Courses in HISTORY (DIVISION 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).
Medieval and Renaissance Europe. History 110 is designed to introduce freshmen and sophomores to the development of western civilization from the rise of Christianity to the Renaissance. It is an "introductory" course because it introduces you to some of the techniques of studying and writing history, the most comprehensive and variegated of all the academic disciplines. The focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created our world. The reading will concentrate on sources works written by those who made our history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce you to ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization; there are also short, three-page papers based on the assigned readings. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lindner)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).
This course, which has no prerequisite, will introduce Europe since 1700. We shall look at the major revolutions of the period, the world wars of the eighteenth and twentieth centuries, such long-term processes as industrialization and urbanization, and particular aesthetic forms novel, photography, film that helped contemporaries understand those realities. We shall also, however, look at how Europe invaded much of the rest of the world in this era, and was in turn invaded by America. Finally, from first to last we will be concerned with memory, with how Europeans in 1914 or 1815 or 1700 used history as both a mirror to see themselves in and a map to their futures. The course is conducted in lectures and discussion. Required work will consist of a midterm and final exam, and two short papers. (Marwil)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).
See Asian Studies 122. (Young)

150/Korean 150. Introduction to Korean Civilization. (3). (Excl).
In this course we will survey civilization on the Korean peninsula from its beginnings in prehistory down to the mid-20th century (i.e. the Korean War). Our approach will be primarily historical, with an emphasis on such accepted social and cultural watersheds as the Three Kingdoms Period, Unified Silla, the Koryo and Yi Dynasties, and Korea under colonialism. Within this framework a variety of sources will be used primarily texts in translation, archaeological records, and slide presentations of Korean arts, architecture, and material culture with the aim of exposing the student as directly as possible to the complex interplay of forces that shape society and culture during any given period. Thus, rather than simply present a history of Korea, the student will be encouraged to critically assess current historical perspectives and, thereby, engage first-hand in the interpretable process itself. In so far as events in Korea have always resonated closely with developments in continental China and other regions of Northeast Asia (i.e. Japan), one question that will be encountered repeatedly is the relationship of Korea to the broader cultural sphere of East Asia.

152/Asian Studies 112. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).
See Asian Studies 112. (Lieberman)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).
This is a survey of United States history from its gestation in the colonial period to the end of the Civil War and the start of reconstruction. It will focus on the nation and on the people who made and sustained it. The course will examine how a nation was formed from colonies and was dissolved by sectionalism, and also on how American social and political diversity was created and shaped by demographic and ethnic forces. Major topics will include the transfer of culture from Old world to New; Native American adjustments to colonization; the rise of slavery and the origins of Africa-American society; the rise and revitalization of Puritan and Scotch-Irish communions; the English origins of American politics, the creation of the American Republic, and Jeffersonian and Jacksonian political revisionism; the shift from regionalism to sectionalism; the relationship of revitalism to reform, including the women's rights movement and abolitionism; and the Civil War as the second American Revolution. Students will attend two lectures and two section meetings each week, take a midterm and a final examination, and complete a written assignment. Readings will include a textbook, about 8 paperback monographs, and a course pack containing documents. (Moran)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).
History 161 is designed to trace via talks, discussion sections and books America's history from 1865 to the present. The course will attempt to offer, with consistency, an analytical framework of usefulness to those trying to comprehend American society. Its principal themes will be those of small-town America and its ideological persistence; the rise of an opposing set of values embodied in bureaucratic institutions; and the continuing tension between local and national values in such issues as race, religion, women's rights, foreign policy, government regulation, etc. The talks and a significant number of the books will also attempt to convey the varieties of personal experience so important to this period. The course will meet four hours each week: two in lecture and two in a discussion section. Tentative marking requirements include a short paper, a one-hour midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. There are no history course prerequisites for History 161. (Linderman)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome.
(3). (HU).
A survey of Roman history from the founding of Rome in the eighth century B.C. to the emergence of a Christian Roman empire in the fourth century A.D. Topics to be discussed include the consolidation of Italy under Roman rule; overseas wars of expansion into the Mediterranean; the domination of military commanders such as Pompey and Julius Caesar; the establishment of an empire by Augustus; and the conversion of Constantine to Christianity. Readings will include a survey textbook and many ancient texts in translation. Classes will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussions led by TAs. Final grade is based on two tests, frequent quizzes, and participation in discussions. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Van Dam)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (SS).
This course examines the wars that were fought in and around Vietnam from 1945 to 1975, with primary emphasis on the period of heavy American involvement from the mid-1950's. The course seeks to explain the origins, strategy, and impact of U.S. intervention. At the same time the course will explain the motivation of the Vietnam Communists and of their domestic opponents. Thus the Vietnam war will be analyzed both as the longest and most controversial foreign war in American history, and as the climax to an Asian social revolution. Meets three times a week for 50 minutes, plus one 50-minute discussion section. Midterm and final exam. [Cost:4] [WL:4] (Lieberman)

