ROMANCE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS REQUESTING OVERRIDES FOR FRENCH OR SPANISH 101, 102, 103, 231 OR 232.

1. Try to find a section that will fit into your schedule, since the Department CANNOT GUARANTEE every student a space in a section of his/her own choice.

However, DO NOT register for a class that you cannot attend. You will NOT be eligible to override into the section of your choice if you are registered for ANY SECTION of 101-232, even if you cannot attend that section.

2. As it states in the Time Schedule, any registered student who misses MORE THAN ONE of the first five class meetings will automatically be dropped from the course, thereby leaving some spaces open for those students who have been closed out.

If there is ABSOLUTELY NO SECTION open which will fit your schedule, you should follow this procedure: (a) Start attending the section you would like to get into on the first day of class. You will receive a "Proof of Attendance" form which must be signed by your instructor every day. You must attend a class every day, but it does not need to be the same section. (b) After the fifth day of class there will be a meeting in the basement of the MLB (rooms, dates, and times to be announced in class) for each of the above courses. At these meetings, students will be assigned to remaining vacated spaces in the most fair and equitable manner possible, using a lottery system. At no time, however, will any class be allowed to exceed 25 students. STUDENTS MUST BRING THEIR CRISP OFFICIAL PRINTOUT OF CLASSES AND THE PROOF OF ATTENDANCE FORM TO THE MEETING!

3. Please note that you WILL NOT BE ALLOWED TO CHANGE SECTIONS at the French meetings. After the lottery Elementary Language Supervisors will hear requests for section changes and fill those requests to whatever degree is possible.

4. Please ensure when adding with the override that you should also add modifiers for pass/fail, etc.

FRENCH AND SPANISH PLACEMENT TESTS:

If you are planning to take an elementary French or Spanish class and you are a new student, freshman or transfer student, or you have not yet begun the elementary language sequence on the Ann Arbor campus, you MUST take the placement test in order to register for the correct course. Schedule of testing dates and locations will be posted at the Romance Languages Department; this information will also be available from the Office of Orientation (764-6290) or LS&A Checkpoint (764-6810) as soon as it has been confirmed.

If you have registered for a class prior to taking the test, you will still be required to take the test in order to verify that you are in the appropriate level class.

If you have already taken French or Spanish 101-232 on the Ann Arbor campus, or you have already taken the placement test once, you are NOT eligible to take the test again. For questions regarding the LS&A language requirement, please see a general academic counselor or call POINT-10 (764-6810).

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. Students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (LR).
Students with any prior study of French must take the Placement Test. The sequence of French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar, vocabulary, and culture which are needed in everyday life to understand French spoken at a moderate speed and to be understood by sympathetic native speakers. Vocabulary and structures are practiced in class primarily through communicative activities stressing listening and speaking. Authentic documents are used to develop reading skills and culture. Cultural awareness and listening skills are further developed through listening and video materials. Classes meet four hours per week in sections of 20-25 students. Daily homework assignments involve studying vocabulary and grammar, writing exercises or short compositions, and practice in listening comprehension. There are several quizzes and tests, as well as midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Class participation is graded. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. Cost:3

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. (4). (LR).
See French 101. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103. It is STRONGLY suggested that transfer students see H.Neu for advice regarding placement in the appropriate course. [Cost:1, Same texts as 101] [WL:See statement above.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).
The objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. The course moves at a rapid pace, most of the material presented in French 101/102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, although daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Several videos will be viewed to complement lessons. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. French 206 may be elected prior to French 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 206 is offered in the Winter Term.) It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).
Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 are the third and fourth terms of language study offered. It presents a comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and literary excerpts. Both courses include the use of French movies and video. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on topics of interest, to understand conversations on such topics. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. Homework consists of grammar study, written exercises, and laboratory work. There are comprehensive coursewide tests as well as the midterm and final examinations. [COST:3] [WL:See statement above.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).
In French 232, students will continue learning and reviewing vocabulary and grammar from the second half of the book Ensuite. There will be short weekly readings (advertisements, literary, excerpts, and short stories) and by the middle of the semester, students will begin reading a full-length French novel!! (They will read the majority of the novel on their own and take a reading comprehension test at the end of the semester). Throughout the semester, students will listen to French songs, see several videos (from French television) as well as two French movies. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized, daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. In addition to the outside reading test, there will be 3 course wide tests, a midterm, and a final examination.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).
This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward mid-term students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 25 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Hagiwara)

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, but homework, attendance, and participation in classroom activities determine the Credit/No Credit grades. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Hagiwara)

