The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 192. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 172, 190 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
The course emphasizes the biological, experimental and comparative approaches to psychology. Three main themes will be covered with several topics within each theme. 1) Scientific method and logical thinking (experimental design, statistics, thinking and memory). 2) Nervous system control of behavior (how neurons work, sensory perception, life-time and evolutionary level of development, theories of learning). 3) Relating psychology as a natural science to human behaviors and controversies (intelligence, gender, drugs/addiction, mental illness/treatment). Students are evaluated with three exams, four very short papers (two based on class experiments and two on critique of reading assignments), and discussion participation. The course meets four hours per week, two hours in lecture and two hours in discussion sections taught by graduate teaching assistants. Cost:2-3 WL:1 (Lee)

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 172 or 192. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Students must register for the Lecture (section 001) as well as one of the Discussion sections (sections 002-013). This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, personality, and others. The course meets four hours a week, two hours in discussion sections taught by graduate teaching assistants. If a student is unable to attend the first lecture or discussion class for which they are registered, they must notify the Introductory Psychology office IN WRITING prior to beginning of classes to reserve their space in the course. [COST:2] [WL:1] (Holden)

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170 or 171 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 170, 171, 190 or 192. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
This course is a one-term survey which integrates material from Psychology 170 and 171. It is a broad introduction to the whole of psychology. The course serves as a basic preparation for most advanced level courses in psychology. Discussion sections offer students the opportunity to discuss and critically examine what they are learning. Cost:3 WL:1 (Peterson)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 170, 171, 172, or 190. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
This course is designed to explore contemporary psychology. It will cover a broad area of topics: Part 1 presents a general introduction to Psychology (definitions, history, methods). Part 2 is designed to give an overview of four different levels on which psychological phenomena can be studied. First, the biological perspective will be discussed (evolution, genetics, nervous system). Second, some basic processes, namely perception, learning, information processing, motivation and emotion are studied. Third, the individual is in the center of attention (development, personality, clinical approaches). Finally, individuals in their social context will be considered (social cognition; intra-and intergroup processes). Part 3 of this course is devoted to the application of psychological knowledge to one specific problem, the adaptation to the transition from high school to college. This problem will be analyzed on the four different levels that were presented in part 2 of this course. Grades are based on two papers (one empirical group project, one literature review), five quizzes (spaced approximately biweekly) and one final exam. The text used is Gleitman, PSYCHOLOGY, 3rd edition. The format of the class is lecture and discussion. Cost:2 WL:1 (Inglehart)

SECTION 002. This course is intended to provide an in-depth survey of psychology, with an emphasis on the links between psychology and other disciplines, including philosophy, biology, medicine, law, and literature. Through exposure to the thought and writing of scientists and non-scientists who have applied their minds and sensibilities to the same subjects, we will consider some questions that have important implications for modern life, including the following: (1) How accurately do we perceive, remember, and think? (2) To what extent are intelligence, personality and action influenced by nature versus nurture? (3) What is the proper relationship between reason and emotion? (4) How are the thought and behavior of individuals affected by group membership? A variety of class formats will be used, including lecture, discussion, films, labwork, and class demonstrations. Readings include a textbook, two additional books (The Mismeasure of Man and Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed ) and a course pack consisting of diverse readings (essays, short stories, autobiographical accounts, etc.) that correspond to the topics presented in the textbook. The final grade is based on your performance on frequent quizzes, frequent papers, and a comprehensive final examination. Cost:4 WL:1 (Landman)

SECTION 003. This course provides a broad introduction to the field of psychology. We will cover such topics as physiology and behavior, sensory and perceptual processes, states of consciousness, learning and memory, thinking, intelligence, development across the life-span, motivation and emotion, personality, stress and adjustment, abnormal behavior and therapy, and social psychology. The text is Morris Undergraduate Psychology supplemented by a book of readings Taking Sides (6th ed.). Each student will also be expected to participate at least three times a week in a computer conference set up for the course. Grades are based primarily on three exams and participation in the computer conference. Cost:2 WL:1 (Morris)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($20) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 55 agencies in which you can provide direct service to children in day care settings, adolescents in after-school programs, handicapped children and adults, retarded and emotionally impaired, agencies dealing with women's issues, physically ill adults and children, persons legally confined to institutions including mental health and criminal; social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. All sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work and course information for the Winter Term, 1992, will be available at an Information Meeting on Tuesday, November 12, 1991, at 6 pm in MLB Auditorium 4. For information, call the Outreach Office at 764-9179 or 764-9279. Psychology majors electing two separate sections in Psychology 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. [COST:1, not including $20 lab fee.] [WL:1] (Miller)

SECTION 001: PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AT RISK provides practicum experience in a variety experiences in a variety of child care settings for children who are determined to be at-risk for developing intellectual, emotional, and behavioral problems.