251. Modern China. (3). (SS).
History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. Cost:2,3 WL:3 (A. Feuerwerker)

265. A History of the University of Michigan. (3). (HU).
The University of Michigan has been a leader in shaping the modern American university. The course will examine this heritage and history from the perspectives of students, faculty, fields of study, administration, etc. It will explore the factors that have shaped the University and place it within the larger social, political, national, and international context. The only prerequisite is an interest in your University and its place in history. Presentation will be through lectures with slides. Grading will be based on essay/objective exams; term project or research paper; photo quiz to acquaint students with central campus, its architecture and embellishment. Readings will be from a course pack and 2 or 3 required texts. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Steneck, Steneck)

275/CAAS 231. Survey of Afro-American History II. (3). (SS).
See CAAS 231. (Barkley Brown)

285(Univesity Courses 265). Science, Technology, and Society After The Bomb. (3). (Excl).
The enterprise of science changed dramatically after WW II, both intellectually and socially. The consequences of being able to split the atom and, more recently, to engineer biological blueprints have made science literally a life and death activity that touches every human. This course will explore the growth and implications of scientific and technological development from the end of WWII to the present. There will be two lectures and one discussion per week. Students will work in small groups on one problem during the term, e.g. energy, pollution, global warming, health care issues. Each group will hand in a jointly written report at the end of term and present a class report. Three or four books will be assigned reading. Students will be expected to make use of the Message System and a course CONFERence. Cost: Under $50 WL:1 (Steneck)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

319. Europe Since 1945.
(4). (SS).
The aim of this course is to provide a comprehensive critical introduction to European society, culture and politics since the Second World War. Lectures and readings will cover both Eastern and Western Europe, the international arena and the national histories of particular countries, and social and cultural life as well as political developments. The course aims to explore the shaping of the contemporary world and to introduce students to societies and political cultures which are both structurally similar and fundamentally different from their own. Instruction will be via lectures and ad hoc discussion, evaluation via midterm exam and end of term essay. No special background is required; prejudices and preconceptions about European societies are enough. [Cost: 3 or 4] [WL: 2] (McElligot)

333/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).
See REES 396. (Zimmerman)

346/Nat. Res. 356. Environmental History and the Tropical World. (3). (Excl).
The primary objective of this course is to analyze the history of change in the natural resources endowments of the developing world, as those resources have come under intensive exploitation over the past two centuries, especially by the colonial regimes and capitalist economies of the industrial "North". we will concentrate on three subject areas: the depletion of tropical forests, the transformation of savannah lands, and the degradation of mountain systems. At two points in the course we will consider more systematically the types of historical analysis which can contribute to understanding today's natural resources policy issues. We will end with a brief survey of the history of the international wildlands conservation movement, in the context of our understanding of the domestication of the planet. (Tucker)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).
We will study the changing personal perceptions of wars and the larger social responses to them through novels, autobiographies, films, lectures, and discussions. Among the required readings in paperbacks and course packs are March, Company K; Gray, The Warriors; O'Brien, The Things They Carried; and Hanley, Writing War. There are two hourly exams and a final. Students are asked to register for only ONE lecture section, plus one discussion section.

NOTE: Time Schedule is incorrect for Lecture Section 002; the correct time is WF 1-2:30 PM. Cost:3 WL:1 (Collier)

371/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (3). (Excl).
This course will examine the varieties of women's historical experiences over the last century. Students will come to see how standard historical interpretations are altered by the inclusion of women into the historical record. The course will focus on four areas: women's relation to economic production; changes in women's sexual and familial lives; women's political activism; and the development of feminist consciousness. Representative topics are: women's reform activities and the emergence of the modern welfare state; the changing meanings of female friendships in the early 20thC; the consequences of the Great Depression for women; women's experiences in the civil rights movement and new left; women and rock 'n' roll. Throughout the course we will pay special attention to the ways women's experiences have differed according to race/ethnicity, class, age and region. Requirements include a midterm, final and two short papers related to the course readings. Films and slides will be shown. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Echols)

376/Amer. Cult. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (Excl).
See American Culture 372. (Doyle)