350. Independent Study. French 232 or the equivalent and permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT) May be elected for a total of six hours credit.
French 350 is an Independent Study course which may be offered to undergraduate students who demonstrate the need to study some specific language aspect of French, phonetics (in this case it must not correspond in any way to French 325), grammar, style and translation included. The course may be elected for up to 6 hours of credit, but that option should be exceptional. Generally 3 credits are granted if the course work is as intensive as any regular course at the 300 level. The type of requirement for the final grade must be specifically indicated: examination or other. In all cases the student petitioning for independent student 350 and the supporting instructor must demonstrate that the course is needed and that no other regular course may be taken as a substitute.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. (3; 2-4 in half-term). (Excl).
The purpose of this course is to help students improve their proficiency in the spoken language and in their writing skills through varied activities. French grammar is reviewed; however, this is not a grammar class. The reading excerpts are taken from contemporary works by authors from different French-speaking countries. In the second half of the semester, students will read and work on a full-length novel and watch and work on a movie. Videos from recent French news programs will be used for discussion once a week or so. ACTIVE PARTICIPATION is expected of all students and is part of the final grade. All classes are taught in French. Bi-monthly essays, two in-class exams, and one final examination. Prerequisite: French 232 or equivalent. (Belloni)

362. Advanced French. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
French 362 is neither a literature nor a grammar class. It is designed as a bridge between the highly structured activities of language courses and the more independent work required in literature and civilization courses. French 362 has two main objectives: 1) to help students improve their written and oral fluency; 2) to familiarize students with the linguistic and analytic tools necessary to approach a document, whether a literary text, a newspaper article, or a video document. Used as the basis of round-table discussions and written exercises, these documents will help students increase their ability to write and converse fluently on different themes presented in class. Active classroom participation is essential, and part of the final grade. All classes are taught in French. Bi-monthly essays, 2 in-class exams, one final examination. Prerequisites: French 361. (Belloni)

363. French Phonetics. French 361 and 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course, conducted in French is designed to introduce basic concepts in phonetic theory and to help students improve their pronunciation of French through (1) study of the physical characteristics of individual sounds, the relationship between sounds and their written representations, the rules governing pronunciation of "standard" French, and (2) intensive oral practice in the production of French consonants and vowels, syllabification, intonation, liaison, and deletion/retention of the "mute E". During the first week, students will record a speech sample and will be informed of problem areas to work on independently using audiotapes. Homework for each class consists of reading theory, writing phonetic, transcriptions, and oral practice with tapes. Participation, 1-2 oral quizzes, and the final oral exam will evaluate proficiency in pronunciation. Homework, quizzes, a midterm, and a written final exam will evaluate ability to use the phonetic alphabet and knowledge of basic theory. Prerequisite: French 362 or permission of instructor. Cost:2 WL:1 (Neu)

370/RC Core 370. Advanced Proficiency in French. RC Core 320, or French 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
See RC Core 370. (Carduner)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).
Section 001:
To write correctly in French implies more than correct grammar: one must also know what role writing plays within French culture and study the interaction between written and spoken forms of the language. Each of the kinds of writing we will practice in this course descriptive writing, narration, dialogue, personal and official correspondence, and the essay comes with cultural expectations different from those attached to the same form of writing in English. In this course we will do two things: we will study the cultural expectations which define what it means to write French, and we will work constantly to improve our technical mastery of the written and spoken language. Class time will be spent in practical activities designed to develop awareness of cultural and linguistic differences, and of the interaction of written and spoken French; a significant amount of class time will also be given to exercises designed to enrich vocabulary and to review common grammatical difficulties. Required work: 8-10 compositions, regular participation in class activities. Cost:2 WL:4 (Graham)

Section 002: The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c) development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight, sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays and for that purpose will learn how to use the reference tools (grammar, dictionary, word processor) that will be of great help in any further study of French language. Final course grade will reflect the students' progress, and participation in class. Although this course demands a serious amount of personal work, students will be rewarded eventually with a better mastery of French writing that is worth the effort. Prerequisites: French 361. Cost:3 WL:4 (Chambon)

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361 and 362. Students may be permitted to take 380 and 362 concurrently. (3). (Excl).
This course is designed to familiarize the student with the LANGUAGE of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is partly built around a fictitious company whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, applying for a job in France. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. Attendance mandatory. NO AUDITORS. Maximum enrollment is 25. Prerequisite: French 361 and 362. Students may be permitted to take 380 and 362 concurrently. (Gabrielli)