SECTION 002: EXPLORING CAREERS. Discover the career that best meets your needs and abilities, improve your strategies and techniques for making a career decision, learn to evaluate your own skills and talents.

SECTION 003: EDUCATION AND ENRICHMENT. Establish a meaningful relationship with a child in an after-school program, help tutor and plan activities and serve as a role model.

SECTION 004: JUVENILE JUSTICE: Interact and assist people whose behavior is in conflict with the laws and rules of our society, learn about criminal behavior, justice and the law. Institutionalization and rehabilitation.

SECTION 005: SPECIAL NEEDS. Providing supervised occupational, physical, educational and recreational therapy, providing social, emotional, and academic support for children with a variety of special needs, serving as teacher aides and models for socialization.

SECTION 006: WORKING WITH WOMEN. Provides an opportunity to deal with women and various issues they encounter during the life-span; includes rape counseling, discussion groups, eating disorders, etc.

SECTION 007: MENTAL HEALTH. Work with psychiatric patients living in institutional settings and those who have been "deinstitutionalized" and assisting patients to practice social skills, examining issues such as attitudes and prejudices about "mental health."

SECTION 008: SOCIAL CHANGE. Work with local agencies involved in and learn about Racism, Sexism, Homophobia, Homelessness, Domestic Violence, Environmental Destruction, Teen-aged Runaways, The AIDS Crisis, Rape, etc.

SECTION 009: ONE TO ONE. A chance to develop a meaningful relationship with a child on a one to one basis, to share in activities, and to enjoy being together.

SECTION 010: MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY. Serve as a non-medical liason between staff, family and patients, offering empathy and emotional support in waiting rooms, and other settings, observing interactions between staff and patients and how people cope with stress.

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course. [WL:5, P.I. only]

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course. [WL:5, P.I. only]

255. Patterns of Development. Enrollment in the Inteflex Program or permission of instructor. Inteflex students electing a concentration in psychology may use Psych. 255 as the introductory prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 457. (4). (Excl).
This course is intended for students in the Inteflex program. It is a life span human development course, surveying conception to death, and providing theoretical and empirical material on physical, perceptual, cognitive, social/emotional development. Opportunities to work directly with children or special groups are optional but available. Grades are based on four exams and paper (library or practicum). [Cost:2] [WL:1] The course is geared to Inteflex students, and they have first priority. (Nadelman)

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.
This general description covers Psychology 300-309. The field practicum course offers an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation. [Cost:NA] [WL:5, P.I. only]

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.
SECTION 001: WORKING WITH CHILDREN. Directed experience with children aged eighteen months to five years at the University of Michigan's Children Center and Children's Center for Working Families for approximately eight to twelve hours per week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a child care setting. [Cost:1] [WL:5, Permission of instructor required for all students] (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).
This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Medin)

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS).
This course surveys the field of Biopsychology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Biopsychology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Biopsychology courses. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Becker)

333. Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Psych. 533. (4). (Excl).
This course surveys current knowledge of human brain-behavior relations and the neural processes underlying perception, movement and cognitive function (including learning, memory and language). Much of the content concerns the effects of damage to specific brain regions on behavior and cognitive function. Other special topics include an introduction to neuroanatomy, neurological disorders and techniques of neurological diagnosis, cerebral asymmetry, sex difference in brain organization and behavior, and neural adaptations contributing to recovery of function following brain damage. Evaluation based on three multiple-choice, short-answer type exams. Lecture and discussion. Cost:2 WL:1 (Robinson)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be elected for credit more than once.
Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. MAY NOT BE ELECTED FOR CREDIT MORE THAN ONCE. [Cost:NA] [WL:5, P.I. only]