382. History of the Jews from the Spanish Expulsion to the Eve of Enlightenment. (3). (Excl).
This course will survey major trends in Jewish history from the break-up of the medieval order to the emergence of a new order in eighteenth-century Europe. The unifying theme will be the emergence and spread of Lurianic Kabbalah within Jewish society, culminating in the Sabbatian movement and the rise of Hassidism in Eastern Europe. The course deals with three broad episodes: the dispersion of the Spanish exiles and the rise of new communities in the Mediterranean; the impact on European Jewry of the Reformation, the Counter-Reformation and the rise of the Atlantic states; and the rise of Eastern European Jewry. Requirements for the course: midterm and final exams, term paper. (Bodian)

386. The Holocaust. (3). (Excl).
This course will attempt to answer some of the most vexing historical problems surrounding the Nazi regime's systematic extermination of six million Jews during World War II. For example: What role did Christian hostility to Judaism play in the growth of genocidal racism in Germany? How did German political traditions prepare the way for Nazi authoritarianism? Why did the German people acquiesce in the Nazi program of mass murder? Why did the American and British governments refuse to come to the aid of European Jews? How did European Jews behave in crisis and extremity? Was the Holocaust "unique"? There will be a midterm, a paper of 10 to 15 pages, and a comprehensive final. (Endelman)

393. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001. From Bebop to HipHop: Afroamericans and Popular Culture Since 1945.
For Winter Term, 1992, this course is jointly offered with CAAS 358.001. (Kelley)

395. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.
This is an independent 1-4 hour course open only to history concentrators by written permission of the instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Restricted to declared history concentrators with senior status needing ECB writing course. Waitlist. Priorities will be rigorously enforced First priority: declared history seniors who need ECB. Second priority: history seniors who need a colloquium to fulfill history concentration requirement. Third priority: history concentrators. Fourth priority: position on waitlist.

Section 001: Nationalism and War in 20th Century Asia. For Winter Term, 1992, this course is jointly offered with Asian Studies 381. (Murphey).

Section 002: Social Science and the African American Experience. This course will examine the rise of social science in the United States through the prism of the African American experience. We will focus on (1) the experience of African Americans as subjects of social science analysis with the resultant impact of this on race relations in the United States; and (2) the experience of African Americans as professionals within social science disciplines. Beginning with an understanding of the impact of scientific racism on social science research, we will trace the development of a liberal intellectual response through case studies in history, anthropology, and sociology. We will then examine the impact of the development of Black Studies and Women's Studies on social science perspectives on the African American experience. Students should expect to do a significant amount of reading and writing and to participate in class discussion on a regular basis. (Barkley Brown)

Section 003. Under The Eagle's Wings: The American Occupation of Japan, 1945-52. No segment of Japan's remarkable post-war history is more seminal or fascinating than the Allied occupation from 1945 to 1952. This course will examine that extraordinary episode during which the United States operated through the Supreme Commander Allied Powers (General MacArthur) to bring about fundamental changes in Japan's political and social institutions, values and behavior. It will focus on the planning for this unparalleled undertaking, the reforms enacted, the response of the Japanese, and the long-term impact of SCAP policies. Kuzuo Kawai's Japan's American Interlude (University of Chicago Press, 1980) will be used for background reading. Emphasis will be given to class discussion of assigned readings, to oral reports, and to three written assignments covering specific aspects of the Occupation and its aftermath. (Hackett)

Section 004: Contemporary Russian Politics and Culture. This course, which could be titled Perestroika and Glasnost, will explore various aspects of Soviet and Russian culture from the 1970s through 1991. The major sources will be Soviet literature, films, television, and especially articles from the new independent press. Students will write a research paper on the pre-history of the August coup based on their examination of political journalism of the past year. Requirements: active participation in discussion, one short essay, a research paper, as well as outlines, drafts and revisions of these papers. Reading knowledge of Russian is strongly preferred; students who cannot read Russian must have the permission of the instructor to register in this course. Cost:2 WL:3 (Burbank)

Section 005: Health and Disease in the Age of Victoria 1830-1900. The Victorian Era began with a devastating cholera epidemic, and ended with the revolutionary discoveries that shaped modern medicine. We will examine the history of British and American health and disease during this age of unprecedented medical and social change. Topics include: health effects of industrialization, immigration, urban growth, and colonialism; medical aspects of culture, politics, aging, gender, and race; professionalization, natural healing, hospitals, mental asylums, anesthesia, antisepsis, and evolution. No background in history or medicine required; prior course work in either helpful. Discussion format with occasional brief lectures. Students are expected to read and discuss thoughtfully 150-200 pages per week. A 15-page paper based on original historical research, a weekly journal, and two 5-page book reviews are required. No exams. Those absent from the first class without advance permission WILL BE DROPPED from the course. Cost:1-5. Required purchases cost about $15, but additional required assignments available on reserve or for optional purchase, cost up to $125 if purchased. WL:3 (Pernick)

