Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).
The course will present students with some fundamental texts of Western political philosophy, Plato to Marx. The aim of the course is to make students acquainted with a tradition that develops a specific mode of inquiry-political philosophy-in the attempt to answer the question: How can human beings live together peacefully? How can we harmonize individual and collective good? The course includes two lecture sessions (one hour each) and a two-hour discussion session each week. Students will be required to prepare readings in advance of classes to participate in discussions, and to write papers showing their grasping of the material covered in the course. (Gobetti)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).
This is a broad survey of government and politics in the United States which explores a wide range of topics including elections, interest groups, the presidency, Congress and the courts. The kinds of questions considered might include the following: What impact do interest groups have on governmental policy? Are there real differences between the two major political parties? What accounts for swings in voting behavior and election outcome from one time to another? How do members of Congress decide how to vote? In what ways do presidents and bureaucrats affect public policies? This is not a comprehensive list but suggests the kinds of issues that are discussed in this course. There are two lectures and two discussion section meetings each week. There is generally a midterm, a final examination, and some other written work. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Kingdon)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).
This course is designed to give students an understanding of how several major political systems work and to familiarize them with concepts used to analyze politics in these and other countries. Each of the countries selected will be discussed separately in order to introduce its distinctive features and to ensure that students understand how it operates. As the course progresses, we will draw increasingly broad comparisons. Certain key concepts will be introduced and used for comparative purposes. In particular, we will be concerned with the social and economic forces that influence the emergence of democracy, or led to communist or fascist regimes; poliical parties and political competition; leadership succession; the analysis of contemporary political conflicts and the future of advanced industrial societies. The course will offer two meetings in relatively small discussion sections designed to encourage a two-way flow of conversation. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Inglehart)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).
This course will introduce students to the fundamental issues of international relations. The course will familiarize the students with the main theories that help us to understand the behavior of states in the international arena. These theories will then be applied to explain a number of important issue-areas of world politics. These include, but are certainly not limited to: managing a new Europe; the disintegration of the Soviet Union; the origins and death of the Cold War; unrest in the Balkans; U.S.-Japanese relations; international trade and development; nuclear strategy and arms control; Vietnam and Afghanistan; the Gulf War; and the further marginalization of the Third World. Students are required to take a midterm and final examination and will write several short papers. (Hopf)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

300. Contemporary Political Issues.
(3). (SS).
This course will help you think about the relationships between yourself and politics in the United States. Learn about: (1) important social, economic and political issues of the day, including how an issue becomes "important;" (2) the political values and attitudes of the American public; (3) the conduct of political campaigns and elections. Confront these subjects from the perspectives of "What is..." and also "What ought to be...." Given our goals, scholarly readings are intermixed with articles about current issues, and our discussions often move freely from assigned readings to the latest news. Although intended primarily for non-poli sci concentrators, this is a serious course for serious students. The readings are extensive, and occasionally difficult. You will be expected to: stay current and master what you have read, attend lectures faithfully, participate in sections actively, and engage in additional learning activities outside of the class room. You will write papers, and you will be examined carefully and regularly (2 midterms plus a final). Recommended: at least one prior political science course. Grades are based on a no-curve system. Cost:4 WL:1 (Markus)

353. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (3). (Excl).
Knowledge about the Arab-Israeli conflict is the focus of the course. Although there are lectures on the origins of the conflict, they do not lay blame on any of the parties: The course is not about who is right or wrong but why there is a conflict and what are the scenarios of its future. Lectures address the history of the conflict from the perspective of general social science ideas. Discussion sections give students a forum for assessing the relationship between events and ideas. Core concepts include bargaining and negotiation, crisis as an opportunity for diplomacy, how global, regional, and domestic factors explain conflict and cooperation, the relation of force to diplomacy, the effect of threat on deterrence, coercion, and escalation, as well as incremental versus comprehensive approaches to the peace process. Since the Persian/Arab Gulf War began in August, 1990, it will be discussed as it bears on the Arab-Israeli conflict. There are no prerequisites. There is a midterm exam but no final. Texts include the following: Thomas Friedman, FROM BEIRUT TO JERUSALEM, NY: Farrar Straus, Giroux, 1989; Fred Khouri, THE ARAB ISRAELI DILEMMA: Syracuse University Press; Walter Laqueur and Barry Rubin (eds.) THE ISRAELI ARAB READER, Penguin, and Raymond Tanter, WHO'S AT THE HELM? Westview. There is a computer-assisted simulation to explore war and peace scenarios in the Arab-Israeli and Gulf zones. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Tanter)