410(408). Advanced Translation, French-English. French 372 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course will concentrate on developing the student's advanced translating skills. Working mainly from English texts into French, it will use the practice of translation as applied to a variety of different texts with the goal of increasing the students' knowledge and command of syntactic and stylistic potentialities of the two languages. In the second half of the term, students will be asked to work on individual projects for which they will choose and extract from a contemporary English text to be translated into French. Projects will be discussed individually in class. Grading is based on participation, day-to-day preparation, homework, the individual project and in-class assignments. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Belloni)

427(454)/Rom. Ling. 454. French Syntax. Permission of advisor. (3). (Excl).
This course combines an introduction to linguistics and an indepth review of French syntax. We will explore the basic concepts of modern linguistic theories, including discourse analysis, and see how they are applied to French. We will also compare typical linguistic approaches to language analysis with traditional grammar rules. From this analysis of French we will proceed to exercises designed to increase your competence in grammar and awareness of French stylistics. These exercises involve comparisons of French and English, various sentence recombinations, analyses of sentence structures from simple to complex patterns, including literary and conversational passages, a study of the relationship between word order and the "highlighting" devices and rhythmic patterns of French, correction of grammatical errors made in speech and compositions by French lycee students as well as American students learning French, and translations from English to French. The course will be conducted in French, and the classroom work will consist of lectures and readings (60%) and travaux pratiques (exercises) and three one-hour take-home examinations. (Chambon)

Civilization

384. Origins of Contemporary France: From the Gauls to de Gaulle. French 361. (3). (HU).
Pourquoi certains "Francais" acceptent-ils de plus en volontiers l'idee de cultures regionales (corse, bretonne, provencale, basque) et continuent-ils pourtant a croire au mythe d'une nationalite "francaise" unique, monolithique? Pourquoi les "beurs" (la seconde gnerations de Nord-Africains dont les parents sont souvent francais), les "travailleurs immigres," les "musulmans," les "islaniques," souffrent-ils du mem recisme anti-"Araves"? Pourquoi les hommes politiques francais se mettent-ils soudain a parler "d'invasion" et de "droit du sang" (Giscard d'Estaing), de "l'odeur et du bruit" des immigres (Chirac)? Pourquoi le Front national parvient-il aa devenir un veritable parti politique? Que sont devenus le "racisme" et "l'anti-racisme"? A defaut de reponses, nous, chercherons des raisons d'esperer dans des textes theoriques (Taguieff, Face au racisme ), dans le theatre et les romans de jeunes ecrivains beurs et dans la presse ecrite. Prerequisites: French 351. WL:4 (Rosello)

430(440). Les structures socio-culturelles de la France actuelle. French 362 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
This course, titled THE NEW FRANCE IN THE MAKING: TRADITIONS IN TRANSITION, is an introduction to France in the nineties, with particular emphasis on the more modern and popular aspects of present day France, its people, culture, their hopes and apparent failures. The course begins with a description of the land and its people, followed by an examination of how the country shifted from an agricultural to a more complex high tech urban society. Among the main issues studied: The Hexagon, communications, demography, education, life after school, health, community and ethics, politics, new assets and liabilities, big problems facing 1993, France and Europe and the World. A French newspaper will be ordered and students will be asked to discuss articles, to present at least one oral expose in class. Evaluation will be based on class participation, oral presentations and assigned papers. No examination scheduled. (Mermier)

Literature

386/387/388/389 INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE. The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

386/MARC 386. Introduction to French Literature (Beginnings to 1600). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).
An introduction to methods of literary study through the discussion of selected works of the medieval and Renaissance period. We will examine the significance of formal characteristics of literary works (narrative, theater, and lyric poetry), and develop techniques of analysis suited to each type. We will also explore the relationship between literary form and social context. What prompted the creation of a new vernacular literature where non existed before? How does this literature use themes and symbols to create portrait of society and its structures? Intended for students of French culture and literature; taught in French. No previous study of literature or of medieval and Renaissance history is required. Readings in modern French, include the following: Marie de France, Lais; lyric poetry of the troubadours; Beroul, Le roman de Tristan et Iseut; La Farce de maitre Pierre Pathelin; and a selection of Renaissance poetry. Required work: 4 short papers (3 pages), mid-term and final examination. Cost:3 WL:4 (Graham)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).
This course will focus on five of the most important writers of 19th century French literature, namely Balzac, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Zola and Maupassant. Emphasis will be placed on the literary aspects of the works read as well as the historical, political and artistic context of the day. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty pages of a given work and preparing to discuss them in class. Students will write four papers in French (three or four pages in length). Each paper will be corrected for grammar, choice of expression and content. The course grade will be based on the results of written work and on classroom participation. Regular attendance is required. There is no final examination. The course is conducted in French. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Gray)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).
Section 001:
This course will deal with the novel and the poetry, first of the generation born around 1870 (with the titles of Gide, Colette, Proust and Valery) and then of the last twenty years (with one short novel by Marguerite Duras (Moderato Cantabile ) and poems by Guillevic. Two short papers and a term paper will be required. Prerequisite: French 232 or equivalent. (Muller)