Section 006: Michigan in the Era of Industrialization. This course will focus on the period in Michigan history from 1880-1920. It will examine several themes in that period including immigration, industrialization, settlement patterns, etc. A general familiarity with United States history is required. History colloquia are conducted in the seminar format and are limited to a small number of students. As a result, emphasis is placed on student participation in discussions. Each student will be required to write a major research paper that will draw on the resources of the Bentley Historical Library, which contains original MSS and archives relating to the history of the state. The course provides an opportunity for students to gain familiarity with a critical period in the history of the state and to do original historical research. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, class discussion, and a seminar paper. Cost:2 WL:2 (Blouin)

Section 007: Law And Society In American History. This course deals with several major themes in American legal history from the Colonial period to the early twentieth century. The themes include: tensions between formal legal rules and widespread social attitudes in various setting, including the local community, the family, and the larger economic order; changes in concepts regarding the nature and source of law and the relationship between those concepts and the roles of legislation, judicial opinions and informal or "customary norms"; concepts of human behavior as they relate to legal and social ideas regarding both the theory of criminal responsibility and the practical uses of institutions to enforce the law and to "correct" offenders; the relationship between socio-economic development and legal change regarding issues of class, gender, and race; the various meanings of the "rights tradition" in America. These subjects will be pursued through analysis of a selection of recent books (paperbacks) and articles. Attention will be paid both to the substantive matters listed above and to the manner in which historians have formulated issues and employed evidence in setting forth arguments regarding specific historical contexts. Students will be expected to write at least 30 pages, including a term paper of their choosing. The term paper will be an analytical essay on one of the main themes of the course and will draw upon several of the works read for the course. Cost:5 WL:5. Specific times for interview with Prof. will be listed in History Department. (Green)

Section 008: Comedy in Catholic Contexts. Traditional, conservative, morally strict, hierarchically constructed-Roman Catholic culture provides a fertile ground for comedy that satirizes, parodies, and criticizes prelates, clerics, religious, simple believers, and "the world" itself. We shall read masterpieces by insiders and drop-outs from four different centuries: 14th: Boccaccio's Decameron; 16th: Erasmus, Praise of Folly; Julius Excluded from Heaven and other colloquies; 18th:Voltaire, Candide, selections from Philosophical Dictionary, and other works; 20th: David Lodge, How Far Can You Go (Souls and Bodies) and other novels and short stories by such authors as Flannery O'Connor, Frank O'Connor, Evelyn Waugh, Thomas Keneally, and J.F.Powers. I assume that one need not "believe in" or even be trained in any religious knowledge to understand Catholic comedy and "get the joke." Religion 396 is open to undergraduates in any concentration priority given to students needing an ECB writing course. For priority in History 396, see the Time Schedule. There will be three short essays (4-6 pages each) submitted in two drafts, and a fourth essay of 10-12 pages, the final exercise in the course. There will be individual conferences on the essays and, if technical skills permit, an MTS CONFER for everyone enrolled in the course. (Tentler)

Section 009. Popular Performance in Urban America: 1820-1920. This course surveys various forms of performance popular in American cities during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The "performances" studies range from entertainments which clearly distinguish actors and audiences to those which blur such distinctions in favor of alternative theatrical relations. The primary purpose of the course is to interpret these forms of performance as they reveal social interactions across class, race, ethnic and gender lines as these interactions took shape in changing urban environments of the century under study. Students will read and analyze histories as well as written and musical examples of melodrama, minstrelsy, musical comedy, ethnic theatre, burlesque, vaudeville, and dance halls. Texts include Toll, Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth Century America, Harris, Humbug: The Art of P.T. Barnum, Peiss, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York. Requirements include participation in the seminar discussions and weekly submission of written responses to the readings, two midterm papers, and a final paper. Cost:4 WL:1 (Oberdeck)

Section 010: History of the American West. Out beyond the hundredth meridian lay one of the most obscure and fascinating places in all the world. It is a place at turns both mythical and fantastic, a region steeped in folklore and brimming with legend. It is not easy to put one's finger on this place; its boundaries remain vague and ambiguous. But somehow we manage to conjure an understanding in our minds, a picture of this place we call the American West. In this course, we will search for the identity of this region, exploring the history of this place in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. How did the American West come to be and at whose expense? What were the social, cultural, and ecological impacts of the conquest of this vast land? These and other questions will be explored through class discussions and brief oral presentations. Two interpretive essays will also be required. Cost:4-5 (Steinberg)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Restricted to declared history concentrators with senior status. Waitlist. Priorities will be rigorously enforced First priority: history seniors who need a colloquium to fulfill history concentration requirement. Second priority: history concentrators. Third priority: position on waitlist.

