Since the Physics Department discourages students from changing
midstream from Physics 140 to Physics 125 or from Physics 240
to Physics 126, it is important that students choose the first
course of a physics sequence with care. Prospective engineers, physicists and chemists should elect Physics 140/240 rather than
Physics 125/126 because concentration programs in these areas
require the Physics 140/240 sequence. In the case of some departmental
concentration programs * (e.g., *biology) or in special
individual circumstances, students can elect or are encouraged
to elect the Physics 125/126 sequence. Some counselors will advise
all students who have had calculus to elect Physics 140/240. Physics
140/240 can be elected by all students who have had calculus, but it should be elected only by students who enjoy solving difficult
problems and who think that they will be good at it.

**108. Controversial Scientific Discoveries and Claims.
*** Algebra. (3). (NS). *

The course title is Controversial Scientific Claims and Discoveries, or "Incredible Science." The course will deal with several
claimed discoveries which are of fundamental importance (if correct), are greeted with incredulity by the scientific community, stimulate
considerable activity, and are subjected to exhaustive investigation
which leads to verification or falsification. The science involved
will all permit discussion without the use of mathematics beyond the high school level. Some recent examples of this genre are
Cold Fusion, the so-called Fifth Force (which calls into question
Galileo's assertion that all bodies fall at the same rate), Gravity
Waves, Magnetic Monopoles (unaccompanied North magnetic poles), Fractional Charges (free particles whose charge is not a multiple
of the electron's charge), and Polywater (a new form of water).
Not-so-new examples include the discovery of electromagnetism, N-rays, observation of meteorites, and Mesmerism. We will study the science involved, the process by which the claim is resolved, and ethical issues (concerning both the presentation of the claim
and appropriate forms of rebuttal). The form of the class will
be a seminar with two meetings of 1-1/2 hours; the second half
of each meeting will be devoted entirely to discussion and presentations
by students. We will require a short paper from each student concerning
each case studied, and a longer paper on a particular topic. There
will also be a mid-term exam. Readings will be chosen both from the original scientific literature and secondary sources, including the popular press. Cost:NA. WL:NA. (Sanders)

**115. Living with Physics. *** Two and one-half
years of high school mathematics, including trigonometry. No credit
granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Physics
125, 140, or 160. (3). (NS). *

Physics 115 is a descriptive introduction to Physics for non-science
concentrators who do not have an extensive mathematical background.
Students will be exposed to both classical and modern conceptions
of the physical world. Critical evaluation of ideas through the
use of the scientific method will be stressed. Classical concepts
involving easily measurable physical quantities will be related
to everyday life through a series of lecture demonstrations, take-home
exercises and experiments. At the same time, modern ideas ranging
from the nature and evolution of the universe, to the world of the atom and of elementary particles will be discussed. It is
hoped that students who complete the course will be in a better
position to evaluate new and existing ideas in all areas of life
by applying those methods which are used in the evaluation of
physical theories. The final course grade will be based on homework
assignments, a midterm exam and a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:4]
(Axelrod)

**125. General Physics: Mechanics, Sound, and Heat. *** Two
and one-half years of high school mathematics, including trigonometry.
No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled
in 140 or 160. (3). (NS). *

Physics 125 and 126 constitute a two-term sequence offered primarily
for students concentrating in the natural sciences, architecture, pharmacy, or natural resources; and for preprofessional students
preparing for medicine, dentistry, or related health sciences.
Physics 125 and 126 are an appropriate sequence for any student
wanting a quantitative introduction to the basic principles of
physics but without the mathematical sophistication of Physics
140 and 240. Strong emphasis is placed on problem solving, and skills in elementary algebra and trigonometry are assumed. While
a high school level background in physics is not assumed, it is
helpful. Physics 125 and 126 are * not available * by the
Keller plan.

PHYSICS 125 covers classical mechanics (laws of motion, force, energy and power) and mechanical wave motion (including sound waves). The final course grade is based on three one-hour examinations, class performance and a final examination. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**126. General Physics: Electricity and Light. *** Phys.
125. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled
in 240 or 260. (3). (NS). *

See Physics 125 for a general description of this introductory
sequence of courses.