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include work-related attitudes; motivation; leadership; decision-making; group-behavior; organizational design; organizational change; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be a general lecture and one group discussion section. The discussion section will review the materials of the readings and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. (Sandelands)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
This course provides an overview of the problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. It reviews the history and context for community psychological approaches, discusses ecological and systems concepts employed by this perspective, and presents a wide range of interventions and programs that have been developed from within this framework. Students are expected to gain a greater understanding of the larger external forces that shape their own behavior and lives, and learn how these forces can be modified. Course requirements include an assessment of a community setting, a planned change project and midterm and final examinations. [COST:2] [WL:1] (Miller)

380/Inteflex 201. Nature of Illness I. Inteflex-Med. 210. (4). (Excl).
Section I: During the first 2/3 of the term a social psychological perspective will be used to discuss health related issues. Issues concerning the patient (stress and coping), the physician and other health care providers (burn out, information processing and decision making) and the interaction of members of these two groups (compliance, verbal, nonverbal communication, intra- and inter-group processes) will be discussed. Two exams will be given in this section of the course and a written paper will be required. Section II: The concepts of "health" and "illness" are culturally constructed. The last 1/3 or the course will examine beliefs about these states of being, and the way in which they are both products and illustrations of the larger social system in which they are found. Ideas about illness causation, therapies and therapists, healing symbols and rituals, the social roles and interactions of patients and physicians will be explored. In addition to examining these beliefs and processes in a theoretical way, we will also draw upon clinical examples to illustrate the powerful way in which illness and culture are bound together. In addition to lecture and films, there will be great emphasis on class discussion. (Inglehart)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).
This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams and classroom contributions. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Manis)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
An intensive introduction to the clinical and research literatures on the family in contemporary American society. Designed especially for students interested in clinical work with families, the course will examine family process, assessment, and intervention from the conceptual vantage point of general systems theory. Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and discussion. (Tirado)

391. Junior Honors: Research Methods in Psychology. Honors concentrators in Psychology. (3). (Excl).
This course is designed to help the student prepare to carry out a research project for a senior Honors thesis. We will focus on the selection and development of topics, literature reviews, and research design. Class time will be devoted to discussions in which students can share their questions, knowledge, and interests about the problems and practices of contemporary psychology. Evaluation will be based on short papers and presentations, and on a larger paper describing a proposed research project. Cost:2 WL:1 (Morris)

SECTION 002: The principal purpose of this course is to help students progress toward development of the senior thesis project. One aspect of this is the selection of a topic area that is challenging and interesting. To facilitate this process, students will prepare reviews of the psychological literature on topics of their choice. The course will also contribute to the thesis formulation process by examining various aspects of research design. This course is only open to students who have been admitted to the Psychology Honors Program. WL:1 (Manis)

400. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory psychology; intended for freshmen and sophomores. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Psych. 331 or an equivalent course in Biology is required. The course begins with an examination of the adaptive significance of circadian, seasonal and lunar rhythms. A detailed examination follows concerning the generation and control of circadian rhythms. Within this context we discuss sleep/wake rhythms, feeding patterns, timing of reproductive behavior, the early development of rhythms and a variety of human disorders including jetlag, depression and the effects of age. In the latter third of the course, we will examine the generation and control of seasonal rhythms, which include reproductive cycles, bird migration and hibernation. This course approaches the study of rhythmic behavior from a variety of viewpoints: modeling of rhythmic control systems, neural and hormonal mediation of the environment and behavioral interactions between individuals. Course is evaluated by 3 exams and 1 paper. Instruction by lecture and discussion. (Lee)

SECTION 002. INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: MEMORY, THINKING, AND PERCEPTION. (3 credits). It will provide an introduction to cognitive psychology. The topics to be covered include various aspects of the psychology of human memory, thinking (including problem-solving and reasoning), and perception. The course will emphasize not only the content material represented by these topics, but also the process by which researchers develop theories and collect evidence about relevant issues. Students are required to have taken an introductory psychology course that included material on psychological experimentation. Performance will be evaluated via three objective examinations that will stress knowledge of the material and understanding of the relationship between theory and data. Readings will be drawn from a text and several primary sources that will be collected into a a course pack. The course will include lecture, discussion, demonstrations, in-class experiments, and practice on problem-solving exercises. Cost:2 WL:1 (G.Olson)

