Courses in BIOLOGY (DIVISION 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. Cost:3 WL:1; you MUST attend the first discussion section to claim your place in the course.

102. Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

Biology 102 is an introductory course about plants: how they are grown and used by people. Each week there are two one-hour lectures and one all afternoon lab at the Botanical Gardens. Lecture topics include: what plants look like; how plants work; how they make their living in nature; using this knowledge to landscape your house, caring for your house plants, and growing your gardens; medicinal plants; plant breeding; agriculture and food; environmental and psychological importance of plants. In the lab, each student has his/her own personal space in a greenhouse to grow plants that can be taken home during the term. Lab activities include: looking at plants; planting seeds; growing plants; rooting cuttings; making medicinal salve; testing soil; preserving garden produce; making hanging baskets; using plant dyes; making bonsai; grafting plants; making wine; and forcing bulbs to flower. The text, An Illustrated Guide to Gardening, will be useful throughout your life. Only prerequisite is your interest in plants. You MUST attend the first lecture and first lab for which you are registered to retain your place; attendance throughout the term is part of the grade. Cost:text is about $30, course pack is $5; no lab fees. WL: you may sign the waitlist in 1121 NS before the course closes. Students who register into a conflict will be moved to the bottom of the waitlist. (Estabrook)

106. Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. (3). (NS).

Biology 106 is divided into three basic sections: (1) plants, their way of life, and uses by people; (2) probing the ecological nature of our environment in natural, agricultural, and urban ecosystems; and (3) solutions to and constructive action for our environmental problems. We cover such topics as wild edible plants, pros and cons of the green revolution, growing and maintaining your own plants, poisonous, medicinal, and psychoactive plants, organic gardening and alternative means of pest control, energy conservation and alternative energy sources, recycling, new ideas for home and urban landscapes, natural areas and their preservation, endangered plant and animal species, and economic uses of plants by humans. The course includes 2 field trips on urban restoration, and organic gardening in practice at the Kaufman farm. Students, either individually or in teams, carry out an Environmental Action Project (EAP). We also have a natural/wild edible foods dinner (prepared by the students). Grade is based on 3 midterms and the EAP. Cost:1 WL:2 (Kaufman)

130. Animal Behavior. (3). (NS).

The course is an introduction to the behavior of animals in their natural environment. Social behavior of birds, mammals, and insects is emphasized. Topics include: the environment as animals perceive it, natural selection and adaptations, development of behavior, communication, sexual cooperation and mate choice, social behavior of animals in groups, the importance of family relationships, and the evolution of traditions. The course objectives are to gain a background in the natural behavior of animals and to explain the evolution of behavior. By the end of the course you should be able to: 1) evaluate the evidence that behavior is shaped by natural selection, 2) recognize the interaction between environmental modification and genetic determination, and 3) explain sexual behavior, aggressive behavior, and social interactions in terms of evolution. The course consists of lectures, readings, slides and movies. Cost:2 WL:1 (Payne)

152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130 or the equivalent recommended. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. (4). (NS).

First term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology, other science programs or preprof studies. Other suitably prepared students wishing detailed coverage of biology are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are 1) to provide factual and conceptual knowledge, 2) to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological hypotheses, 3) to give an integrated overview of modern biology and 4) to develop thinking and writing skills. Topics in Biology 152 are divided among four areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology, (b) genetics, (c) evolution, and (d) ecology. Students MUST: 1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; 2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and 3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. There will be two midterm exams and a final exam. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 002 of Biology 152 and ANY lab/disc, plus Biology 153 (see below). For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1563 CCL Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1563 CCL.

153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 152 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl).

Biology 153 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 152, a four-credit lecture course. The first part of the course will deal with the nature of science and the scientific method. Science will be viewed as an approach to viewing the universe. Subjects that will be covered are the scientific method, hypothesis testing, the roles of logic, creativity, and serendipity in scientific discoveries. From a more practical point of view, the structure of a scientific paper will be analyzed. The topics covered in the second part of the course will vary depending on the instructor. Topics which may be covered are the genetic code and information theory, the revolution of molecular biology, genetic engineering and its ethical and social implications, the evolution of biochemical pathways, the properties of life and the search for life on other planets, the issue of gender, race, and intelligence. Cost:1 WL:2

154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. (4). (NS).