Physics 126 is a continuation of Physics 125; it covers electricity and magnetism, the nature of light, and briefly introduces atomic and nuclear phenomena. The final course grade is based on three one-hour examinations, class performance and a final examination. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**127. Mechanics, Heat and Sound Lab. *** To
be elected concurrently with Physics 125. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Physics 141. (1).
(NS). *

Physics 127 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics
125 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science.
Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory
classes and on written laboratory reports. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

**128. Electricity and Light Lab. *** To be
elected concurrently with Physics 126. No credit granted to those
who have completed or are enrolled in Physics 241. (1). (NS). *

Physics 128 is laboratory course intended to accompany Physics
126 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science.
Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory
classes and on written laboratory reports. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

**140. General Physics I.
*** Prior or concurrent election of calculus. Phys. 140
and 141 are normally elected concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 125 or 160. (3). (NS). *

Physics 140, 240, and 242 constitute a three-term sequence which
examines concepts in physics fundamental to the physical sciences
and engineering. This introductory sequence uses calculus, and, while it is possible to elect Physics 140 and Mathematics 115
concurrently, some students will find it more helpful to have
started one of the regular mathematics sequences before electing
Physics 140. The introductory sequence is primarily designed to
develop a * skill *: the skill to solve simple problems by
means of mathematics. Developing this skill requires * daily *
practice and a sense for the * meaning * of statements and formulas, as well as awareness of when one understands a statement, proof, or problem solution and when one does not. Thus one learns
to know what one knows in a disciplined way.

The topics in Physics 140 include: vectors, motion in one dimension, circular motion, projectile motion, relative velocity and acceleration, Newton's laws, particle dynamics, work and energy, linear momentum, torque, angular momentum of a particle, simple harmonic motion, gravitation, planetary motion, pressure and density of fluids, and Archimedes' principle. Evaluation is based on performance
on 3 hourly examinations (see * Time Schedule * for dates
and times) and a final examination.

Certain sections of Physics 140 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program without formal lectures. These sections are
marked * PSI * in the * Time Schedule. *An information
sheet describing the format of Keller Plan offerings is available
in the Physics Student Services Office (2028 East Engineering).
Students who want to elect Physics 140 by the Keller Plan should
read this information before registering. Cost:3 WL:4.

**141. Elementary Laboratory I. *** To be elected
concurrently with Phys. 140. No credit granted to those who have
completed or are enrolled in 127. (1). (NS). *

Physics 141 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics
140 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science.
Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory
classes and on written laboratory reports. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

**160. Honors Physics I. *** Math. 115 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Students should elect Physics 141
concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed or
are enrolled in Phys. 140. (4). (NS). *

Physics 160 is a rigorous introduction to particle mechanics and the motion of extended objects. Particular topics include vectors, one and two dimensional motion, conservation of laws, linear and rotational dynamics, gravitation, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics.
Students should also elect a Physics 141 laboratory. Cost:3 WL:
Registration in this course is by permission of instructor only.
Go to Physics Student Services Office, 2028 E. Engineering, for
override.

**240. General Physics II. *** Phys. 140 or the equivalent; Phys. 240 and 241 are normally elected concurrently.
No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled
in 126 or 260. (3). (NS). *

See Physics 140 for a general description
of the introductory physics sequence.

The topics covered in PHYSICS 240 include (1) classical electromagnetism:
charge, Coulomb's Law, electric fields, Gauss' Law, electric potential, capacitors and dielectrics, current and resistance, electromotive
force and circuits, magnetic fields, Biot-Savart Law, Ampere's
Law, Faraday's Law of induction, simple AC circuits; and (2) geometrical
and physical optics. There will be 2 hourly examinations (see * Time Schedule * for dates and times) and a final examination.