Section 002: This course explores some significant moments in the development of 20th century French literature. These great "moments" will be discussed through a selection of authors, genres and works chosen among the following: Poetry: Paul Valery, Guillaume Apollinaire, Saint-John Perse, Paul Eluard, Jacques Prevert. Theatre: Paul Claudel, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean Anouilh, Eugene Ionesco. Novel: Andre Gide, Marcel Proust, Colette, Antoine de Saint-Exupery, Nathalie Sarraute, Albert Camus. Course work includes oral exposes in class and assigned papers. Students are expected to thoroughly read and study the texts assigned. They will be responsible for knowing the contents of the texts, and should be able to discuss their structure and meaning. Evaluation will be based on regular preparation, class participation, oral exposes, and assigned papers. No examination. Prerequisite: French 232 or equivalent (Mermier)

440(410). Le cinéma français. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Conducted in French, the course presents an introduction to film as language, with special attention to camera angle, distance and movement, as well as to editing techniques, as a means of expression. Examples are drawn from a series of films seen in class, which form the basis of class discussion and analysis. Since the series typically includes two or three classic films of the 1930's (Vigo, Clair, Renoir, etc.), two or three new wave films of the 50's and 60's, and a modern film or two, students can also observe the evolution of film esthetics and technology in France. Class members are encouraged to see additional French films. The course seeks to enhance students' sensitivity to motion pictures in general, their appreciation of films made in the French cultural context, and their understanding of French directors' contributions to the cinematographic art. Readings from Mitry, Metz, and other theorists and from selected film scripts. Three short papers, midterm and final examinations. French concentrators are expected to write in French. [Cost:1] [WL:3](Nelson)

450. Independent Studies. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001.
The work to be done should not be the same as that offered in a regular course. A written description of the project together with an appropriate bibliography must be submitted for initial approval to the proposed instructor of the course and then to the concentration adviser for final approval prior to the beginning of the term during which the independent study is to be undertaken. (Gray)

Section 002. French for Management. France can no longer be regarded as the chic language of fashion, perfumes, and wines only. Instead, this course is intended to focus on its realistic applicability. Through various pedagogical tactics, authentic and stimulating materials and methods, exceptionally motivated students should quickly be able to immerse themselves in tailored business-like situations, thus improving their creativity and responsiveness in the technical aspects of a foreign language and mastering its cultural implications. Basically the course will feature short lectures or talks, workshops pertaining to a selection of case studies from business schools and companies in France, films and videotapes of actual business sessions, role playing and simulations. A comprehensive orientation test of all applicants will be scheduled for late Fall and will help determine the level and enrollment of the course. Prerequisite: French 361, 362 or equivalent, and permission of instructor. (Gabrielli)

454(481/482). Literature of the Eighteenth Century. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).
This course will explore from a literary angle the French contribution to the intellectual and social movement that brought with it modern science, the idea of progress, representative democracy and massive disillusion with all of the above. We will focus on the ways in which French novelists and philosophers responded to changing social reality, criticized traditions and institutions, and struggled with problems of personal and collective ethics. Regular participation expected of all students: some lectures, much discussion, including collective presentations and student-led discussion. Two papers, one oral examination. Authors and works studied will include Prevost, Manon Lescaut; Madame de Grafigny, Lettres d'une peruvienne; Diderot, Supplement au voyage de Bougainville and Les Liaisons dangereuses, and the Marquis de Sade, Francais, encore un effort si vous voulez etre republicains. Cost:2 or 3 WL:4. (Paulson)

460(442). Topics and Themes in French Literature. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001: La Litterature Ludique.
The course seeks to trace the evolution of humor and play in modern French literature, uncovering changes in strategies employed by texts to engage readers in the game. Our approach is informed by some serious theorists, including Freud, Bergson, Koestler, and Barthes, but class time will be devoted primarily to analysis of the strategies of "ludic" texts such as Ubu roi (Jarry), Les Caves du Vatican (Gide), Paroles (Prevert) and selected surrealist texts, Zazie dans le metro (Queneau), L'Ecume des jours (Vian), and Mobie-Diq (Redonnet). The course will define a notion of reading as play, considering competitive reading and the pleasure of winning, surprises and the pleasure of losing, and non-competitive games. Two course papers and final examination; extra tasks for graduate students. A "Comedy Semester" offering. Conducted in French. No subtitles. Cost:3 WL:4 (Nelson)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (LR).
This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with parallel emphasis on conversation. Text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 101 covers the first half of the text Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination. Cost:2] [WL:4]