401. Special Problems in Psychology as a Social Science. Introductory psychology; intended for freshmen and sophomores. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
This course, which is open to freshmen through seniors, is designed to explore the basic principles, techniques and developmental issues involved in peer counseling. The class size will be limited to 30 in each of two sections in this three credit course so as to encourage discussion and participation in role play exercises. Appropriate readings and class discussion will address such issues as confidentiality, empathy, listening and communication skills. While there will be no examinations, there will be weekly writing assignments and a longer final paper. These written assignments and in-class exercises will give an opportunity to apply the theory and technique of peer counseling. Some of the readings and discussion will focus on issues of self understanding in adolescence and adulthood, and on research issues in the field. While there are not required prerequisites for this class, it would be helpful for students to be curious about peer counseling and have a capacity for empathy and self understanding. Both sections of this course will meet weekly with guest speakers on campus whose programs offer opportunities to apply peer counseling skills. Some of the class sessions may be videotaped for teaching purposes. Grades will be based on the quality of participation and written assignments. A course pack with readings will be available and additional materials will be distributed by the instructor and teaching assistants during the course. Cost:3 WL:1 (Hatcher)

SECTION 010: CHILDREN AND GOVERNMENT POLICY. Many children in the U.S. today live precarious lives. One in five is poor; one in five is at risk of becoming a teen parent; one in six has no health insurance; one in seven may not complete high school. This course will address children's current status and how public policy attempts to better their lives. Many factors contribute to the policy-making process, and an explanatory model incorporating these will be introduced. Of special interest will be how social science research affects policy. We will also discuss the role of historical precedent, governmental structure, public values, national priorities, techniques of advocacy and, none the least, politics. In applying the model, we will track whatever child policy issues emerge in the winter of 1992. Social science background is not required, but some knowledge of research methodology is helpful. A course pack will provide readings. The course will include lecture, collaborative student participation will be expected. Evaluation rests on two non-cumulative tests, two small reports, and an issue brief. Cost:1-2 (Thomas)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 475 or 575; and permission of instructor. (See LS&A Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (Excl).
SECTION 001. This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 475 or 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning on the first day of early registration. Enrollment is limited to eighteen students who are graduating seniors. Non-graduating seniors may place their names on the waitlist which will be used to fill any remaining spaces after graduating seniors have been accommodated. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric treatment setting. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are written reports, and a final exercise. The course grade is based on the final exercise, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. [COST:1] [WL:1] (Heitler)

SECTION 010: CLINICAL APPROACHES TO CHILDHOOD DISORDER. The central focus of this course is the process of clinical inference in exploring the nature of children's difficulties, planning patterns of intervention, and engaging in the intervention process. Students will work with such clinical material as case histories, interview materials, and children's responses to frequently used instruments for clinical assessment. Assigned readings will be used to place these clinical data in a broader perspective. The course includes an experimental component in which students will observe children for at least two hours weekly. The course format will include a two hour class meeting and a one hour meeting with a TA focused on the student observations. Course evaluation will be based on midterm and final examinations and term paper focused on the experimental component of the course. (Fast)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).
This course is intended for undergraduate psychology majors and others interested in complex mental processes. It fulfills the Group I requirements for a Psychology bachelor's degree. Among the topics covered in the course are human memory, representation of knowledge, reasoning, problem solving, decision making, and intelligence. The course's approach is a scientific one, emphasizing the evaluation of theoretical models through experimental data and through computer simulation techniques. Practical applications to improving thinking abilities and real-world settings are also discussed. Mandatory class meetings consist of lectures and discussions. Grades are based on performance in three exams, a set of take-home exercises, and class participation. The total workload has been rated as "moderate" by past students. (Ahn)

444. Perception. Psych. 170, 172, 192 or 310. (3). (NS).
Section 002.
We experience the world around us through our senses. This course will examine the neural mechanisms that transduce physical energy into sensations and the mind/brain operations that transform sensations into percepts. The course aims to integrate neuroscientific, psychophysical and cognitive approaches to the problems of perception and will introduce methods employed by each approach. Emphasis will be placed on the visual modality where significant progress has been made in understanding the neuropsychological basis of perception. Topics will include how we see brightness, color, form, depth and motion, visual illusions and constancies, imagery, speech and pitch perception, tough, taste and olfaction. Evaluation will be based on two exams and one short paper. (Reuter-Lorenz)

