ANTHROPOLOGY

Courses in Biological Anthropology (DIVISION 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

The course explores the biological basis for variation in human morphology, physiology, and behavior across different modern populations around the world, and through human evolutionary history. Major topics discussed are evolutionary theory, genetics, human adaptation, primate and human behavior, and the human fossil record. No special knowledge is required or assumed. Cost:2 WL:2 (Schepartz)

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The course examines the interaction between human biology and behavior by focusing on the different ways in which humans are biologically variable, how this variation has been viewed, and how it evolved. Specific topics to be covered include the genetic and non-genetic bases of human biological variation, the evolutionary beginnings of human variation, adaptation to climate today and in the past, and the impact of technological change on human biology throughout human prehistory. Lecture format, with 3 short papers and an essay final. No special knowledge is required, Biol. Anthro. 161 is recommended. Cost:3 WL:4 (Schepartz)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology and must be dispensed with before we can make sense out of the very real aspects of human biological variation. This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These will be contrasted with the biological traits that show regional clustering but which have no adaptive value and cannot therefore be hierarchically arranged. (2) If the common concept of race has an inadequate biological base, how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that they owe more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept. All the material covered by the course will be dealt with in lecture. Supplementary readings will be suggested from time to time, along with specific sections in the assigned texts. Texts: A.R.Frisancho, HUMAN ADAPTATION; C.L.Brace, THE STAGES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION. Lecture outlines (syllabus) and C.L.Brace, RACE IS A FOUR LETTER WORD will be available at Kinko's copying. Cost:2 WL:3/4 (Brace)

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The application of genetic theory and data to the interpretation of the course of human evolution. The data include variation both among human populations and among humans and their close primate relatives. Reconciliation of the genetic data with various views of the fossil record will also be considered. Lectures and course pack. Grade based on midterm and final exam. (Livingstone)

469.Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 001: Simulation of Genetic Systems.
The use of computer simulation to interpret patterns of genetic variation in human populations. Variations considered include the hemoglobin alpha and beta change loci, G6PD deficiency, and other deleterious genes found in high frequencies in some human populations. (Livingstone)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Peters-Golden)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS).

What place does language have in everyday life? Do people really communicate when they speak to each other? How is language used to reinforce relationships of power, especially along racial, gender, and class lines? How do languages change, and how does change reflect the structure of society? This course is about the nature of language and the ways in which it reflects and informs social life. Topics covered include: (1) How and why languages change; (2) the relationships between speech and social class, race, and gender; (3) the politics of language use in society, including language policy in third-world societies (especially in South America) and the "English-only" movement in the United States; (4) the ways in which language is used to construct social, cultural, and political "realities" and the ways these realities are contested as, for example, in the abortion debate. We will try to answer some of these questions in this course, which is about the nature of language and social life. The course has no prerequisites except curiosity about the interrelationships between language and society. There is a required text, Nancy Bonvillain, Language culture and communication, and a supplementary course pack. (Mannheim)

285. Cult Archaeology. (4). (SS).

Cultural archaeology examines claims in the press and on television that cultural achievements by non-Western people are a consequence of contact with superior beings. The examples will be drawn from the prehistory and contact periods in the New World and the approach will be a case study using critical thinking as an analytical method. Claims of contact with beings from outer space, diffusion of ideas and methods across the Pacific, and pre-Columbian appearance of Europeans and Africans will be examined. The subjects discussed include art, architecture, agriculture, social change and cultural evolution. The goal is for students to learn critical thinking, to understand professional ethics, to appreciate cultural racism and the harm that it does, and to know what to believe in an imperfect knowledge arena. The course format is lecture and discussion sections. Evaluations are based on section exercises, two exams, and participation. The text is Williams, Fantastic Archaeology and a course pack. Slides, videos, and museum specimens supplement the course. (Ford)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

319. Latin American Society and Culture. (4). (SS).

The two aims of this course are (1) to impress upon students the immense diversity summed up in the term "Latin America," a region which spans two continents, nearly half a billion people, and a multitude of countries, societies, and cultures; and (2) to explore the aspects of shared histories which in some ways make of it a unity. Topics covered will include: the history and geography of conquest, from the Spanish invasions to US interventions; colonial and modern race ideologies and the meaning of being an "Indian"; gender relations; religion, including folk Catholicism and revitalization movements; dependency, proletarianization, class consciousness, and the question of "cultures of resistance." We will try to do some justice to the regions of the Andes, Brazil, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Class meetings will be devoted to lectures and discussion sessions, with occasional films and slides. Grades will be based on class participation, a short midterm and a final exam or research paper. Cost:3 WL:1 (Frye)