396/REES 396/Slavic 396/Hist. 333/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).
See REES 396. (Zimmerman)

401(403). Development of Political Thought: Modern and Recent. Junior standing or two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).
This course will consist of careful reading of original texts in the tradition of Modern Political Thought. We will begin by exploring the origins of liberal individualism in the work of Hobbes and Locke. We will then explore modern critiques of liberalism in the work of Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, Tocqueville and Nietzsche. There are no prerequisites for this course. Grades will be assigned on the basis of two hour exams, a final exam, and class preparation and participation. Books will cost between 25 and 75 dollars. (Rosano)

406(405). American Political Thought. Pol. Sci. 101 or 401. (3). (Excl).
This course will explore the political thought that shaped America from the early Puritan settlements to the Founding and then to the Civil War. Our emphasis will be on the kind of human being and the way of life that the various and contending forms of American political thought promoted, and on the influence of these debates on the constitution of the American regime. Those debates center on the relative influence of Christianity, liberal individualism and classical republicanism. We will proceed by closely examining the seminal writing of influential political thinkers and actors such as Winthrop, Franklin, Jefferson, Hamilton, Madison, the Anti-Federalists, Jackson, Calhoun and Lincoln, and by closely examining foundational documents such as the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Grades will be assigned on the basis of two hour exams, a final exam, and class preparation and participation. Books will cost between 25 and 75 dollars. (Rosano)

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (3). (Excl).
This course examines the formulation and implementation of public programs, mainly those of the U.S. central government, and mainly welfare-state in character. (Williams)

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (3). (Excl).
COURSE OBJECTIVES: 1) Provide an understanding of American mass politics, especially electoral politics, from both normative and empirical points of view and from the perspectives of the individual voter and the candidate for office. 2) Explore the extent, causes, and consequences of recent changes (or alleged changes) in public attitudes toward politics. 3) Introduce the modes of thinking and the analytical tools employed in the systematic study of American political behavior. (Kinder)

412. The Legal Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
In this course we will look at courts and the legal process as political institutions. We will discuss how and why they make use of power to promote the common and/or special interests of the community. There will be a strong comparative emphasis which will include American, British, and South Pacific materials. We will emphasize "why" questions as well as "how" and "what" questions in this course, questions such as: Why give judges rather than other political actors the power to interpret law? Why prefer legal resolutions of disputes to mediation and arbitration? Why reserve the power of decision in criminal cases to juries? Why support the rule of law if it tends to reinforce current social and economic inequalities? We will explore questions such as these with the help of both descriptive and theoretical accounts of the legal process. (West-Newman)

414. The Politics of Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This is a course about the role of rights in United States politics. Rights may be seen as theoretical entities, political slogans, or technologies of power. We will explore the ways in which all three aspects have changed along with the social and economic structures of the United States. The materials will include primary texts (legal cases, political tracts, philosophy) and historical studies of how people have used and fought over rights. Special attention will be given to the rights of equality and free expression through the constitutional changes initiated by the American Revolution, the Civil War, and 20th century social movements. Cost:4 WL:4 (Simon)

417. Legislative Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course will examine the legislative process, with special emphasis on the United States Congress. Among the major topics addressed will be: the theory and practice of representation; legislative elections; coalition-building; committee policy making; floor voting decisions; legislative-executive relations; legislative rules and procedures. Through out the course one of our main objectives will be to assess the policy making performance of Congress and to examine proposals for institutional reform. Requirements: two to three exams, one paper. (Hall)