450. Political Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (Excl).
A course (or strong interest) in history or political science is recommended. This course surveys the ways that psychological factors affect political behavior, and vice versa. After an initial analysis of psychology, gender, and politics, we consider leadership and war-versus-peace as two important topics that involve both politics and psychology. We consider how to measure psychological characteristics of people (leaders, groups) who must be studied "at a distance" because they cannot be studied directly. We then consider some psychological-political processes: political socialization and "generations," political cognition, new and old ideologies belief-systems, and voting and other links between the personal and the political. We conclude with a discussion of political breakdowns (rebellion, terrorism) and restoration (negotiation and mediation). Evaluation by exams and a series of 2-4 page "mini-papers." Lectures with discussion sections. Cost:2 WL:1 (Winter)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).
This course presents major themes and research in personality psychology. Main topics will include dynamic concepts of the person (Freud, Jung), personality assessment, traits and their genetic under-pinnings, the person-situation debate, motives, the study of lives, adult development, and cognitive approaches to the person. (Wink)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
This course will focus on the role of various agents in the socialization and social development of children. A major assumption underlying this course is that the socialization process is limited neither to innate factors that emerge in the course of biological maturation nor to those people who raise the child from infancy. A third factor, society, intrudes itself into the socialization process. Indirectly, its effects are felt by its shaping of the broad environment within which socialization agents and children function. Thus, in this course, attention will be given to childrearing practices used by parents but this perspective will be balanced by analyses of the role of societal or macro-structural factors including poverty, unemployment, economic inequality, and schools. Additional current issues that will be explored include the effects of day care, maternal employment, father absence, and divorce on children. Special attention will be given to the following domains of social behavior: (1) attachment, (2) sex-role development, (3) peer and sibling relations, and (4) achievement and competence. Grade will be based on performance on three equally weighted examinations (multiple choice and essay). Readings are comprised of journal articles and book chapters. Lecture format. Cost:2 WL:1 (McLoyd)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 255. (3). (SS).
This course surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the development of the child from conception to adolescence. Physical, cognitive, and social/emotional development, and the interaction among them, are examined. Students are expected to read a textbook plus assigned readings, and to attend lectures and discussion sections. Opportunities to work directly with children are optional but can be arranged. Grades are based on three or more exams, a paper, and participation in discussion. (Nadelman)

SECTION 010. This is a survey course in child development from birth to adolescence. Physical growth, cognitive development, language development, and social and personality development are discussed. Students are expected to read approximately 100 pages per week and to attend lectures and section. Grades are based on three noncumulative exams and several short papers. Cost:2 WL:1 (Allswede)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Psych. 363 or equivalent or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The first part of the course emphasizes psychological theories in group behavior. Topics in this section include such things as the formation and development of groups, their decision-making and problem-solving processes, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The second part of the class focuses on the design of groups and organizations along with methods of diagnosis and intervention. Both experiential and didactic teaching methods will be used and the course material will include research literature, case studies, examples from contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research experience. Cost:2 WL:4 (Finholt)

475. Abnormal Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
SECTION 001/010.
This course will review classifications of psychopathology and consider various theories of the causes and treatments of psychological disorders. The emphasis will be on case studies and psychological explanations and treatments. We will examine a wide range of disorders including schizophrenia, depression, personality disorders, phobias, and sexual dysfunctions. Cost:2 WL:4 (Hansell)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psychology 170, 172, 190, 192, or 310, and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Psych 331 or equivalent or permission of instructor is required. This course is recommended for junior, senior and early graduate level students in Psychology, Biology, and Anthropology interested in the behavioral and physiological changes associated with early development. Original articles and review articles by the original authors are used extensively to study the theoretical considerations of neural plasticity, critical periods of sensitivity in the nervous system, and genetic/environmental interactions in the control of development. Material will survey current interests in parent-infant interactions, development of sex differences, development of social relationships, etc. The course is comparative in nature, including several vertebrate groups with frequent comparison to human literature. Grades are assigned on the basis of 2 take-home essay exams. Instruction combines lecture and discussion. (Lee)

SECTION 002: BIOPSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MEMORY. (3 credits). (Prerequisite: Psych. 331 or equivalent). This lecture/discussion course surveys current ideas and findings and neural mechanisms of learning and memory. One-half of the course deals with the neurobiology of learning and memory; the rest, with the neuropsychology of human memory. Evaluation is based on a term paper and final exam. Course pack readings; no text. Cost:1 WL:1 (Butter)