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (LR).
This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden the student's knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also emphasized. The course covers the second half of the text with workbook and lab manual; readings supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102 or equivalent. Italian 206 may be elected prior to Italian 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Italian 206 emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is for students who have had at least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading material from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short storied, etc) which will be discussed in class. Use of the language laboratory will provide additional conversational material on various aspects of Italian life. Class will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading is on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (LR).
This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions and oral report center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (LR).
This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian, including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a continuing review of grammar, and the elements of composition. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

Other Language and Literature Courses

360. Italian Culture and History, Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries. (3). (HU).
This course, treating the 18th century through the 20th century, emphasizes the political, social and cultural difficulties that Italy encountered once it had lost the privileged position it held in Europe during the Renaissance. The importance of European movements, such as Illuminism and Romanticism, will be stressed as both artistic and political manifestations. Particular attention will be given to the mid-19th century struggle for the unification of the country, and the conditions that allowed the Fascist takeover. The Fascist period will be analyzed, considering in particular Mussolini's control over the mass-media, his promotion to the movie industry and the position of the intellectuals toward the dictatorship. The achievements of Italy after the second World War will be the focus of the last part of the course. We will take into consideration the economy, the political system, the social structures, the geography and the standard of living of contemporary Italy. Selected works by the following authors will be read: Vico, Verri, Beccaria, Goldini, Parini, Alfieri, Foscolo, Mazzini, Manzoni, Leopardi, Carducci, Verga, and early 20th-century figures. Students will be required to write two or three short papers during the term. Cost:3 WL:4 (Frisch)

362. Advanced Italian. Italian 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Further proficiency in oral and writing skills will be stressed in Italian 362. Reading materials will include short fiction and non-fiction, as well as lengthier assignments of outside reading on which various written and oral assignments will be made. Participation in class discussion, occasional oral presentations, weekly compositions based for the most part on assigned readings, the subject matter of which will deal primarily with subjects of topical interest. Continuing grammar difficulties will be treated as they arise. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly. (Habekovic)

380. Italian Cinema and Society. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU).
The course, which will be taught in English, traces the historical development of Italian cinema from the postwar advent of neorealism to the mid 1980's. The course has several aims: to understand the political, economic, and cultural contexts which generated and supported the neorealist movement; to explore and analyze the theoretical bases of neorealism and its reception, both friendly and hostile, in Italian intellectual/political circles; to examine various aspects of the movement beyond neorealism proper in films of the 1950's and 1960's by Fellini, Visconti, Antonioni, Olmi, Bertolucci, and Bellocchio; and to expose the rethinking and reevaluation of the neorealist aesthetic as carried out by Brusati, Scola, and the Taviani Brothers in the 1970's and 1980's. The course requirements, beyond class participation, will be three 6-8 page papers. A knowledge of Italian is useful, but is not required. A lab fee will be charged. Cost:2 WL:4 (Frisch)

420. Topics and Themes in Modern Italian Literature. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2-3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001: Modern Italic Lyric Poetry.
This course provides a survey of 19th and 20th century Italian poetry and an introduction to the study of literary translation. Representative texts of major poets will be discussed within an historical context and analyzed from a stylistic perspective. Topics to be dealt with include romanticism, nationalism, futurism, hermeticism, neorealism, experimentalism, plurilingualism, postmodernism, and feminism. Translation studies will also be emphasized by working on bilingual editions as well as with Italian versions of major British and American poets. Course requirements include class participation, two short papers, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:2 (Welle)

468. Studies in Modern Italian Literature. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001: Turn of the Century: Verga, Pirandello and Svevo.
This course will deal with the development of the Italian novel between the late 1800's and the early 1900's. We will begin with the verismo of Giovanni Verga (The House by the medlar tree and Mastro-don Gesualdo ) before moving on to the self-reflective action of Luigi Pirandello (The Late Mattia Pascal ) and the psychological fiction of Italo Svevo (The Confessions of Zeno ). The readings and discussion will be in English, though students competent in Italian will be encouraged to read works in the original language. Course requirements will include two short essays, a class presentation, and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:4 (Lucente)