Section 001: Asia Through Fiction. For Winter Term, 1992, this course is jointly offered with Asian Studies 441. (Murphey)

Section 002: The Mongul Conquest of China. The Mongol defeat of Chinese Song empire in 1279 represents a major watershed in Chinese and world history. This colloquium will examine the rise of Genghis Khan, his unification of the Mongol clans, and his conquest of North China and Central Asia leading to a detailed study of the reduction of the Song under his grandson, Khublai. The chief purpose of this course is to contrast the cultural, political, and military differences between the Mongols and the Chinese, and explore the dimensions of the Mongols victory and its impact on China during the Yuan dynasty. This course is designed for students with some background in Asian history, but others are welcome with permission of the instructor. Students will be expected to participate in class discussions, prepare two short papers in the from of book reviews, and prepare one substantial term paper. (Forage)

Section 004: The Church and the Jews. The course will examine the complex relationship between the Western Church and the Jews, from the time of the Church Fathers. It will analyze ideas and policies regarding Jews as expressed in different realms, from theology and canon law to church art and popular preaching. It will also attempt to survey the factors which led to striking changes in church attitudes and policy, with emphasis on the interplay of the theological legacy and evolving realities. A term paper is required. (Bodian)

Section 005: East European Attitudes Toward the State and the State Apparatus From the 19th Century to the Present. (Grinberg)

398. Honors Colloquium, Junior. Honors students and junior standing. (4). (Excl).
This course is a methods seminar required of juniors who are members of the History Department Honors Program. It is not available for general enrollment. [Cost: 1] [WL: 5] Must be admitted by letter from Honors Committe. (Downs/MacCormack)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. [Cost: 1] [WL: 5 Must be admitted] (J. Fine)

413/MARC 413. Intellectual History of the Italian Renaissance. (3). (Excl).
The course will commence with a discussion of the culture of the Northern and Central Italian city-states in the 13th century. Emphasis will be placed on the civic and public nature of city life, and it is in this context that the ideas of Dante and others of his generation will be considered. Next we shall treat the emergence of Italian humanism tracing its religious and political strands leading from Petrarch in the 14th century to his more civically minded successors in the following century. After this, we will evaluate the leading ideas of Italian Neoplatonists and their impact on fields as varied as poetry and science. Machiavelli and Machiavellianism will be examined for an understanding of the rise of a new political ethic. Courtly society and courtly culture will be studied in order to appreciate the social and political transformation occuring in Italy in the 16th century. The course will close with an analysis of scientific developments leading to the New Science of the 17th century. [Cost:2] [WL:2] (Becker)

417. Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present. (3). (Excl).
The Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present is a lecture discussion of the chief ideas of "modernity" from the inception of the symbolist movement and the anti-positivist revolt to the beginnings of the post-modernist period following 1945. The course will consist of lectures and bi-weekly discussions of five books chosen to illuminate particular ideas and problems dealt with in the course. There will be a midterm and a final examination. An effort will be made to give a coherent account of the impact of symbolism and elite aesthetic and social theory on the development of art, literature and politics. Elite theories of socialism, anti-democratic biological, cultural and social theories, the rise of authoritarianism and ideology, the loss of religious faith and the growth of irrationalism, the revolution in science and technology and the anti-technological response will all be discussed. Books to be purchased and read by the student: Renato Poggioli, THE THEORY OF THE AVANT-GARDE; Ernst Nolfe, THREE FACES of FASCISM; Vladimir Lenin, WHAT IS TO BE DONE, BURNING QUESTIONS OF OUR MOVEMENT; Georges Sorel, REFLECTIONS ON VIOLENCE; Walter Laqueur, WEIMER, A CULTURAL HISTORY. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Tonsor)

425. French Revolution. (3). (Excl).
This course will treat the French Revolution as a transformation of the politics, culture and society. It will be based largely on a close reading and analysis of contemporary documents, supplemented by secondary readings. Classes will be taught mainly by discussion method althoough there will be occasional lectures. (Bien)