418. Women and the Political System. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course examines women's relationship to the American political system. The course will explore the development of that relationship through the social movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. When we reach the modern era, we will focus upon women in elite politics, women's political participation, and women's political opinions. The course will conclude with an exploration of women's relationship to public policy issues such as comparable worth and abortion. (Burns)

419/CAAS 418. Black Americans and the Political System. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course will focus on how the continuing struggle for Black empowerment has helped to shape both the current American political environment as well as the social and economic conditions found in the Black community. While this course focuses on African American politics since WWII, some attention is paid to the prior period in order to lay a firm foundation for the analysis of modern Black politics. The unique nature of African American politics necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject. Consequently materials and lectures will also show how the study of race relations, psychology, economics, and sociology can inform our understanding of the critical importance of Black politics to American politics. After considering such topics as the politics of the Civil Rights and Black Power eras, fiscal retrenchment, and Blacks and governmental institutions, this course ends by considering whether a "New Black Politics" has emerged and the impact of the nation's move toward the political right on African American politics. This course is a lecture course. Consequently the primary basis for evaluation of students' work will be numerous writing assignments and a take home final. (Dawson )

420/Comm. 420. Politics and the Mass Media. Pol. Sci. 111, 300, 410, or 411. (3). (Excl).
This course will focus upon the role and impact of the mass media in the political process. We will study how the news is made and the impact of mass media on policy-makers and the public, and its effects on political attitudes and behavior. The role and influence of the media in election campaigns in the U.S., and how this compares with other advanced industrial democracies, is a major focus of the course. Other topics include media diplomacy and foreign affairs coverage, media treatment of protest groups and social movements, and the relative power of media and politicians in shaping the political agenda. (Semetko)

421. American State Government. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course will explore state, local, and regional politics, as well as intergovernmental relations across all levels of American government. It will provide historical overviews of each of these areas, apply a variety of political science perspectives to them, and consider some of the most pressing current questions in subnational politics. It will also include a comparative focus, examining the differences in politics and policymaking between federal and non-federal systems, and will place special emphasis on health care and environmental policy. This course will be intended for undergraduates with some prior coursework in political science and American government. It will encourage students to conduct research in subnational politics, culminating in a research paper. In addition, students will complete an essay-style examination, as well as one or two brief papers focused on discussion-related topics. Readings will include selections from the traditonal political science literature on state and local politics and intergovernmental relations, but will also include a variety of areas not commonly associated with or applied to subnational politics, including regulatory theory and game theory. [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Rabe)

428/Phil. 428/Asian Studies 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass standing or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).
This course is intended for students who seek an introduction. There are no prior course requirements, and the lectures and readings avoid jargon. The immediate purpose is simple: to convey an understanding of the Chinese communist revolution, China's recent political history, its emergence into the world scene in the past few years, and its social, cultural, political, and economic conditions. The larger purpose is to awaken a life-long interest among students in following developments in China, because the rise of this nation is one of the major developments of our lifetime. Mr. Lieberthal will deliver approximately half the lectures, and the remaining lectures will be given by professors from UM's leading Center for Chinese Studies. This is an inter-disciplinary course. Requirements are an hour exam, a short research paper, and a final examination. Cost:3 WL:1 (Lieberthal)

436. Bureaucracy and Policy Making. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course focuses on bureaucracy and its impact on the American political system. Its goal is to provide students with an understanding of the reasons for, and the consequences of, the emergence of bureaucracy as the dominant form of social organization in the modern world. To explore this topic we first examine the historical development of rational-legal bureaucracy and the problem it poses for democratic politics. We survey contemporary literature on organizational behavior (including novels) to develop an understanding of the workings of bureaucracies and their impact on contemporary American society and politics. Next, we explore the dynamics of bureaucratic politics by detailing the relationship between bureaucracy and other institutions of American government. Here, we study the impact of bureaucracy on executive and legislative politics, on the role of the mass media, and on the role of the individual citizen. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a series of short written assignments, a midterm, and a final examination. (Williams)

441. Comparative Politics of Advanced Industrial Democracies. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (3). (Excl).
This course examines politics in the democracies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan. The focus is on political parties, elections, patterns of participation, public policy, and political economy.