Certain sections of Physics 240 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program without formal lectures. These sections are marked in the Time Schedule. An information sheet describing the format of Keller Plan offerings is available in the Physics Student Services Office (2028 East Engineering). Students who want to elect Physics 240 by the Keller Plan should read this information before registering. Cost:3 WL:4.

**241. Elementary Laboratory II. *** To be elected
concurrently with Phys. 240. No credit granted to those who have
completed or are enrolled in 128. (1). (NS). *

Physics 241 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics
240 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science.
Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory
classes and on written laboratory reports. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

**242. General Physics III. *** Phys. 240 or
equivalent. (3). (NS). *

This course is the third in a three-term introductory physics
sequence, and is required of all physics concentrators. It will
deal in a quantitative manner with topics which may be classified
as "modern" physics, and shall include the investigation
of special relativity, the relationship of particles and waves, the Schrodinger equation applied to barrier problems, atomic structure
and the interpretation of quantum numbers, the exclusion principle
and its applications, structure of solids, * etc. * The class will
meet as a lecture group. Applications of the principles will be
considered in the lecture section on a regular basis. Math 215
is strongly recommended. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**260. Honors Physics II. *** Physics 140 and Math. 115, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Students
should elect Physics 241 concurrently. No credit granted to those
who have completed or are enrolled in Phys. 240. (4). (NS). *

Physics 260 is a rigorous introduction to the theory of electromagnetic
phenomena. Topics include electric and magnetic fields and potentials, DC and AC circuits, inductance and Maxwell's equations. Students
should elect Physics 241 laboratory. Cost:4 WL: Registration in this course is by permission of instructor only. Go to Physics
Student Services Office, 2028 E. Engineering, for override.

**333. Keller Tutor 140. *** Permission of instructor.
(1-3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL). *

Students work as tutors in Physics 140 Keller sections. One to three hours of credit may be earned while providing tutoring on
one-to-one basis under the supervision of the faculty member.
Tutors are expected to spend three clock hours per week for each
credit hour earned. Registration requires instructor approval, and the appropriate application forms are available in the Physics
Student Services Office, 2028 E. Engineering.

**334. Keller Tutor 240. *** Permission of instructor.
(1-3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL). *

Students work as tutors in Physics 240 Keller sections. One to three hours of credit may be earned while providing tutoring on
one-to-one basis under the supervision of the faculty member.
Tutors are expected to spend three clock hours per week for each
credit hour earned. Registration requires instructor approval, and the appropriate application forms are available in the Physics
Student Services Office, 2028 E. Engineering.

**350.Technologies of Physics. *** Upperclass
standing. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. May
be elected for a total of 4 credits. *

This is a half-term laboratory course which will develop basic
skills in electric circuits.

**401. Intermediate Mechanics. *** Phys. 126 or
240-241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl). *

This course is required for physics concentrators. It includes
a study of vector operators and vector calculus along with their
application to various physical problems. Among the topics investigated
are (1) harmonic motion in several dimensions; (2) motion under the influence of central forces; (3) wave motion; and (4) rigid-body
rotation. The methods of Lagrange are applied to suitable examples.
Examinations are given at various times during the term. [Cost:3]
[WL:4]

**403. Optics Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 or permission
of instructor. (2). (Excl). *

This is a laboratory course in geometrical and physical optics
intended for science concentrators and especially for students
electing Physics 402. One experiment every one or two weeks is
performed during four-hour laboratory periods; a short report
is required for each experiment. The experiments are designed
such that they may be performed without students having a formal
background in the topic investigated. The experiments include:
(1) lens equations; (2) lens aberrations; (3) telescopes; (4)
polarization; (5) diffraction; (6) interferometry; (7) electro-optical
effects; (8) light detection; (9) fourier optics; (10) holography;
and (11) spectroscopy. Students may also devise experiments. The
course grade is based on the work done in the laboratory period
as well as written reports. [WL:3]

**405. Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism. *** Phys.
126 or 240-241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl). *