432. Russia to Peter the Great. (3). (Excl).
Since medieval times, Westerners have brought back tales of exoticism and barbarism from Russia to their homelands, but few have taken the time to understand the nature of Russian society and culture. This course attempts to examine early Russian society in its own terms, while also studying the historiographic tradition and the issues at stake for the various historians of the field. The course spans the history of Russia from the ninth century, when written records begin, to Peter the Great at the end of the seventeenth century. Topics include the formation of the Russian state, the conversion to Orthodox Christianity, the invasion of the Mongol horde, and the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The course emphasizes interpretive issues, historiographic debates and questions of historical method. Class sessions will combine lecture and discussion. Texts include: Nicholas Riasanovsky, A HISTORY OF RUSSIA; Charles Halperin, RUSSIA AND THE GOLDEN HORDE; Serge Zenkovsky, MEDIEVAL RUSSIA'S EPICS, CHRONICLES, AND TALES; and a photocopied course reader. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two short papers (5-7 pages), a midterm and a final exam. There are no prerequisites. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Kivelson)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (Excl).
A history of the Soviet Union from 1917 through 1991. The course will emphasize the development, continuities and transformations in elite, popular, and administrative cultures, in economic and social life, and in politics. Students will read and interpret political documents, fiction, journalism, and historical scholarship. Requirements: active participation in discussion sections, attendance at two lectures per week, one paper, and two take-home examinations (midterm and final). Cost:3 WL:2 (Burbank)

439. Eastern Europe Since 1900. (3). (Excl).
A survey of eastern European history from 1900 to 1989, emphasizing Poland. Topics covered include the late nineteenth-century background, the Balkan wars, nationalism and the separate identities of East European states. This course will meet MWF 10-11. (Grinberg)

443/GNE 474. Modern Near East History. (3). (Excl).
This lecture course surveys the emergence of the modern Middle East from the three great Muslim empires of the early modern period, the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal. It discusses both indigenous developments and the Western impact in the nineteenth century, looking at reform bureaucracy and millenarian movements as responses to these changes. We then examine the rise of nationalism and the break-up of the Ottoman Empire during and after WW I, and these phenomena are seen as the context for the beginnings of the Palestine issue. Attention is paid to the interwar efforts at building strong states in the region, whether in the Turkey of Ataturk, the Iran of Reza Shah, or Wafdist Egypt. The last part of the course looks at the rise of socialist and pan-Arab ideologies, as well as of opposing ideologies such as Islamic activism after WWII. The impact of petroleum, the Palestinian issue, the turn toward bourgeois liberalism, and Shi'ite movements such as the Iranian Revolution and the Hizbullah phenomenon in Lebanon, and the Gulf War of 1991, will all be addressed in this section. Students will take a midterm and a final examination, and will write a ten-page term paper on a subject of their choosing. Reading in this class, as with most history courses that earn 4 credits, is heavy, about 200 pages a week. [Cost:4] [WL:3] (Cole)

448/CAAS 448. Africa in the Twentieth Century. (3). (Excl).
This is the second of a two sequence lecture course designed to introduce students to central themes in Sub-Saharan African history from 1850 to the present. It will deal with such issues as the abolition of the slave trade, the rise of legitimate commerce, European penetration and imperial systems, physical confrontation, colonial subjugation, underdevelopment, nationalism and decolonisation. Cost:4 (Atkins)

450. Japan to 1800. (3). (Excl).
Japan offers one of the most colorful of the world's premodern histories. This course will explore the evolution of Japanese civilization from its prehistoric days to the last phase of the age of the samurai, covering such major topics as the emergence of the state, aristocratic lifestyle, rise of the warriors, gender relations, feudalism, peasant and lord, and mass culture. The course is organized in a chronological fashion. Occasional films and slide presentations will supplement lectures. Students will complete two take-home examinations and write a brief paper. The basic text is John W. Hall's Japan from Prehistory to Modern Times. No prerequisites for taking the course. [Cost: 3] [WL: 4] (Tonomura)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (3). (Excl).
This course describes the European conquest, transformation of Southeast Asia and indigenous responses to external impacts. Geographic coverage will include the principal countries of the mainland (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) and the island world (Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). The course compares colonial rule of Britain, the Netherlands, and France, and the imperial policy of the United States in the region. In particular the course attempts to explain how nationalism and individual modern national cultures emerged from the epoch of foreign domination. Lectures and reading assume no prior knowledge of the region. There will be a midterm, a final, and a term paper. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mrázek)