SECTION 003: INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY. For Winter Term, 1992, this course is jointly offered with University Courses 325. (Smith, Seifert)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
(3 credits). The purpose of this course will be to acquaint the student with an overview of the manner in which courts function to resolve conflicts and the role that psychology plays in a variety of legal processes. The topics to be covered will illustrate the use of psychological theory and data in judicial decision-making and the function of expert psychological testimony in the courtroom. Recent developments in law which have brought more psychological testimony and evidence into the courtroom will be reviewed through the class room lectures and the selected bibliography of readings. Through the readings, class room lectures and discussion the student will be expected to acquire a better understanding of the role that psychological theory and data play in the courts and the legislatures. Some of the areas to be covered in this course include: Juvenile Courts/Rights of Minors; Expert Witnesses in Abuse/Neglect Cases; Medical Malpractice; "Psychic Injuries"; Patients' Rights in Psychiatric Settings; Psychological "Syndrome" Testing; Scientific Testimony in the Courtroom; Forensic Psychology and the Insanity Defense; Forensic Psychology and the Diminished Capacity Defense; Patients, Therapists, and Informed Consent; Witness Credibility and Reliability; Prediction in Psychology and the Courtroom. Reading material for the course will consist of: journal articles, trial transcripts, appellate courts cases and selections from books and essays relating to current issues in psychology and the law. The course is planned as a three-credit hour offering to advanced undergraduates who have had introductory courses in psychology and related areas such as sociology or political science. Cost:2 WL:1 (Guyer)

SECTION 002: CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits) The course deals with comparisons of psychological processes and development of individuals living in diverse cultures. Emphasis is placed on cognitive, personality, and social development; discussions of disturbances in development, maladjustment, and remedies are included. A number of cultures are discussed, but many of the examples are drawn from the cultures of Asia and the United States. A beginning course in psychology provides the necessary background. Student evaluations are made on the basis of two examinations and a term project, which, depending on the size of the class, may be in the form of an individual research project. There is no textbook; a course pack is used. Reliance is placed primarily upon lectures, but discussion sessions are held before examinations and conferences are held concerning the term project. Cost:2 WL:2 (Stevenson)

SECTION 003: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LITERARY EXPERIENCE. Since ancient times it has been thought that good literature improves the reader. In this seminar we explore whether and under what conditions the process of reading literature might facilitate human development. Approximately a third of the course will be occupied with two bodies of theory: (1) approaches that detail the active, constructive nature of perception, knowledge, memory, and interpretation (some authors: J.Bruner, U.Neisser, D.Bleich, L.Rosenblatt, S.Fish, W.Iser); and (2) perspectives on adult development (some authors: Plato, Jung, W.Perry, E.Gendlin). The remaining two thirds of the course will be centered on pieces of fiction, including a considerable number of short stories and a novel or two. Among the fiction authors to be sampled are Baldwin, Cheever, Faulkner, Hofmannsthal, Hurston, Joyce, Kafka, Flannery O'Connor, Salinger, and Welty. The seminar method of instruction is employed, based on reading, writing, and discussion. For every class period, students and instructors will produce written responses to the day's text that are subjective in nature though informed by the text. We will read each other's written responses and discuss them in class. Next we will write a second-order response to the same text, taking into account the initial responses of others in the class. Through this set of procedures we will be able to explore and to document any individual and socially mediated formative effects of literature. Evaluation of student work is based on the quality of written critical responses to the theoretical and literary readings due each class period, the longer analysis of a novel due at the end of the term, and contribution to class discussion. There are no course prerequisites. Admission to the course is through permission of the instructors. Cost:1 (Landman/Rosenwald)