443. Selected Topics in Western European Politics. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Intensive examination of contemporary Western European politics. Topics addressed include voting behavior, political parties, government institutions, new social movements and comparative political economy. In addressing these topics, we will focus on the four major countries in the European Community: Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. Finally, the course will examine the political and economic changes that will accompany the strengthening of the European Community following 1992. (Garst)

444. Government and Politics of the Soviet Union. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course examines the ideological, historical, and bureaucratic origins of the Soviet political system and the reasons for its demise. It discusses the influence of Marxism-Leninism, the political-cultural legacy of Tsarist Russia, and the organization of the Soviet government and Communist Party on Soviet policy. It explores the social, economic, and international sources of the breakdown of the Soviet system, the drama of Gorbachev's perestroika, and the prospects for the future of the Soviet successor states. The course has a demanding reading and writing schedule. (Evangelista)

445. Eastern Europe: Revolution, Reaction, and Reform. (3). (Excl).
A survey of the political and social development of Eastern Europe under socialism. Major themes include the political cultures of the area, communist accession to power, totalitarianism and its erosion, elite-mass relations, the role of public opinion and interest groups, and economic and political change. (Hillhouse)

450. Political Modernization in the Developing World. Any 100-level course in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course will have a double purpose. It will cover some of the key conceptions of political development and explore how such large scale transformations affect other sectors of national life. Moreover, the course will review briefly how national development and the resulting mobilization of resources will affect the structure of international power. The method of instruction will be lecture, and each student will be required to make reports. [Cost: 4][WL: 4] (Organski)

452. Israeli Society and Politics. (3). (Excl).
This course surveys the political and social development of the state of Israel. (Medding)

453. Government and Politics of the Middle East. Two courses in Pol. Sci. or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course is designed to introduce students to politics and political change in the Arab Middle East and North Africa. Its approach is comparative, and its primary concern is with understanding and explaining domestic politics in the Arab states of the region. The first part of the course focuses on the historical evolution of regimes in the inter- and post war eras; the second part of the course is devoted to understanding the processes and structures that account for that evolution. (Crystal)

454. Governments and Politics of Southeast Asia. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
An introduction to the political systems of Southeast Asia. The emphasis will be on the post-WWII period. Important themes include variations in the political economy of countries within the region, comparisons with Latin America and Africa, and relations with important regional powers especially Japan, China, and the U.S. The focus will be predominantly on domestic politics. Cost: 3 WL: 1 (Winters)

459/CAAS 449. Africa: Development and Dependence. Prior or concurrent study of the Third World; Pol. Sci. 465 is recommended but not required. (3). (Excl).
This course will explore the ways in which the concepts of modernization and dependency can be used to study Africa's development experience. The approach is comparative and no single African country will be studied in depth. Rather cases will be drawn from all African countries. The basic objective is to encourage students to develop a conceptual framework for examining the following main themes to be covered in the course: economic and political forms of colonialism and their relationship to patterns of decolonization; the rise of authoritarianism, demilitarization and democratization; cultural pluralism and state capacity. Significant effects of Africa's incorporation into a world capitalist economy and various strategies of development will also be examined. There are no prerequisites for this course. (Twumasi)

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.
Section 001: Theories of World Politics.
Investigates major theories of international political behavior, including theories of foreign policy decision making, bureaucratic politics, alliance politics, and the causes of war. Students will develop the skills to critically evaluate competing explanations of major events in international politics, including the world wars, Vietnam, the rise and decline of the Cold War, and the crises in the Gulf and Yugoslavia. Possibilities for future American global grand strategies will be explored. (Kaufmann)

465. Political Development and Dependence. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
An introduction to the study of political and economic change in post- colonial countries. Major theoretical issues will be presented through historical material drawn from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Important themes include imperialism, dependency, pathways from colonialism, right- and left-wing revolutions, authoritarianism, and democratization. Cost: 3 WL: 1 (Winters)