This course extends the material introduced in Physics 240 on the classical theory of electricity and magnetism. It tries to
develop further both the theoretical ideas contained in Maxwell's
equations for these fields, as well as their practical application.
It is a required course for all physics concentrators, and is
basic to many of the courses and laboratories which follow. Physics
242 is strongly recommended. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**406. Statistical and Thermal Physics. *** Phys.
126 or 240-241, and Math. 216. (3). (Excl). *

An introduction to the thermal and other macroscopic properties
of matter, their description in terms of classical thermodynamics, and their microscopic interpretation from the perspective of statistical
mechanics. Techniques from classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and elementary quantum mechanics will be used. Frequent
homework problem assignments, at least one hour exam, and a final
examination will be given. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

**407. Thermodynamics Laboratory. *** Phys.
126 or 240-241. (2). (Excl). *

This course is normally elected concurrently with Physics 406
and emphasizes thermodynamics and heat transport. Each section
consists of eight students subdivided into groups of two with
each group rotating through five experiments: (1) use of the thermoelectric
effect to measure temperature, (2) use of thermistors for the
measurement of temperature, (3) measurement of the viscosity of
gases, (4) measurement of the thermal conductivity of gases, and (5) determination of the ice-water phase diagram. Each experiment
takes a maximum of three weeks of laboratory time. Grades are
based on the record of data taken, computation and analysis, error
analysis, display of results (graphs, tables, * etc.) * and comparison
of results with theory and/or accepted values. Laboratory performance
is observed and evaluated by the course instructors. [Cost:1]
[WL:3]

**409. Modern Physics Laboratory. *** Open primarily
to science concentrators with junior standing, or by permission
of instructor. (2). (Excl). May not be elected by Physics concentrators
unless written permission is given by a Physics concentration
advisor. *

This course is an advanced undergraduate laboratory course designed
to acquaint students in the basic techniques of experimental physics
and to introduce them to physical phenomena of modern physics.
Students select experiments from among those which are available.
The results of the experiments are recorded. These laboratory
notes together with a written laboratory report are graded. The
reports and performance in laboratory are the basis for the course
grade. There are no formal examinations. Students may modify existing
experiments or design new experiments. Topics investigated include:
photo-electric effect; diffraction; electron charge and charge-to-mass
ratio and others. This laboratory is not open to physics concentrators
who should choose Physics 459 or 461. This course is required
for concentrators in the Engineering Physics program. [Cost:1]
[WL:3]

**413. Physics of Complexities. *** Physics
401 or equivalent, and familiarity with programming in BASIC.
(3). (Excl). *

This course is intended to introduce some concepts of non-linear
dynamics, chaos, fractals, and disorderly growth at an undergraduate
level. It should be useful to students in physics, chemistry, biological sciences, engineering, medical sciences, and, in some
cases, social sciences. The prerequisites are Physics 401 (undergraduate
mechanics) or the equivalent, or permission of the instructor.
Cost:4. WL:3. (Sander)

**415. Special Problems for Undergraduates. *** Permission
of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for
a total of 6 credits. *

This course emphasizes experimental or theoretical research under the supervision of a faculty member. Generally a small facet of
a large research undertaking is investigated in detail. This is
an independent study course, and instructor permission is required.
The appropriate form is available in the Physics Student Services
Office, 2028 E. Engineering.

**417. Dynamical Processes in Biophysics. *** Math.
216 and Phys. 242; or equivalent; or permission of instructor.
(3). (Excl). *

An introduction to the biophysics of cells, emphasizing the electrical
and molecular structural properties of membranes and the neuromuscular
and sensory systems; physical techniques used in cell absorption, fluorescence, scattering, magnetic resonance, and analysis of
spontaneous optical and electrical fluctuations. WL:3

**420. Living with Physics for Elementary Teachers. *** Concurrent
registration in Physics 421. Open only to elementary education
concentrators. (3). (Excl). *

Physics 420 is a survey course designed for concentrators in elementary
education. It focuses on material to be used in the elementary
classroom. Cost:2 WL:4 (Axelrod)

**421. Living with Physics for Elementary Teachers-Lab.
*** Concurrent registration in Phys. 420. Open only to
elementary education concentrators. (1). (Excl). *