455. Classical India and the Coming of Islam 320-1526 A.D. (3). (Excl).
The greater part of this course concerns itself with the history of ancient India in its classical age beginning with the empire of the Guptas, and attempts to analyse the components of Indian civilization in its classical form (kinship, caste, political organization, religious institutions). It then examines the Turkish invasions and the challenges posed by Islamic rule. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of any of its participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautman)

459. Science, Medicine, and Sexuality: Historical Perspectives. (3). (Excl).
History, Science, Medicine, and Sexuality: Historical Perspectives. The cultural history of gender and sex both affects and reflects changes in medicine, biology, and health. We will examine three aspects of that relationship: 1) differences in men's and women's health, illnesses, and medical treatment, 2) differences in women's and men's experiences as health care workers, 3) medical and cultural forces that shaped social and scientific concepts of gender and sexual difference. Readings, lectures, and discussions will examine these questions in four different periods of U.S. history since the 1600s, emphasizing the past two centuries, with comparisons to other cultures. No background in history, gender studies, or medicine is required, though prior course work in at least one such area will be helpful. Students choose either a midterm and final essay exams, or three 7-page papers. Several short quizzes are also required. Those who miss the first meeting without advance permission will be dropped from the course. Cost:1-5. Required purchases cost about $15, but additional required assignments available on reserve or for optional purchase, cost up to $125 if purchased. WL:4 (Pernick)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (3). (SS).
This course starts with the English and European background to the first colonising ventures at Roanoke, Jamestown and Plymouth and covers the main social, economic, religious, political and cultural developments culminating in the American War of Independence. Much of the focus will be on solving problems. Why did it take England so long to start settlements, for instance, or why did some colonies grow so much faster than others, or why was there witchcraft ar Salem or how did Benjamin Franklin differ from Cotton Mather or could the American Revolution have been prevented. Quizzes, a midterm, a paper and an end of term exercise are the usual assignments. High standards of presentation are expected. (Thompson)

463. The Origins of the American Civil War, 1830-1860. (3). (Excl).
This course attempts to understand the causes of the American Civil War. It begins with a description of the society of the ante-bellum South; turns next to a portrait of Jacksonian politics and political ideology; then takes up that transmutation of Jacksonian ideals in the 1840's and 1850's through which hostile sectional stereotypes were defined. It culminates with an exploration of the sense in which the intellectual, social, religious and economic conflicts in America came to be summarized by the slavery question during the period, because of the demands of political competition. There will be a midterm exam, a research paper of ten pages, and a two-hour final examination. Reading will average about 250 pages a week. Enrollment will be limited to forty students, in order to facilitate class discussion. (Thornton)

467. The United States Since 1933. (3). (SS).
The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; and the presidencies of Carter, Reagan, and Bush. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Review sessions will be scheduled. [Cost:3] [WL:4, a student may also visit the faculty office to see about getting on a Waitlist into the course.] (S. Fine)

476. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (3). (Excl).
In this course we will examine the history of colonial Latin America from the initial Spanish and Portuguese contacts and invasions to the nineteenth-century wars of independence. We will look at the indigenous background to the conquest; the nature of the settler community; and the interactions among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, Europeans, and Africans as they formed a whole range of colonial societies in the "New World." We will focus at shifting uses, and definitions, of labor and land, race and ethnicity, gender and religion. The method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Each student will write a short critical review and a final paper of approximately 10 to 12 pages. There will be a midterm and a final. Readings will include works by Inga Clendinnen, Nancy Farris, Karen Spalding and Charles Gibson, as well as primary materials form Aztec, Inka, and Spanish sources. (Frye)

477. Latin America: The National Period. (3). (Excl).
This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the present. The approach is chronological and thematic. A temporal narrative will be organized around these themes: (1) state formation, including forms of political rule and the construction of collective identities at local, national, and continental levels; (2) elite and popular relations, including cases of rebellion, revolution, and state repression; (3) forms of capitalist development and transformations in class relations, ideologies of economic development, and center-periphery linkages. The discussion of individual countries and of specific topics will be intertwined throughout the course. Classes will combine lecture and discussions. Students are required to read the assigned materials BEFORE each class and are encouraged participate in class discussions. Written work will involve a short essay, a longer paper, a midterm, and a final. Readings will include relevant sections from a textbook, Keen and Wasserman, A Short Story of Latin America, and articles and monographs, novels, short stores, newspapers and films, some of which will be selected in response to class discussion and students' interests. (Coronil)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (Excl).
See Economics 491.