SECTION 005: INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits). Completion of Psychology 474: Introduction to Behavior Modification is a recommended, but not required prerequisite. This course will detail the expanding role of psychology in health care. The major topics areas will include the role of personality and sociocultural factors in medical illness, behavioral approaches to the treatment of medical disorders and chronic physical disability, and the integration of biological and psychological processes to promote a biopsychosocial model of health care. Specific content areas will further include the effect of psychological treatment on health care utilization costs and the prevalence of psychological distress among medically ill populations. This course is intended to broaden the student's view of the role of psychology in health care. Students will be exposed to the growing impact of psychology on conceptualizations of disease and health care delivery, the benefits of psychological intervention in the treatment of medical disorders, and the application of psychological concepts and behavioral therapies in the investigation and remediation of physical illness. The course will utilize a lecture and class discussion format and students will be evaluated based on the completion of three examinations and a review paper addressing a specific aspect of health care. (Roth)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).
(Prerequisite courses are 363 or 464 or 382 and junior or senior standing). This advanced laboratory will cover several approaches to enhancing individual, group, and organizational effectiveness. We will focus on role analysis and negotiation, competencies of an effective consultant, impression management, group planning and decision making, diversity, types of organizations, and work redesign. The instructor will introduce each topic to the class members by giving a brief overview of the framework, lecture or workshop to provide some firsthand experience with the concepts and phenomena we are studying. Subsequently, the class will reflect on the presentation and discuss relevant readings, processes and assignments. Finally, students (individually and in groups) will conduct field research projects, deliver class presentations and complete written reports which will then be delineated in class. Cost:2 WL:1 (Beale)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval. [WL:5 P.I. Only]

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval. [WL:5 P.I. only]

511. Advanced Laboratory in Physiological Psychology. Psych. 331 or 431. (4). (Excl).
The purpose of this course is three-fold. It is designed to: (1) Provide the student with an opportunity to gain practical laboratory experience by assisting with on-going experiments in the laboratory of a Biopsychology Area faculty member. (2) To introduce students to selected methods used in the field of biopsychology and behavioral neuroscience. (3) To provide practical knowledge of structure-function relations, which is achieved by the study of functional neuroanatomy, including dissection of sheep brain. Students must register in two sections; a lecture section (001) and a lab section (faculty INDI no.). Admission to a lab section is by permission of instructor only, and instructions for gaining permission can be obtained in the Psych. Undergraduate Office, or the Biopsychology Program Office. A lab course in Biopsychology is required of students concentrating in 'Psychology as a Natural Science', and therefore, these students will receive priority. (Robinson)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (Excl).
This course provides training in the skills necessary to critique and conduct research on children's perceptual, cognitive, social, and emotional development. This is a laboratory course: students engage in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. In addition, there are lectures and discussions covering theories, research issues, methods, and actual studies in developmental psychology. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in research projects and written reports and exercises. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Parker)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
course is designed to familiarize students with the techniques that personality psychologists use in making empirical questions about human nature. The first half of this course will emphasize various methods commonly used in personality research. We will cover both laboratory and field approaches to personality research, as well as learn a variety of observational methods, assessment techniques, and experimental designs relevant to the study of personality. In the last half of the course students will form small groups to design, develop, and conduct an actual research project with human subjects on a personality topic of their own choosing. Students will analyze their data and produce a written research report of their results. Evaluation will be based on examinations, a written literature review, and the written research report. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Norman)

Section 002. This is a hands-on course in personality research. Students will generate hypotheses, and design and perform analysis, using MTS and SPSS-X, on different datasets available through the Personality Data Archive. Students will interpret results of these analyses in writing. (Wink)

521. Laboratory in Judgement and Decision Making. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 340 or 522, or any course in judgement and decision making, is recommended. (3). (Excl).
This course initiates the student to the process of creating new knowledge about judgment and decision making in the behavioral sciences in general. Essentially, class members are co-investigators on research projects that address two original problems of current interest in the field. The problems examined differ from one term to the next. An illustrative problem is understanding the foundations of people's typical overconfidence in their answers to factual questions, e.g. "Which is farther north, New York or London?" Each student participates fully in all phases of the research process, from the conceptual analysis of the given problem and review of the pertinent literature through the collection and analysis of data, and the interpretation and reporting of results. Classes consist mainly of intensive discussions of relevant articles and of design and interpretation issues. Grades are based on students' reviews of articles, their contributions to the execution of various aspects of the class projects, their written reports, and their participation in discussions. The prerequisite is a previous upper-level course related to cognitive psychology, e.g., behavioral decision making, memory, learning, cognitive development. It satisfies one of the advanced laboratory requirements for a concentration in psychology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Yates)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (NS).
This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Yates)