484. Early Italian Poetry. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Section 001: Lyric Poetry of the Renaissance: Michelangelo As Poet, Sculptor, Artist, and Architect.
This course will concentrate on Michelangelo's artistic production (his art, sculpture, and in particular his poetry) with an eye to both the poetic tradition preceding him (Dante and Petrarch) and the poetic/artistic ramification extending from his work. We will start with St. Augustine for the religious background and Dante for the poetic background before moving on to Michelangelo's bast poetic corpus of well over three hundred lyric poems. By the end of the term, we will begin to examine the mystic poetry of the Mediterranean countries as well as of the poetry of the Protestant north, especially the works of John Donne. Knowledge of Italian is helpful but not required (though knowledge of Latin or one of the Romance Languages is necessary). Cost:2 WL:1 (Lucente)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101. (4). (LR).
This course is designed to give students the ability to understand the Portuguese of everyday life, to be understood in typical situations of everyday life, and to read non-technical Portuguese of moderate difficulty. Portuguese 102 covers units 12 to 18 of the textbook FALANDO, LENDO, ESCREVENDO PORTUGUES (Lima and Iunes). Class room work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structures through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises ranging from meaningful sentences to compositions. Grading will be based on six quizzes, two tests, final exam, and class participation. The instructor's office provides some audio-visual material (videos, newspapers, magazines, etc.), and other material is available at the Language Lab and at the Graduate Library Hatcher. Portuguese 102 is offered only in the Winter Term. Cost:2 WL:4

232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 231 or the equivalent. (4). (LR).
Second year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. (See description above). It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. The required text is PARA A FRENTE! (King and Suner), complemented by selected short-stories and other reading materials made available as hand-outs. Class room work involves an intensive grammar review, the study of finer points of Portuguese grammar, oral presentations and discussion of short-stories and texts from newspapers and magazines. Homework involves studying grammar, preparing oral presentations, and writing guided essays. Grading is based on quizzes given every other week, oral presentations, essays, class participation and two exams. Portuguese 232 is offered only in the Winter Term. Cost:2 WL:4

473. Introduction to Brazilian Literature. A reading knowledge of Portuguese. (3). (Excl).
The Department of Romance Languages and Literatures has been authorized to hire a visiting professor for Winter Term 1992. This course is scheduled to be taught by this visiting professor. As a result, no course description is available at this time. Prerequisite: A reading knowledge of Portuguese.

489. Directed Readings in Portuguese. Permission of department. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.
The Department of Romance Languages and Literatures has been authorized to hire a visiting professor for Winter term 1992. This course is scheduled to be taught by this visiting professor. As a result, no course description is available at this time.

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

414/Spanish 414(481). Background of Modern Spanish. A thorough reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (Excl).
See Spanish 414. (Dworkin)

454/French 427. French Syntax. Permission of advisor. (3). (Excl).
See French 427. (Chambon)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. Students who began Spanish at another college or university must also take the placement test.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (LR).
For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Grade based on four departmental tests, and final exam, written work and daily oral work.

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. (4). (LR).
A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more pratice. Grade based on three departmental exams, three oral exams, other examinations, quizzes, written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. Cost: Same texts as 101. WL:4

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this GUIDE.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).
A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish 103 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).
This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on a series of quizzes and exams designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 112. (4). (LR).
This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is determined by exams and quizzes, designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish, plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

Other Language Courses

358. Spanish Conversation for Non-Concentrators. Spanish 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Spanish 361 or 362. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 358, 361, and 362 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).
Spanish 358 is a text based conversation course for non-concentrators interested in the Spanish language and in contemporary Hispanic culture. Texts include journalistic prose as well as journal formatted videos aimed at increasing students' knowledge of current affairs in Spain and Latin America. Audio tapes will be employed to improve pronunciation, vocabulary and listening skills. Class format includes open and group discussions, debates, oral presentations and role-playing. Attendance and participation will be mandatory and will constitute a large part of the course grade. Grades will also be determined by examination of students' listening and expressive skills. Finally, students will practice writing in various practical formats such as newspaper articles, book or movie reviews, etc. These written exercises will form the final component of the course grade.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 358, 361, and 362 may be counted toward graduation. (3; 2-4 in the half-term). (Excl).
Spanish 361 is intended to increase the accuracy of students' Spanish and to increase vocabulary and cultural knowledge through the reading of journalistic prose. The course is centered on a grammar-review text. Students do readings in Spanish, prepare translations and other exercises, and expand vocabulary. Time is allotted to class discussion of readings on contemporary Hispanic life and especially to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are conducted exclusively in Spanish. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in class discussions or presentations.

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 358, 361, and 362 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).
Spanish 362 is intended to improve students' skills in conversational and written Spanish. To this end, students will be presented with a variety of written, visual and audio materials designed to stimulate discussion, both written and oral. Compositions are assigned regularly and oral presentations by students required. Classes are conducted exclusively in Spanish. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in class discussions or presentations.