Physics 421 is a laboratory course accompanying Physics 420. Students
will do experiments designed to increase their understanding of
physics. Emphasis is placed on the development of demonstrations
and activities for use in the elementary school classroom. [Cost:1]
[WL:3]

**452. Methods of Theoretical Physics. *** Phys.
451. (3). (Excl). *

This is a course in mathematical methods of physics. The textbook
by G. Arfken, MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR PHYSICISTS, is used; approximately
85% of the contents will be covered. This course is considered
a necessary preparation for graduate school. Cost:NA WL:4

**453. Quantum Mechanics. *** Phys. 242; recommended
Phys. 401 and 405 previously or concurrently. (3). (Excl). *

A brief review of the mechanical, thermal, electric, magnetic
and chemical properties of matter will be given. The empirical
foundation of atomic physics will be discussed in some detail.
The theoretical developments resulting from the failure of classical theories and early atomic models will be discussed, wherein wave
mechanics will be studied and a brief introduction to the Schrodinger
equation will be given. Other topics include the exclusion principle
and some quantum statistical mechanics. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**457. Nuclear Physics. *** Phys. 453. (3).
(Excl). *

Topics of study will include (1) nuclear structure: binding energies, size and shape, angular momentum, parity, isopin, magnetic moments, electric quadrupole moments, statistical, shall and collective
models for the nucleus; (2) nuclear decays, radioactivity, barrier
penetration and alpha-particle decay, the weak interaction and beta-decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei; (3) nuclear
interactions: basic properties of the nuclear force, nucleon-nucleon
scattering, the deuteron, nuclear reactions and reaction models;
and (4) nuclear radiation: interaction of charged particles, gamma-rays
and neutrons with matter, nuclear radiation detectors. The basic
elements of quantum mechanics are used. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

**459. Nuclear Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics laboratory course, or permission of instructor.
(2). (Excl). *

This is an advanced laboratory course designed to acquaint students
with the techniques of experimental nuclear physics and to introduce them to physical phenomena of modern physics. Included are experiments
in the following areas: scintillation counting; gamma-gamma angular
correlation; Compton effect; Rutherford scattering; muon lifetime;
nuclear magnetic resonance; and nuclear fission. This course is
normally elected as a sequel to Physics 403, 407, or 409. [Cost:1]
[WL:3]

**460. Atomic Physics. *** Phys. 453. (3). (Excl). *

Physics 460 continues the work of Physics 453 in developing the
quantum description of phenomena at the scale of atoms and molecules.
[Cost:8] [WL:4]

**461. Atomic Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics laboratory course, or permission of instructor.
(2). (Excl). *

Intended mostly for science majors. Conducted in a manner similar
to Physics 403, 407, 409 and 459, but more advanced. Emphasis
on atomic phenomena and instrumentation. Experiments available
include atomic spectroscopy, Zeeman effect, optical pumping and lasers, x-ray diffraction and Moseley's law, Faraday effect and others. [Cost:1] [WL:3]

**463. Introduction to Solid State Physics. *** Phys.
453 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). *

Main topics to be covered are cohesion in solids; Free Electron
Theory in Metals; Periodicity in Solids, Crystal Structure, Symmetry, Reciprocal Lattice, Diffraction Methods, Electrons in Periodic
Structures; Band Theory of Solids and Fermi Surfaces; Phonons, Thermal Effects; Applications to Semiconductor Devices. Students
should have a background in thermodynamics, elementary statistical
mechanics, plus a little quantum mechanics. There are three lectures
per week, one of which may be a discussion period. Student evaluation
is based on midterm and final exams; occasional short tests and weekly problem sets. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

**465. Senior Seminar. *** Open to Physics concentrators
in their junior or senior year. (2). (Excl). Fulfills the Junior-Senior
writing requirement. *

In this seminar students explore topics chosen on the basis of their importance and interest to physics and on the basis of student
and faculty interest. Seminar members read in the research literature, write extensively, and contribute to discussions led by seminar
members or visitors. [Cost:1] [WL:3]

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