530. Advanced Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 368, 369 or 430 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
This course presents a detailed examination of animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Students must have a basic understanding of modern Darwinian theory (e.g., Psych 430, Psych/Anthro 368 or 369) and an interest in applying this theory to a rigorous analysis of various issues in animal behavior. Topics include: (1) the level of selection (genes, individuals, and kin selection), (2) altruism, cooperation, and reciprocity, (3) the evolution and ecology of social systems, (4) the evolution and ecology of mating systems, (5) sexual selection and mate choice, and (6) strategies of reproduction by males and females. A lecture format is used supplemented with class discussion of course pack articles. Grades are based on two or three take-home essay exams. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (W.Holmes)

533. Human Neuropsychology. Permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Psych. 333. (4). (Excl).
See Psychology 333. Cost:2 WL:1. Permission of instructor required. (Robinson)

556. The Psychological Study of Lives. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course addresses the shaping of lives from two directions - the psychodynamic and the cultural. On the one hand, a life story manifests a continuity of tendencies and themes that have the stamp of individuality. On the other hand, the progress of life is determined by the person's social and cultural situation (family, social class, subculture, gender-role, economics). Students will learn to interpret biographical and autobiographical materials in cultural and psychological terms. Class discussion of theory, research, and case materials will be the medium of instruction. Students will be evaluated on the basis of one midterm and one final project, each involving the interpretation of a case history. (Rosenwald)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (Excl).
This course provides an opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly discussion sections are included as well. The placements include settings in which the child residents have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of the treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, a term paper and a final exam designed to integrate information from the various portions of the course. Cost:2 WL:1 (Marsden)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (Excl).
This course examines the second decade of life from a developmental and contextual perspective. From the sometimes-awkward pubertal years through the transition to young adulthood, we will attempt to understand normative social and personality development within the context of the adolescent's family, peer groups, and school. Such questions as: "Why is the telephone always busy when an adolescent lives in the home?", "How and when do adolescents begin to consider their future?" and "How do some adolescents survive early adversity?" will be addressed. In addition, we will examine historical and cultural perspectives (and myths) on adolescence. The course will also attempt to facilitate an understanding of problem and health-compromising behaviors, such as delinquency, drug use, and "unprotected" sex. The class meets twice a week, and the format includes both lectures and informed class discussions. Student evaluation will be based on exams, term papers, and class involvement. Cost:2 WL:1 (Schulenberg)

560. Human Factors Psychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
People interacting with their immediate environment constitute a system. A pilot controlling an aircraft or a computer operator at a terminal are examples. This course emphasizes the people side of the system, assessing their capabilities and limitations. The human senses (information intake), memory and cognition (information processing), and actions (performance) are studied in relation to the goal of making machinery and equipment easier, safer and more efficient to use. As an example, displays and controls will be considered. (Is your auto, F-16 fighter plane, safer to operate with a Head-Up Display i.e. HUD?) Facility with algebra is necessary. A nodding acquaintance with probability and calculus is desirable. Examination and laboratory exercises are used for student evaluation. Cost:2 WL:1 (Weintraub)

574. Clinical Psychology. Psych. 475 or Psych. 575 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, and papers) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2) to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. Cost:1 WL:1 (Lohr)

578. History of Psychology. Two advanced concentration courses. (3). (Excl).
The course will cover the intellectual history of the discipline of psychology. It will concentrate on its modern period from 1850 to the present but its intellectual roots before that will be reviewed. Students should be juniors or seniors with a background in either psychology, philosophy, science or intellectual history. The course is open to graduate students as well. Grading will be based on class participation and on a long paper which will center on the tracing back through time or the development of the work of a current psychology department faculty member. Each student will choose a faculty member, interview them, read their current work and trace their intellectual, methodological and content mentors from the past. Readings will be extensive and tailored to each student's project as well as a base of common background texts. The format will be as close to seminar style as the number permits. [Cost:2] [WL:3,4] (Brown)

591. Senior Honors Research II. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).
The main business of the course is ensuring the completion of the Senior-Honors thesis. The goal is a thesis that makes student, tutor, and Psychology 591 instructor proud. Thesis authors have an obligation to present a talk based on their thesis at the Psychology Honors Colloquium in April. Cost:1 WL:3 (Section 001:Weintraub; Section 002:Marsden)

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