414(481)/Rom. Ling. 414. Background of Modern Spanish. A thorough reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (Excl).
This lecture course surveys the historical, social, cultural, and literary background against which spoken Latin of the Iberian Peninsula evolved into Spanish. The emphasis is on the external rather than the internal history of Spanish. Topics covered include the influence on the development of Spanish of such diverse languages as Basque, Gothic, Arabic, French, Italian, and Literary Latin, the role of the Reconquest (Reconquista) in shaping the linguistic map of Spain, and the circumstances leading to the rise of the Castilian dialect as the national standard. The ability to read Spanish is essential. The textbook is Rafael Lapesa, Historia de la lengua espanola; in addition, graduate students will be required to read the chapters dealing with Spain in Roger Wright, Late Latin and Early Romance. There will be a midterm and final exams, and a written report. Prerequisite: Good reading knowledge of Spanish. (Dworkin)

Literature

350. Independent Studies. Permission of concentration adviser. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit more than once with permission.
This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Concentration Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. (Proposal forms are available in the Department Office.) The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course.

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU).
The literature of Spain from its beginnings to the Baroque period.
This course will introduce participants to the literature of Spain from its beginnings to the Baroque period; equally importantly, it will introduce participants to ways of thinking and imagining radically different perhaps, from their own. Readings will include lyric poetry (anonymous, Jorge Manrique, Garcilaso de la Vega), epic (Poema del Cid), the beginnings of the novel in short fictions by Juan Manuel, Cervantes, and Maria de Zayas and the longer narratives of la Celestina and Lazarillo de Tormes, and theater by Lope de Vega and Calderon de la Barca. Conducted in Spanish. Midterm, final; course journal; final paper. (Brown)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU).
The late eighteenth-century and the 1930's mark the two extremes of the period represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature, The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, methods and approaches of literary criticism are considered, and an effort is made to show how the works exemplify their cultural context ranging from the Enlightenment through Romanticism, Positivism, Symbolism to Existentialism. Representative authors who may be studied are Moratin, Larra, Becquer, Galdos, Azorin, Machado, Jimenez, Unamuno and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of periodic tests, midterm and final paper, and a final exam. The course is conducted in Spanish. Cost:3 WL:4 (Anderson)

373. Topics in Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
The Department of Romance Languages and Literatures has been authorized to hire a visiting professor for Winter term 1992. This course is scheduled to be taught by this visiting professor. As a result, no course description is available at this time.

382. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU).
Covers the main Spanish American contemporary authors in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortazar, Gabriel Garcia Marquez; Vicente Huidobro, Pablo Neruda, Cesar Vallejo; Rodolfo Usigli, Octavio Paz). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. Conducted in Spanish. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports, (b) midterm exam, and (c) final examination. There will be a course pack available at the beginning of the term. (Goic)

386. The Quest for Identity in Latin American Literature. Spanish 362 and either Spanish 381 or 382. (3). (HU).
Section 001: Aproximaciones A Chicana/o Culture.
We will read essays, poetry, theater, short stories and novels and view films and slides of artwork, primarily from the 1960's to the present, of Chicana/o (i.e. Mexican/American) artists/intellectuals. We will look at the relations between historical, political and social contexts, of the works, and explore some of the ways in which Chicana/o identity is constructed in different pieces we'll study. Spanish is required. Twenty students maximum. In-class presentation, mid-term and final papers. Cost:4 WL:1 (Perez)

392. Junior Honors Course. Permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).
In Spanish H392, selected readings chosen from Spain and Spanish America are studied and analyzed through class work, conferences with a senior member of the faculty, written reports, and term papers. This course exists to enable students who have been admitted to the Honors Program to begin research supervised by a faculty sponsor. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Honors Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Honors Committee. The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course. (Perez)

400(432). Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. A knowledge of Spanish is not required. Open to students at all levels. May not be included in a concentration plan in Spanish (or teaching certificate major or minor). (3). (Excl).
Section 001: The Book and the World.
This course will examine the ways in which Spanish fictions Medieval to Baroque attempt to represent the world. The thirteenth-century Book of one Hundred Chapters declares that "the world is a book. Human beings are like its letters, and their times are like pages; when one page ends, another begins." The reverse, however, is equally true. Storytellers have long aspired to reproduce the world texts which present in micocosm the complexities of a particular understanding of "reality." Between the poles of apparently documentary realism (the anonymous Life of Lazarillo de Tormes) and allegorical personification (The Great World Theater by Calderon), we will study the complex fictional worlds of The Book of True Love by Juan Ruiz and Cervantes' Don Quixote. Taught in English; all reading in English translation. Open to students at all levels. Requirements: mid-term and final exams, final paper. This course is jointly offered with MARC 400. (Brown)

435(450). Independent Study. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 3 credits.
This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Concentration Adviser no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. (Proposal forms are available in the Department Office.) The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course.