472. International Security Affairs. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course will examine a number of theoretical and empirical issues related to understanding the national security policy of states. The goals of the course are as follows: (1) to introduce students to a wide range of theoretical and policy issues related to U.S.-Soviet security relations, and (2) to stimulate student interest in the broader study of international conflict and cooperation by linking specific issues in U.S.-Soviet relations to larger questions such as the theory and practice of deterrence, alliance behavior, and the causes and consequences of arms races. Classes will be conducted as a combination of lecture and discussion. Students will be graded on the basis of a midterm and final exam. Cost:2-3 WL:1 (Huth)

475. International Relations of the Soviet Union. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course will explore the history, sources, instruments, and goals of the foreign policy of the USSR since the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. Special emphasis will be placed on Soviet ideology and thinking about international relations, and how this thinking has evolved over the last seven decades. Additionally, we will pay close attention to the central feature of the post-war international order: the U.S.-Soviet bipolar relationship. As a nuclear superpower seeking global influence, Soviet Union has been the principle foreign policy concern of the United States since WWII, and it is imperative that we understand the roots, conduct, and demise of the Cold War. Finally, we will spend a good deal of time trying to make sense of the revolutionary changes in the Soviet Union under Gorbachev and the linkage between domestic and foreign politics. Midterm, Term Paper, Final. Cost:3 WL:1 (Shulman)

478. International Relations of the Far East. Pol. Sci. 160 or Asian Studies 122 or Hist. 111 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
This course examines the strategic chess board of East Asia since the late 1800's. It focuses upon the interests and capabilities of the major powers in the region China, Japan, Russia, and the United States and the interactions among them. It explores the regions where the interests of the great powers intersect Tibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia, the Soviet Far East, the Sea of Okhofsk, Korea, Taiwan, and Indochina. And it elucidates the major changes and trends in the region during this century. The course has a demanding reading list and is intended for advanced undergraduates with a serious interest in Asian affairs. Students are required to have had a prior course in Japanese, Chinese, or Soviet politics. A final exam and a lengthy research paper using primary sources are required. Cost:4 WL:4 (Oksenberg)

481. Junior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with junior standing. (4). (Excl).
This is a seminar that is designed to introduce students to the Honors program in political science. Students must be admitted to the program before enrolling in the course. (Campbell)

485. Public Sector Decision Processes. One course in political science. (3). (Excl).
This is a course in how governments make decisions. We will begin by thinking about democracy, then move on to selections from the literature on participation, voting rules, party systems, legislatures, cabinet decisionmaking, and foreign policy. The emphasis will be on pluralist theory and realist theory internationally, but other frameworks will be used as well. Lectures and assignments most often will be analytic in character rather than historical. Students are expected to be familiar with the basic descriptive features of the governmental process from prior course work in political science. This course is not intended for the student who wants to read case studies to acquire basic familiarity with the material. Most class meetings will be lectures, although there will be some discussion days as well. Several assignments will be given, along with a final examination. (Achen)

492. Directed Studies. Two courses in political science and permission of instructor and the Director of Undergraduate Studies. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). Political Science 491 and 492 may be elected for a total of eight credits. No more than four hours of directed study credit may be elected as part of a concentration program in Political Science.
A directed study course on an individual research topic that is developed between an individual student and a faculty member.

494. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with senior standing. (4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). No more than four hours of Honors credit may be elected as part of a concentration plan in Political Science.
This is a seminar for seniors who are working an on Honors thesis. Students must be admitted to the Honors program before enrolling. (Mohr)

496. Undergraduate Seminar in American Government and Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001: American Political Development:
This course analyzes the historical development of American political institutions. We are especially interested in two questions. First, do institutions matter? Second, can the study of American political development inform our understanding of modern American politics? No special background is needed, although some knowledge of American politics and American history would be useful. Evaluations will be based on participation, one-page weekly reaction pieces, a final paper, and a final examination. (Dion)