509. Social History of Early Modern England. Hist. 220 and junior standing are recommended. (3). (Excl).
This course surveys the social history of England from the later Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution. Its principal concern is with the course of social change and its effects on the behavior and attitudes of men and women of all social classes. It will explain how population rise, inflation and the Reformation led to increasing social and cultural polarization, and also examine institutions that experienced comparatively little change, such as the family, and explore why. A great deal of attention will be given to the fundamental social hierarchies of the period status, gender and age so that the values of the period are understandable. The political events that affected social relations, most notably the English Revolution of 1640-1660, will be discussed. Finally, the emergence of civic culture and an urban middle class in the eighteenth century will be highlighted. (MacDonald)

528. Modern Italy, 1815 to the Present. (3). (Excl).
Italy's remarkable changes and surprising continuity over the last two centuries in politics, economics, and culture provide the themes of this course, which studies the national movement (the Risorgimento) that created a modern state after l500 years of division, the invention of Fascism, and Italian democracy today. It studies how an agricultural society began to industrialize and in the last generation became one of the world's wealthy nations. It looks at the persistence of regional differences, the controversial role of the Church, and the conflicts surrounding Italian culture. Lectures and discussion, independent reading on topics of the students' choice, hour exam and final. (Grew)

531. History of the Balkans Since 1800. (3). (Excl).
History 531 is a lecture course which surveys the history of the modern Balkans the area which consists of the present-day countries of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania from roughly 1800 to the present. There are no pre-requisites nor required background. Interested freshman should feel welcome. Grading is based on: one hour exam, a one-hour written exam, writing on one essay question out of about four, one course paper (approximately 15 pages, topic according to student interest but cleared with instructor) and a written final exam (2 essay questions to be chosen from a list of about 8 questions). Major issues to be covered are: liberation movements of the Serbs and Greeks from the Ottomans, development of their two states, the crisis of 1875-78 with international involvement ending with the Treaty of Berlin, Croatia and Bosnia under the Habsburgs, the development of Bulgaria after 1878, the Macedonia problem, terrorist societies, World War I, the formation of Yugoslavia, nationality problems in Yugoslavia between the Wars, German penetration and the rise of dictatorships in the inter-war Balkans, World War II with Yugoslav and Greek resistance movements (including the Greek Civil War), Tito's Yugoslavia, its 1948 break with the USSR and Yugoslavia's special path to socialism. [Cost: 3] [WL: 4] (J. Fine)

543/GNE 472. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (3). (Excl).
See General Near East 472. (Luther)

550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (3). (Excl).
This is a systematic analysis of state, society, men, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: 1) the concept and structure of empire; 2) soldiers, diplomacy, and war; 3) society, cities, and literature; 4) barbarian challenge, economic development, and social change; 5) state, society, and culture in early modern China. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Chang)

559. U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (3). (Excl).
This course examines American diplomacy since the outbreak of World War I. Major topics include entry into and participation in the two World Wars, the origins and development of the Cold War, the war in Vietnam and the diplomacy of the post-Vietnam era. Although extensive attention is given to the world setting in which America acted, the primary emphasis is upon the formulation and execution of American policy, including investigation of the forces, domestic and foreign, which influenced it. A textbook and reading for a term paper are required. In addition to the paper, an hour exam and a final examination are required. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Perkins)

588. History of History II. (3). (Excl).
A historiographical survey of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries stressing the development of historicism and its problems. The course places a major emphasis on the development of method to philosophies of history. No text is employed. Students are expected to read four books of their own choice from an extensive bibliography and to write a critical 2,500 word paper. There is a midterm and a final examination. [Cost:2] (Tonsor)

591. Topics in European History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001. Vergil and Augustine. The Reception of Classical Latin Poetry by the Western Church Fathers.
The primary task of the course is to study the manner in which Augustine of Hippo integrated selected themes of Vergil's Aeneid in his work on the City of God. Both texts will be studied in their late antique context, the Aeneid in the light of the late antique context, the Aeneid in the light of the late antique commentators on Vergil, and the City of God as part of Augustine's overall apology for the Christian religion. Augustine was Vergil's most intelligent and searching ancient reader, but at the same time, he became increasingly critical of the Aeneid 's content, rejecting, one by one, Vergil's ideal of Rome, his concept of the soul, and his concept of error, or sin. At the same time, however, Augustine appropriated a number of Vergilian notions, in particular the idea that the history of a city is enshrined in the manner of its foundation, in order to construct his own history of the city of god. In that this tension between acceptance and rejection of the pagan past characterizes early Christian thought in general, we will be studying, in this course, one of the turning points in the culture of the ancient world. (MacCormack)

593. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. Juniors, seniors and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Approaches to Asian American History.
For Winter Term, 1992, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 496.002. (Nomura)

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