140. Introduction to Arabic Culture and Language. (3). (Excl).
This course will offer a general survey of the social, cultural, historical and linguistic aspects of the Modern Arab world as well as the origins and current status of the Arabic language. It will include an Arabic language instruction component focusing upon the basic communication needs of travellers and career professionals. The course material will be explored through lectures and videos supported by listening and viewing guides and through discussions based upon the assigned readings. A good deal of one of the class sessions each week will involve brainstorming about effective outlining, writing, and oral presentation. Grades will be based upon class participation, short essays and a final exam. (Rammuny)

204/Rel. 204. Islamic Religion: An Introduction. (3). (HU).
This course is meant to be a well-rounded introduction to Islam in theory and practice. After situating Islam in the Arabian and Middle Eastern contexts we shall examine the fundamental sources of Islam; study the beliefs and practices of Muslims; and learn about some of the principal areas of Muslim intellectual activity (law, theology, mysticism, and philosophy). The emphasis of the course is on the early, formative centuries of Islam, though we shall deal with modern religious developments in the Muslim world. Two exams and a quiz. (Mir)

446. Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).
An introduction to the modern literature of the Arab Lands, Iran, Israel and Turkey. The course is taught by four professors, each of whom will examine the literature in which he/she specializes. Lectures introduce major literacy figures and their works within the framework of the historical and social circumstances of their lives. Materials are in English translation. (Stewart-Robinson)

450. Near Eastern Issues. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001: 1419 EASTBOUND.
Five centuries after the discovery of the New World, this course will deal with the meanwhile-back-at-the-ranch side of this event. 1492 marked also the fall of Granada and the Return to the East, ending some eight centuries of Arab-Jewish presence in Andalusia/Spain. The course deals with the effects of the Expulsion from Spain on the Arab and Jewish cultures, respectively and interchangeably. We will follow the Eastbound mind throughout the centuries, and examine different Hebrew and Arabic texts (in English translation) written in the aftermath, around the Mediterranean and in the Middle East, dealing with exile, displacement and redemption. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students who have an interest in issues Near Eastern, preferably with a literary background, are encouraged to register. Requirements for the course are a class presentation and a substainial Term Paper. Cost:2 (Shammas)

Section 002: From An Antique Land. Foreign Travelers' Views of the Middle East. This seminar will focus upon the long and distinguished list of European, American travelers' sojourners' accounts of the Middle East and how such writings have helped to shape our perceptions of that area. Students may focus upon areas and/or time periods of their choice after reading several of the important authors, e.g., Kinglake, Stark, Bell Lawrence. Cost: 2 (Kolars)

460. Archaeology of the Historic Near East. (3). (Excl).
Section 001: The Archaeology of Syria-Palestine From Earliest Times to the Persian Period.
This course, suited to both undergraduates and graduates, provides a chronological survey of empirical evidence recovered from cultures which existed in the Near East during both prehistorical and historical periods. Artifacts shall be analyzed against a backdrop of such themes as human evolution, society, economy and religion. Topics of prehistorical concern shall include the Paleolithic Period and the transition from Neanderthals to Homo Sapiens, the dichotomy apparent in the Natufian Culture between farmers and hunters, the "Neolithic Revolution," and the mysterious Chalcolithic Culture. Study of the historical periods shall concentrate on such issues as the earliest appearance of "cities" in Palestine, dynamic relationships between urban and pastoral societies, early Levantine trade contacts with the Aegean world, the formation and history of Iron Age kingdoms such as Israel, Moab and Edom, and the effects of Assyro-Babylonian foreign policies on these local entities. Midterm, final examination, term project; no prerequisites. (Tappy)

