering, libel, privacy, and obscenity. Students will read approximately 120 appellate court decisions (contained in a course pack) and must be prepared to discuss and analyze these decisions in class. Because the course materials and the application of the legal principles developed are cumulative, the evaluation of students is based primarily on the midterm and final examinations. Cost:2 WL:2 (Murray)

SECTION 002. This course focuses on First Amendment speech and expression. There is study of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and general principles of First Amendment law. Topics covered include civil rights protests, television and film censorship, book-banning, libel, advertising restrictions and free speech on university campuses. There are 3 exams of equal weight and students may obtain extra credit points. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lowenstein)

559. Foreign Correspondence. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The seminar compares news organizations on a cross-cultural basis by monitoring how publications and broadcast organizations cover the same news event. Students select organizations from around the world, research them, and report to the class. Reading knowledge of a foreign language is preferred. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Eisendrath)

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