323. Pacific Islands Anthropology. (3). (SS).

This course part lecture and part seminar is an introduction to the traditional societies and cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia, and, to a lesser extent, insular Melanesia. We shall review the evidence for the peopling of the Pacific Basin, the theories of migration, and the (somewhat limited) evidence of prehistory and studies of "race". Also the main features of traditional social organization, politics, interethnic relations, religion, law, etc. the colonial histories of the different island groups, their contemporary status, demographics, international relations, and trade will also be outlined. Students will be expected to read together four classic ethnographic monographs, familiarize themselves with the main points in the above topics (for which quizzes will be devised), and perhaps working with other students - master the ethnographic literature for one island group and provide oral and written reports on it. Cost:3 WL:1 (Carroll)

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces the anthropology of South Asia through a careful reading of classic and recent ethnographies. Two fundamental relationships that between social structure and culture and that between local community and the larger civilization are considered by focusing on village life, religion, caste, kinship, economy, and pilgrimage. Because the sample of ethnographies displays diverse theoretical projects and styles of writing, the variety of South Asian anthropologies will emerge along with the variety of South Asian peoples and cultures. The course concludes with several more synthetic and thematic works which attempt to discern or create order in the anthropological study of modern South Asia. The course combines lectures and discussions, with emphasis on the latter that requires substantial student participation. A short paper, an oral presentation in class, and midterm and final exams are required for course credit. Permission of instructor required. (Schlesinger)

411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on INSTITUTIONAL characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and slides. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

421. The Immigrant Community in North American Society. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

The class consists of an anthropological approach to the history of immigration to the United States and Canada, the formation, acculturation and maintenance of immigrant communities, and the nature of ethnic boundaries and interethnic relations in American society. Specific topics to be covered include: assimilation, bilingualism, stereotyping and discrimination, ethnic associations including the ethnic church, ethnic media, the ethnic family and household, ethnic politics, ethnic labor and the revitalization of ethnic subcultures. The course will take a seminar format, supplemented by relevant audio-visual materials and some lectures. Class requirements include several short papers, some of which will be based on ethnographic fieldwork, and one exam. (Lockwood)

Ethnology-Theory/Method

447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of HOMO SAPIENS. It reviews the theories of Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss and others who have attempted to comprehend that origin and development. The course will trace the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? Is racism, like modernity and its other social problems, a characteristic of civilization? These are some of the questions with which students will wrestle. The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:2 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

Section 001 Narratives of the Borderland Self. Narratives of the Self have a long tradition in the West, stemming in part from the notion that the soul can be purified through speaking or writing a confession. During the last decade, the forms of self-narration have been radically altered by women and men of hyphenated American identities who are using the first person voice, not as a form of confession, but as a means to explore new borderland subjectivities rooted in the disjunctures of ethnicity, color, gender, class, and immigration. In this course we will cast our net widely at works written by authors who examine why and how they feel split at the root within American culture. We will read memoirs, personal essays, autobiographical criticism, novels, and ethnographies by a range of writers, including Adrienne Rich, Gloria Anzaldúa, Michelle Cliff, Irena Klepfisz, Cherrie Moraga, Renato Rosaldo, Patricia Williams, Rosario Morales, Aurora Levins Morales, Marita Golden, Richard Rodriguez, Victor Perrera, Eva Hoffman, Art Spiegelman, and Cristina Garcia. The course will be taught as a seminar, and students will be expected to participate actively in class discussions and in a variety of writing exercises. (Behar)

Section 002 Contemporary Social and Cultural Theory. See Residential College Social Science 360.005. (Rouse)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Anthropology of Gender.
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the cross-cultural study of gender with the goal of teaching them how to analyze gender as a cultural system. Both data and theory about cross-cultural variation in gender roles will be presented in order to give students both the materials and the tools to interpret gender systems from an anthropological perspective. The course will be divided into sections organized around three distinct objectives: myth-breaking, theorizing and analysis

431. American Kinship. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course is essentially a 'research seminar' in which advanced students get supervised experience in formulating and executing projects concerning the Anthropology of Relationships. Emphasized herein is an 'ethnographic approach'. We shall also read together a number of classic monographs in this area and discuss them jointly. Cost:3 WL:1 (Carroll)