457(486). Trends of Golden Age Thought. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Durante los siglos XVI y XVII, Espana se hizo eco de las corrientes de pensamiento del resto de Europa, aunque, como pais meridional y catolico, con ciertas caracteristicas propias. Se estudiaran: la presencia del Renacimiento a fines del siglo XV; del XVI, el influjo del humanismo cristiano procedente del erasmismo y de "corrientes espirituales afines", tanto en las teorias pedagogicas, como religiosas y politicas; el neo estoicismo a fines del XVI y primera mitad del XVII; y el "preiluminismo" de hacia 1680. Se leeran textos de Juan Luis Vives, Antonio de Guevara, Fernan Perez de Oliva, Santa Teresa, Fray Luis de Leon, Fray Luis de Granada, Quevedo, Gracian y Francisco Santos, entre otros. La lista de lecturas se pondra en la puerta del professor en diciembre. Prerequisites: Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (Lopez-Grigera)

459(485). Don Quijote. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (HU).
DON QUIJOTE es la obra cumbre de la literatura espanola y una de las mas importantes de la literatura universal. En ella estan presentes tanto los problemas e ideales de la epoca de su autor como los de todos los tiempos. La lectura del QUIJOTE es un ejercicio de la mas alta calidad, reconfortante al mismo tiempo que produce una excepcional emocion estetica. El curso tiene como objecto que el estudiante haga una introduccion a la obra que le permita disfrutar tanto de los mundos ideologicos de la obra como de su gradeza artistica. El estrudiante debe leer detenidamente la obra y hacer dos trabajos sobre un tema especifico, segun la metodologia que el profesor require. Cost:1 (Lopez-Grigera)

464(425). Spanish Romanticism. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Spain was one of the most "Romantic" countries for Europeans in the period 1830-1860. Merimee's Carmen attests to the outsider's conception of Spaniards, but Spanish writers did not share that skewed view. Blanco White, who fled Spain and the priesthood he no longer believed in, wrote from England of his spiritual unrest. The Duque de Rivas and other playwrights dramatized human anguish over an incomprehensible divine order. Larra's bitter satire of contemporary middle-class society, an historical novel, and Becquer's exquisite and enigmatic legends make up the prose works we study. One of the long poems of Espronceda will be analyzed to show his preoccupation with the mystery of human desires. Becquer's love poetry will reveal through its delicate verse a deeper spiritual reality present in the universe. These texts in sum illustrate the problematic nature for 19th-century Spaniards of the classical and Christian world order they inherited from their forebears. (Hafter)

476(487). Latin American Poetry of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 9 credits.
A reading of key modernists, "postmodernistas" and vanguardistas, we'll be looking at the work of Marti, Dario, Lugones, Mistral, Ibarburu, Vallejo, Neruda and Guillen. We will also read some of the criticism and theory of this poetry; especially that addressing the global and national contexts of the 1830's 1930's in Latin America. Course conducted in Spanish. Cost:4 WL:1 (Perez)

485(489). Case Studies in Peninsular Spanish and Latin American Literature. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent or permission of advisor. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
This course will deal with five great major long poems of the Spanish American Contemporary Period. It will include Gabriela Mistral's Himnos Americanos, Vicente Huidobro's Altazor, Cesar Vallejo's Himno a los Voluntarios de la Republica, Pablo Neruda's Alturas de Machu Picchu, and Octavio Paz, Piedra de sol, and references to many other. The approach will be close-reading of the above mentioned poems. The format will be lecture and discussion. Students will be required to write a number of assignments, a mid-term paper and a final paper. Text: C. Goic, Historia y critica de la literatura hispanoamericana. Barcelona, Editorial Critica, 1988, vol. 3. Epoca Colonial. (Goic)

491. Senior Honors Course. Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).
Students who successfully complete the Junior year Honors sequence are eligible to elect the senior year sequence (Spanish 490 and 491). In Spanish 491 the focus is upon selected topics, authors, literary movements, or genres chosen from Spain or Spanish America depending on the needs of the student. The student will study and analyze the subject, supervised by a senior member of the faculty. A description of the project and required exercises to be completed must be submitted to the Honors Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Honors Committee. The committee is to receive any lengthy paper submitted in the course. Prerequisite: Open only to seniors by permission of the Departmental Honors Committee.


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