468/Jud. Stud. 468/Rel. 469. Jewish Mysticism. (3). (Excl).
A critical study of the historical development of Jewish mysticism, its symbolic universe and its social ramifications. While the course will survey mystical traditions from the early rabbinic period through the modern, the focus will be on the variegated medieval stream known as kabbalah. Among the issues to be explored are: the nature of mystical experience; images of God and the Person; symbols of the male and female (gender symbolism); the problem of evil; mysticism and language; kabbalistic myth and ritual innovation; and kabbalistic interpretations of history. Modern interpretations of mysticisms will be considered as well. The readings for the course will consist largely of secondary sources from the fields of the history of Judaism and comparative religion. These will be supplemented by close readings of pertinent primary texts (in translation). Requirements include two exams and a research paper. Class lectures will be supplemented by discussion. (Ginsburg)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).
Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature; Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. [Cost:1] [WL:3 or 4] (Schramm)

472/Hist. 543. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (3). (Excl).
This course deals with one of the more important varieties of Islamic Civilization, the one formed in the area stretching from present-day Iraq across the Iranian Plateau to Central Asia. Perso-Islamic Civilization underlies the modern Islamic cultures of Afghanistan, Muslim Soviet Central Asia, Pakistan, Muslim India, and Iran, and it had a great deal of influence on the formation of Ottoman Turkish Civilization. Topics will include Ancient Iran's contribution to the formation of Islamic Civilization in Arabic, the emergence and maturing of New Persian literature, the impact of the Turkish invasions, Perso-Islamic Civilization on the eve of the Mongol invasion, and the transfer of this culture to India as an "emigre civilization" under the Delhi Sultanate. A paper or set of four critical reviews, a midterm and a final are required. Readings are from secondary materials and source translations in English from a reserve list and a course pack. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Luther)

474/Hist. 443. Modern Near East History. (4). (Excl).
See History 443. (Cole)

481/Rel. 481/Engl. 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (3). (Excl).

See English 401. (Williams)

483. Sufism. (3). (Excl).
In this course we shall examine the spiritual or mystical aspect of the Islamic tradition by raising, and attempting to answer, three principal questions: (1) What is the position of Sufism in Islam, and what is the basis of the Sufi claim to possession of special insights? We shall also examine in this connection the relationship of Sufism to orthodoxy. (2) What is the social role of Sufism? Is Sufism simply an exercise in discovering the "truth," or does it also meet certain social needs and has other functions? (3) What is distinctive about the Islamic mystical quest when compared with similar quests in other religions? After studying the origins and historical development of Sufism, we shall look at Sufi doctrine and conduct, Sufi orders, the different "types" of Sufism, and the Sufi literary expression. All readings in English. No Prerequisites. (Mir)

567/Jud. Stud. 470/Rel. 470. Topics in the Study of Judaism: The Sabbath and Sacred Time. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.
A close examination of the Sabbath, one of the central institutions of classical and modern Judaism. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, the course will explore the historical development of the Sabbath from later antiquity through modernity, the evolution of its legal structure; and its symbolic universe as expressed in lore, myth, and ritual. Various philosophical, mystical, and popular understandings of the Sabbath will be analyzed as well. Special emphasis will be placed on the Sabbath as Sacred Time and a symbol of personal and social renewal. Conceptions of rest from the utilitarian to the utopian will be investigated and compared. Prerequisites: graduate standing or permission of instructor. The course is especially suitable for undergraduate concentrators in NES, Judaic Studies, or Religion. Requirements include a class presentation, brief interpretive essays, and a research paper. The course will be conducted as a seminar. (Ginsburg)


120. Introduction to Tanakh/Old Testament. (3). (Excl).
ABS 120 will introduce the student to the modern study of the Tanakh/Old Testament as a cultural vestige of the ancient Near East. Lectures and readings will focus on early Israel's religion, literature, and history and the roles of the king, priest, prophet, and sage. Appropriately, the approach will be literary, historical, and critical using methods that are practiced and taught by scholars of many different religious persuasions. "As it has been...", the Tanakh/Old Testament played an important role in shaping the political, historical, literary, and artistic contours of western civilization " it is today". There is a need to offer within the university context a course on the Tanakh/Old Testament that requires the student to give serious consideration to crucial questions and issues that are often ignored in spite of the general familiarity and widespread use of the Bible in America today. (Schmidt)

202. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. ABS 201 or equivalent. (3). (LR).
Lessons and exercises in a standardized form of the language of the Hebrew Bible. Presentation of grammar and vocabulary. Daily recitations and weekly quizzes. There is no prerequisite for course 201, but course 201 or the equivalent is prerequisite for 202. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Schramm)

280/Rel. 280. Jesus and the Gospels. (4). (HU).
The course will probe the gospels, including some non-canonical versions (e.g., the Gospel of Thomas), as sources to the life and teaching of Jesus. The student will be introduced to the various scholarly methods used in gospel interpretation, in order that he/she will be able to apply these methods to the texts. This exercise will enable the student to appreciate the rich diversity of opinion which existed already in the earliest recoverable periods of incipient Christianity. There is no prerequisite for the course, but some familiarity with the gospels would be helpful. It is anticipated that there will be at least two exams and a term paper. The format of the course will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussions led by TA's. [Cost:3] [WL: 1] (Fossum)

380/Rel. 380. Selected Topics in Christian Studies. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits. Only one course from Religion 380, 387, and 487 may be elected in the same term.
See Religion 380.

482/Greek 484. Acts of Paul and Thecla: Feminist Perspectives. Greek 401 or equivalent; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
See Greek 484. (Hanson)

496/Rel. 404/Anthro. 450. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.
See Religion 404. (Rappaport)


Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (LR). May be elected for a total of six credits.
This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for review and practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two or four credits each term for a total of six credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1) A PROGRAMMED COURSE IN MODERN ARABIC PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT, by E.N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2)ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC PART ONE, by P. Abboud et al. Cost:1 WL:3 (Staff, Rammuny)

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (LR). May be elected for a total of six credits.
This course may not be taken until six hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on Arabic syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selectins based on Arab culture, and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each term (50%) and scheduled comprehensive tests (50%). Textbook: ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, PART TWO, by P. Abboud et al. Cost:1 WL:3 (Rammuny)

202. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 201 or equivalent. (6). (LR).
This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to use Arabic. The primary goals of this course are to have students develop the ability to: (1)communicate/speak in Arabic with native speakers of Arabic on familiar topics, (2) understand familiar spoken Arabic, (3) read and understand the specific content of an elementary level, and (4) communicate in writing and provide correct responses within the scope of the content of this course. This course is taught in Arabic using a communicative approach emphasizing the use of language. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, tests and quizzes, and a final exam. Required test: Peter Abboud et al., Elementary Standard Arabic, Part I. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, 1975. (Khaldieh)

402. Advanced Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 401 or the equivalent. (6). (Excl).
This is a fairly intensive course, with heavy emphasis on oral and written expression. Students will be encouraged to read and discuss lengthy original passages of literary and non-literary nature by modern Arab authors. They will also be required to produce compositions and presentations of their own on a regular basis. By the end of the Winter Term, participants should be capable of confronting unfamiliar Arabic tests (spoken or written) with reasonable assurance. Evaluation will be based on class participation, weekly quizzes, home assignments, and a final examinations. Textbook: IMSA (Kinko's packet). Cost:2 WL:3 (Khaldieh)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

502. Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition.
Arabic 501 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
The objectives of this course are to develop fluency and accuracy in understanding, speaking and writing modern standard Arabic, and to expand students' awareness of Arab-Islamic life and culture. The course is based on a variety of literary texts and authentic cultural audiovisual materials including slides, videocassettes, and films. There is a special emphasis on active mastery of useful idiomatic and cultural expressions and the use of Arabic for oral and written communication. Occasionally, students are required to select their own topics and give brief presentations. Requirements include daily preparations, a weekly written composition, monthly tests, and a final exam. Course grade is based on classroom preparation and performance (20%), written compositions (20%), monthly tests (30%), and a final paper (30%). The course textbooks are ADVANCED ARABIC CONVERSATION AND COMPOSITION by Raji M. Rammuny, and ADVANCED ARABIC COMPOSITION. STUDENT'S GUIDE by Raji M. Rammuny. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Rammuny)


Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (LR).
Continuation of the development of basic communication skills of reading, writing and speaking modern standard Hebrew. Class drills, class discussions in Hebrew, language laboratory drills. (Coffin)

302. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 312. (5). (LR).
The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. In additon to continued study of morphology and syntax, some reading selections in fiction and non-fiction prose will be introduced. [Cost:1] [WL:5, try another section first. If all others are closed, then no. 1] (Etzion)

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

305. Hebrew Communicative Skills. Hebrew 302. (2). (Excl).
Continuation of the development of advanced communication skills. The emphasis is on the acquisition of language speaking and listening skills and expansion of vocabulary. (Berkovitch)

402. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 401. (3). (Excl).
An encounter with the "Israeli Experience" through dealing with current literature and poetry, non-fiction articles, plays and films. Emphasis is placed on developing communicative skills and expanding studnet's vocabulary. (Etzion)

404. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
A continuation of 403. Emphasis on readings, listening and speaking skills. The social genre of the communications media (newspapers, radio and television) will serve as the basis for discussion of current events. Unedited newspaper selections will be read and news broadscasts and television programs will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. Grades will be based on two exams and a special project. (Etzion)

548. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).
Selections from the Hebrew Bible will be read and interpreted in the light of the ancient (Aramaic) Targumim and the medieval commentaries. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a class presentation and a term paper. Prerequisite: ABS 402, or Hebrew 302 or permission of the instructor. (Schramm)


Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Persian. (4). (LR).
This course is the natural continuation of Elementary Persian 201. The emphasis will be on the use of the language in real-life situations, i.e., conversations and narratives, oral and written, on such topics as language and nationality, family, shopping, emergencies. etc. Oral and written drills, and the use of the language laboratory accompany the dialogs and compositions. By the end of the term the student should have acquired an adequate knowledge of all major points of Persian grammar with an active vocabulary of about 1000 items, should be able to read simple texts and to write short passages on simple topics. Grading will be based on attendance, homework, tests and the final examination. Incoming studetns may join the class pending examination and approval by the instructor.

402. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).
This course is a continuation of 401. The emphasis will be increasingly on reading, composition, and dialogue with the objective of achieving intermediate competency. The two main textbooks are Windfuhr-Bostanbakhsh, Modern Persian. Intermediate Level I, and Windfuhr, Modern Persian, Intermediate Level II. Additional material include tapes and videos. Special needs or interests of the students will be taken into consideration. (Windfuhr)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

551. Modern Persian Fiction. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
This course offers a "hands-on" introduction to contemporary Persian fiction by way of selected readings. At the same time students will be introduced to close reading and literary analysis. Students will increasingly be responsible for analysis and interpretation. It is open to all students interested in the topic, including native speakers of Persian. Grades will be based on assignments and a term project. (Windfuhr)


Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent. (4). (LR).
This course is the sequel to Turkish 201 and is the second half of Elemenatry Turkish. We will focus on speaking and writing the language of Modern Turkey. Course topics include the phonological structure of Turkish, basic sentence patterns, and basic vocabulary. The aural-oral approach is emphasized and serves as the basic course format. There are tapes which accompany the text, Turkish for Foreigners. Student evaluation is based on written and oral quizzes, and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:3 (Ozsoy)

402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).
Part of the departmental sequence in Modern Turkish. The course is designed for students who have completed Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It provides further study of Turkish grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Comprehension and oral and written expression will be developed through translations and compositions. Readings will be emphasized. Evaluation will be determined on the basis of class quizzes and performance, a midterm and final examination. (Stewart-Robinson)

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