438. Urban Anthropology. (3). (Excl).

For Winter Term, 1993, this course is jointly offered with Residential College Social Science 460.003. (Rouse)

439. Economic Anthropology and Development. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces students to economic anthropology and development in rural, village-based, tribal, peasant, urbanizing and industrializing societies and cultures of the Third World: Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America and the Middle East. The FIRST PART reviews the nature of economic anthropology, its scope, objectives, basic concepts, theories and methods of investigation. It discusses economic anthropology as it relates to conventional/development economics. The SECOND PART examines anthropological (social science) perspectives on development and underdevelopment: progress, modernization, acculturation, socioeconomic growth, etc. The THIRD PART is concerned with specific case studies of problems of Third World development and underdevelopment: rural/urban poverty and inequality; women and development; international migration; etc. The course CONCLUDES with an overview of global issues in Third World development and underdevelopment. The course is recommended for anthropology concentrators and all students with serious interest in comparative cultures and Third World development and underdevelopment. Junior standing or permission of instructor. Lecture/discussion format. Films shown in class when available. Final grades based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussion. Basic texts: Lucy Mair, ANTHROPOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT; Polly Hill, DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS ON TRIAL. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

440. Cultural Adaptation. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Political Ecology, Agriculture, Deforestation.
This course is concerned with relationships among cultural, social, and ecological systems. It is designed to (1) familiarize the student with ecological approaches in anthropology, (2) discuss the implications of recent anthropological theory to contemporary environmental problems, and (3) apply these to contemporary environmental problems in the world economy. Lectures, readings, and discussion are designed to critically connect new developments in social theory to global ecological problems. The first part of the course focuses on historical and cultural definitions of key concepts and an overview of theory and method. Later weeks give attention to problems centering on agriculture and forest use. This course should appeal to students exploring interests in natural resources, the articulation of human and natural systems, and contemporary environmental problems. Prior exposure to anthropological writing is recommended but not required. Grades will be based on class participation, brief writing assignments, and 2 essay exams. Cost:4 WL:2 (Fricke)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course is primarily concerned with the nature of religion and, secondarily, with religion's place in the human mode of adaptation. Using comparative ethnographic materials drawn from both tribal and complex societies it seeks to illuminate universal aspects of such concepts as the sacred, the numinous, the divine and the holy and to show how these concepts are generated in ritual. In the last part of the course the place of religion in the adaptations of particular societies will be considered and the ways in which it can become maladaptive will be approached. Grades will be based on two take-home essays of 1500-2500 words, one given at midterm the other final. Junior standing or permission of instructor required. The class is usually 1/4 1/3 Grad student 1/4 3/4 Undergrad. Undergrads can join a voluntary discussion group (Hrs to be arranged) for an additional credit hour. WL:2 (Rappaport)

450/ABS 496/Relig. 404. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (Heirich)

453/CAAS 454. African-American Culture. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to examine the African American as one example of how humans live. It will place distinctive Black behavior within its social context and its history. Because the focus of the course will be distinctive Black behavioral styles our attention will be directed toward the poor urban African American. But that attention requires a discussion of American society and the history of human development. This lecture-seminar course will have one major library project and one project for each student and presentations of their findings. The course will suggest some solutions to some African American dilemmas the underclass, urban gangs, addictions, unemployment, and single-parent families. Those suggestions will require a serious examination of contemporary American society and the nature of modern man (humans). How de we become this and how can we change? (Williams)

455/Women's Studies 455. Feminist Theory and Gender Studies in Anthropology. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

Anthropological inquiry has been an important source of insight and ground-breaking theory in the evolution of feminist thought for decades. This course provides students with an overview of the history and development of feminist thought in anthropology as well as an introduction to salient issues in feminist anthropology and gender studies within the four subdisciplines today. In this seminar, students work with the coordinating faculty member to take an active role in organizing and facilitating readings and discussions. Readings include selections from pivotal anthologies as well as monographs and ethnographies that provide a grounding in key issues and debates and an understanding of current developments in feminist anthropology. Readings also explore the relationship between scholarly inquiry and specific goals and/or movements. In addition, local scholars are invited to the class to discuss their own work and experiences in the context of the issues being debated. Students write 1-2 page weekly commentaries on the readings and take turns facilitating discussions. In addition, students must write either two 5-10 page or one 15-20 page review(s) of outside reading relevant to a specific area of interest. (Clark, Coronil)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.