Section 003. This course will examine decision making as part of the behavior in which organizational members engage. This, we will begin by exploring briefly who is behaving and how meaning is attributed to behavior. This some common ways of thinking about decision making (as rational behavior, as political behavior, as routine following behavior, as symbolic behavior) will be discussed. This course will end with an examination of the usefulness of the concept of decision making. (Feldman)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001: Peasantry and Political Change in the Third World.
Using a comparative approach, this course will examine the range of situations in which peasant-based political movements arise in the third World. Illustatrative material will be mainly drawn from Africa, Asia and Latin America. No attempt will be made to study any region in any detail. Our main objective rather is to make students familiar with the concepts and broad models used in the study of various forms of peasant political action. Broad themes will include: origin and nature of conditions out of which peasant-based political movements arise; their transformation into revolutionary movements, and the national and international factors critical in this transformation. Students of junior standing or above are likely to benefit from taking this course. (Twumasi)

Section 002: Modern British Politics. This seminar will focus on continuities and change in British politics in the post-WWII era. We will review the British constitution and the process and structure of government. We will focus heavily on political participation, interest groups, political parties and elections. We will also discuss the distribution of power in Britain and the political impact of mass media. By way of answering the question "What is distinctive about the British experience?" we will compare Britain with other advanced industrial democracies. (Semetko)

Section 003: Political Economy of Reforms in China. This course examines the processes and problems of reforms in post-Mao China. Topics covered will include political and economic impetus to reforms, the place of market in a centrally planned economic system, difficulties in economic transition and in macroeconomic management, and the political and social consequences of reforms. The approach will be comparative. The goal is to develop an analytical framework whereby we can make some generalizations not only about Chinese case but also about other (formerly) socialist countries undergoing reforms. The class meeting will follow a seminar format. Students are expected to make presentations for each session and to engage in discussions of the readings. Course requirements: Each student is required to write a short paper (5 to 10 pages) during the course of the term and a research paper (20 to 25 pages) at the end of the term. Course grades will be based upon class participation and the two papers. Cost:2/3 WL:3 (Huang)

Section 004: Liberal Democratic Political Development. Detailed examination of formation of liberal democracies in different historical and geographic contexts. In particular, this seminar will address the following questions: What accounts for the rise of liberal democratic regimes in Western Europe and North America during the late 19th and early 20th centuries? Why was this political developmental trajectory not followed by countries in Latin America and Eastern Europe? And why are we now witnessing a surge of democratization across the globe. (Garst)

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
This course will have a double purpose. It will cover some of the key conceptions of political development and explore how such large scale transformations affect other sectors of national life. Moreover, the course will review briefly how national development and the resulting mobilization of resources will affect the structure of international power. The method of instruction will be lecture. Cost:4 WL:4 (Organski)

SECTION 003: ARAB-ISRAEL CONFLICT SEMINAR. This seminar treats the Arab-Israel conflict as a series of overlapping disputes between European Zionists and Arabs of Palestine, European imperialists and Arabs of Palestine, Israel and front-line Arab states, as well as conflicts among the Arab states and between them and Palestinian Arabs. Competition among the Great Powers, rivalry among regional actors, and domestic political constraints on inter-state behavior are three levels of analysis for the seminar. A computer-assisted conference will be used. Cost:4 WL:5. This course is a seminar and it is very doubtful if any overrides will be given. (Tanter)

592. Advanced Internship in Political Science. Two courses in political science at the 400 level or above and concentration in political science; or graduate standing. Permission of supervising instructor and review by the Department's internship advisor. No more than 4 credits of internship may be included as part of a concentration plan in political science. (2-6). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). All internship courses may be elected for a maximum total of 8 credits.
Students will spend 12 hours a week in placement and attend a two hour weekly seminar on campus (Wednesday evenings) with the director, Dr. Helen M. Graves, Visiting Professor, Political Science. Junior and Senior students in Political Science are eligible to apply. Students must have a personal interview both by the director and the placement. Placements include elected officials, at all levels of government, local, county, state, national, as well as interest groups and private sector offices such as Governmental Affairs, Chrysler Corporation and Governmental Affairs, Ford Motor Company. Placements may be in Lansing, Detroit, Dearborn, anywhere in Washtenaw County. Enrollment is limited to 15-18 students.

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