SECTION 001. LINES OF SIGHT: NATIVE AMERICAN ART AND PERFORMANCE. This course covers, in parallel sequences, a study of Native American visual arts and interpretive theories. First, attention will be given to the power of formal structuralist templates (the house as cosmos, the house as body). Second, processual analysis will add to the dynamic complexity (adopting new elements and materials available in time, elements reassemble in the shaman's bricolage). Third, semiotics will allow us to follow designs more freely, tracing aesthetic action while still keeping an overall sense of theoretical organization. Fourth, the body will emerge from being a key motif to an active player in performance analysis. Dynamics to be studied include ritual use, political theatre, mimesis and kinesthetics, gifts, and display. We will also explore intellectual tensions, as between convention and innovation, puns, irony and parody. In discussing antecedents and origins of signs, we will identify natural motifs and their cultural significance. We will particularly look for significance in oral traditions. How can ritual take the form of political theatre? How are visual arts maneuvered, set free for others' designation? What are the pragmatics and the ironies in tourist art production? And ethics: How can regard sacred images and objects? Definition of work is negotiable but four short papers or the equivalent in writing is required. (Bierwert)

531. Social Organization of Tribal Societies. Senior or graduate standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course investigates (1) the modes of relationship that enter into the organization of pre-modern tribal societies, e.g., kinship, descent, marriage alliance, siblingship, residence, etc., (2) the nature of structural models in which these modes of relationship are combined to produce a comprehensive account of particular forms of social organization, and (3) the relationship between structural models and the social behavior they seek to account for and explain. Anthro. 531 is primarily designed for graduate students and senior concentrators with considerable background in anthropology. The format is one hour of lecture followed by a half hour of discussion. Evaluation is based on a final take-home exam. WK:4 (Kelly)

Linguistics

277/Ling. 277. Literacy. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 277. (Kirk)

577. Language as Social Action. Anthro. 576, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Language is normally understood as a closed, formal system. As such, it is relatively autonomous from culture, social relations, and vectors of power. The purpose of this course is to develop a framework for viewing language as a social, cultural, and political matrix, a form of action through which social relations, cultural forms, ideology, and consciousness are constituted. Topics covered include: Models of language as action; Why language and culture can't be viewed as shared systems of meaning; the sociolinguistic division of labor; the interactional construction of social actors and of reference; meaning and intentionality; cultural inference and presupposition; language and reproduction of ideology;linguistic hegemony; the reproduction of interactional style;linguistic and cultural polyphony; metalanguage, consciousness, and forms of social authority. Class time will be divided between lecture and discussion. It assumes some background in social anthropology or a related discipline and in formal linguistics. Requirements include leading a class discussion, a prospectus for a final paper, and a final paper. (Mannheim)

Archaeology

387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (Excl).

Humans have inhabited North America for over 10,000 years. This class surveys the varied adaptations and lifeways of these peoples and explores how and why they changed through time. Because this class seeks to reveal culture history, as determined through archaeology, our coverage will include a discussion of Native American, and European interaction during the 16th through 19th centuries. In general the focus of the course will be on North America north of modern Mexico. It is suggested that students planning to enroll in Anthropology 387 take Introduction to Archaeology, or Introduction to Cultural Archaeology. Instruction will be by lecture supplemented by slides and films. Some artifacts will be used for illustrative purposes. Evaluation will be based on examinations and a written project. Cost:2 WL:2 (O'Shea)

483. Near Eastern Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course traces the evolution of culture and society in Israel, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, from the earliest evidence for humans in the region (over 1,000,000 years ago) until the rise of Mesopotamian civilization (around 2500 B.C.). Topics include the origins of agriculture and animal domestication, the establishment of village and town life, and the rise of cities in the Tigris-Euphrates lowlands. (Flannery)

489. Maya and Central American Archaeology. (3). (SS).

This course emphasizes the cultural evolution of the ancient Maya, whose civilization once extended from eastern Mexico through Guatemala and Belize into El Salvador and Honduras. Stages of development include hunters and gatherers, egalitarian villagers, emerging rank, and the state. Topics include religion, social organization, architecture, political hierarchies, subsistence strategies, settlement patterns, exchange systems, and hieroglyphic writing. The last part of the class covers other tribes and chiefdoms that occupied lower Central America. A take home midterm and a final paper are required. (Marcus)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001 Honors Ethnology.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the Winter term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and second reader. By the end of the term, each student should have completed the research and write-up for their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Diamond)

Section 002: Honors Archaeology. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)


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