This course is a continuation of Biology 152, and covers the following topics: (a) plant biology; (b) development; (c) animal structure and function; and (d) animal behavior. The aims and format are the same as those for Biology 152. Students MUST: 1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; 2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and 3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. There will be 2 midterm exams and a final exam. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 031 of Biology 154 and ANY lab/disc. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1563 CCL Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1563 CCL.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 154 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl).

The theory of Evolution is the basis for understanding the origin of species and biological processes. Biology 155 is a reading/discussion course centered on the main elements of "Evolutionary Thinking." This course begins with selected works of Charles Darwin and then considers several unsolved problems in evolution such the origin of life, rates of evolution, the nature and frequency of extinction and the units of selection. The second half of the course is concerned with the evolution of man, and the possible contribution of Evolutionary Thinking to understanding the origin and structure of aspects of human culture. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. One term paper is required. Permission of instructor or admission to the College Honors Program. To accompany Biology 154. Cost:1 WL:2

195. Introduction to Biology. Three science or mathematics courses, including Chem. 130, or equivalent. Biol. 195 may be substituted wherever Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent). (5). (NS).

Biology 195 is a one-term alternative to the Biology 152-154 sequence. It differs from 152-154 in the accelerated pace of study and emphasis on the laboratory. Students who enroll in the course should be aware of the intense nature of the course and the need for self-discipline and effective writing skills. Biology 195 is divided into four units (Biology of Cells, Genetics and Development, Biology of Organisms, and Biology of Populations). Unit examinations test both factual recall and analytical and integrative abilities. Lectures in Biology 195 reinforce key topics from the reading assignments and laboratory work and provide indepth perspectives in several subdisciplines of biology. The laboratory, which is central to the course, provides the opportunity to make observations and perform experiments; these are discussed weekly in recitations. The course grade is based on examinations, laboratory reports, quizzes, and the student's participation in the course. Students are required to purchase the textbook Campbell's Biology (2nd ed.), a course pack (at Dollar Bill Copying), a laboratory kit (at Chem Stores), and a quadrille notebook. For more information concerning the course or registration, contact Dawn Mudri, 3064 Dana Bldg, 763-0495. Attend both first lecture and first recitation. DO NOT CRISP INTO A SECTION YOU CANNOT ATTEND. Cost:3 WL:1 (Myers/Ikuma)

206/Micro. 291. Microbiology Laboratory. Micro. 101 or Biol. 152-154 or 195; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The course consists of one lecture and two 3-hour laboratory sessions each week. The laboratory sessions introduce aseptic technique, staining, and culture and identification of microbes. Medically important bacteria are given emphasis. The lectures trace the history of microbiology and include considerable detail on malaria, plague, tuberculosis, influenza, and AIDS. A series of optional lectures introduce immunology. Grades are based on two lecture exams, two lab grant proposals, and identification of unknown bacteria. The course is required in the Microbiology concentration program, and is appropriate for concentrations in Biology, Botany and Cell Biology. Cost:1 (Mann)

224. Biology of Cancer. One term of introductory biology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The Biology of Cancer is a lecture/discussion course designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the biological events associated with the formation of cancer. This course is organized around three fundamental questions: what is cancer, what are the causes of cancer, and can cancer be cured or prevented? Lectures will include descriptions of classical and recent experiments which address these questions, and will also provide students with the vocabulary and background needed to critically read and evaluate technical literature dealing with the subject of cancer. Although introductory biology is a prerequisite for this course, an attempt will be made to accommodate the needs and interests of students of varying backgrounds, including non-biology majors. Student performance will be evaluated by a combination of exams and a term paper based upon library research. In order to provide the time required for this library research, the lecture-discussion meetings will be dismissed for approximately two weeks late in the term. There will be no assigned textbook, but some reading will be assigned from the course pack and there will be an extensive reserve list of relevant books available in the Undergraduate Library. The class will meet twice a week for an hour and a half; in general, meetings will consist of a one hour lecture followed by questions and discussion. A weekly one hour discussion session will also be held. Cost:1 WL:2 (Kleinsmith)

252. Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course teaches the comparative method, using the "three-fold parallelism" of anatomy, ontogeny, and paleontology. All examples are based on chordate animals, with emphasis on their anatomy and development. The introductory third of the course includes the theoretical basis of the comparative method, principles of evolutionary theory and speciation, and phylogenetics. The remainder of the course involves application of the method, with a survey of chordate structure, including the integument, skeleton, muscles, and the circulatory, urogenital, digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. The laboratory provides practical experience in the comparative method, including dissections, preparation of cleared and stained materials, and examination of fossils. There are three one-hour lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. There are two hourly examinations and a final examination for the lecture, and a one hour laboratory practical exam. A detailed syllabus and laboratory manual, rather than an assigned textbook, are used, with supplementary texts on reserve. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kluge)

255. Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. (4). (NS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

An introductory botany course covering a broad spectrum of topics including principles of plant systematics, evolution, ecology, and biogeography. The lectures and laboratories concentrate on a group-by-group treatment of plant diversity, ranging from algae and fungi through primitive vascular plants and culminating in flowering plants. The approach is an evolutionary perspective, treating plants as organisms (individuals, populations, and communities) and emphasizing the innovations and adaptations of the various plant groups as well as life history strategies. The course also includes plant growth and structure. Two or three field trips are scheduled. Two one-hour lectures and two three-hour labs per week. A total of three lecture tests and three laboratory tests will be scheduled. Text: Raven et al, Biology of Plants, 5th edition. Cost:3 WL:3 (Burnham and Wynne)

275. Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 152 or 195, or the equivalent. (4). (NS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. The course will provide a basis for understanding the natural history and some practical aspects of plant life including the anticipated advances in plant biotechnology. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. WL:4 (Noodén)

301. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Biology 301 has been designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing AS BIOLOGISTS. Competence in writing in biology requires critical evaluation of one's work. In order to encourage the development of critical thinking, students critique published work as well as write essays, reviews, and reports. The heart of the course lies in the weekly interaction between staff and student through discussion both in class sections and one-on-one. A weekly lecture provides structure and continuity and allows consideration of other topics such as interviewing and resume writing, ethics in biology, and science journalism. Cost:1 WL:1 (Helling)

304. The Gene Concept. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305, and admission to the College Honors Program. (2). (Excl).

Designed for Honors' students concurrently enrolled in Biology 305, or those with a particular interest in genetics. The students will be exposed to the theoretical basis of genetics in a discussion format. "Classical" articles that contributed to our understanding of gene transmission, structure and function will be read and discussed with the students. The instructor will provide background for each grouping of articles. Pairs of students will be responsible for leading discussion of assigned articles. Active participation of all students is expected. In addition, time will be set aside for discussion of relevant current topics from the media, ethical considerations, and other issues bearing on the process of genetic research. A term paper on The Gene Concept will be required a preliminary draft by the 10th week and a revised draft by the last day of classes. A course pack will need to be purchased. Cost:1 WL:2 (S.Allen)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

Open to students concentrating in the natural sciences or intending to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biology. This introduction to genetics includes the following sections: DNA and chromosomes, gene transmission in Eukaryotes, linkage and recombination, gene expression, mutation and recombination, recombinant DNA, gene regulation, and population genetics. There are three hours of lecture each week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections introduce relevant new material, expand on and review lecture material, and discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on three exams and a final covering lectures, discussions, reading assignments; exams include new problems that test applications of basic concepts and genetic techniques. A practice problem set is available and is covered in discussion sections or the Genetics Study Center. Two demonstrations of living material and genetic tools are given during the term. Films, review sessions and exams are given Monday nights. Cost:3 WL:2 (S.Allen)

307. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (3). (Excl).

This course introduces students to the basic principles of developmental biology. We will emphasize the continuity of developmental processes by examining the temporal sequence of development from the fertilized egg to the adult, and by examining several levels of control from the selective expression of genetic information to the orchestrated generation of complex tissues and organs. We will cover basic developmental events such as production of sperm and eggs, fertilization, development of the early embryo, and genesis of organs. We will cover basic developmental processes such as nucleocytoplasmic interactions, induction, morphogenetic movements, cellular interactions, morphogenesis, and regeneration in the adult. We will also evaluate the experimental basis for our understanding of developmental processes. This course is open to sophomores and above. Three one-hour lectures are given each week. Grades are based on two evening exams given during the term and the final. Cost:2 WL:3 (Tosney and Cather)

308. Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 307. (2). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course provides students with the opportunity to study firsthand the development of a number of live vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. In addition to observation of normal embryogenesis, students perform several of the experimental analyses which have contributed to a basic understanding of developmental processes. Exercises focus on fertilization, developmental morphology, induction, determination and differentiation of various tissues, metamorphosis and regeneration. In addition to one scheduled three-hour laboratory session each week, students are expected to spend about three additional hours in the laboratory each week. Short lectures are presented to introduce aspects of basic morphological areas of investigation. Formal reports on two exercises are required. There are three laboratory tests. Maintenance of lab note book for a complete and accurate record of observations and experimental results is required. There is a required lab manual. Cost:1 WL:2 (Jeyabalan)

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 420. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Biology 418 or 422 these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. This course may NOT be elected by students who have already taken Biology 420. Cost:4 WL:3 (Hume and Webb)

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 325. (1). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

These laboratory exercises deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. Students working in small groups present material for each exercise, collate class data and perform analyses. A full-length lab report and oral presentation are required. Each exercise has a graded quiz. Biology 326 should be taken concurrently with Biology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Biology 325 will not be admitted to Biology 326 without special permission. Cost:2 WL:3 (Hume and Webb)

405. Molecular Basis of Development. Biol. 152-154 and 305. A course in molecular and developmental biology is helpful but not required. (2). (Excl).

This course will explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of asymmetry and diversity during development of an organism. The way by which bodyform is created such as head and tail, limb and eyes will be presented in terms of actions and interactions of identified proteins and genes. These questions will be explored in considerable detail in selected eukaryotic systems. Emphasis will be placed on experimental design and data interpretation. Students are expected to critically read primary research literature related to the lectured material and participate actively in class discussions. Student evaluation is based on one midterm and one final exam, a critique of primary research articles and participation in discussions during the lectures. Text: Molecular and Cellular Basis of Pattern Formation (ed. by K. Roberts et al, 1991, Company of Biologists Limited, Cambridge, UK). Due to the high cost of the text, there will be two copies on reserve in the Nat Sci library. Cost:4 WL:2 (Bodmer)

408/Micro. 401. General Microbiology. Biochemistry (Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415); preceded or accompanied by Biol. 305. (3). (Excl).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to microbiology with emphasis on prokaryotes. Lectures cover cellular structures, physiology, genetics, ecology, evolution, and systematics. Medical microbiology and immunology are included in the context of microbial ecology. Cost:2 WL:3, go to office, but normally does not close. (Bender and Douthit)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's. Upon attaining mastery, the student may take both a written and an oral quiz which is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed plus a factor derived from performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 75-80 hours/week. Weekly lectures dealing with biochemical topics are presented by Professor Beyer. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course, i.e., not in the textbook, and is not the subject of examination. Students are encouraged to attend sessions in which biochemical discoveries are presented by TA's and the professor. Cost:3 WL:2 (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. I, II, and IIIa. (3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as TA's for Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Each TA provides two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for Biology 411. TA's also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the TA's are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and TA grade the quiz together. TA's learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. Cost:1 WL:3 (Beyer)

413. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture/Plant Biotechnology. Eight hours in biology; at least junior standing. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Biology 413 LECTURES cover such topics as: (1) how plant cells, tissues, and organs are cultured, (2) role of plant hormones in control of root/shoot differentiation in tissue cultures, (3) regeneration of whole plants from single cells, (4) basic techniques of plant macropropagation and micropropagation, (5) protoplast isolation and fusion, (6) basic concepts in plant molecular biology, (7) production of secondary compounds from plant cell cultures, (8) bioreactor design and operation, (9) transformation of plant cells and tissues using electroporation, plasmids, microinjection, and direct injection of DNA, and (10) applications of plant cell and tissue culture/plant biotechnology in the production of medicinal and other economically useful compounds, life-support systems in outer space, and the production of trees, crop plants, and horticultural plants with new germplasm and resistance to stresses of all types. The LAB demonstrates the current techniques of plant macro- and micro-propagation, operation of bioreactors, tissue printing, scanning electron microscopy of plant cells and tissues, isolation of DNA, RNA, and proteins from plants, and major methods used to transform plant cells. Cost:1 WL:2 (Kaufman)

416. Biophysical Chemistry. Biol. 411 and Math. 114; or the equivalents. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to give students in the life sciences a background in physical chemistry as applied to biological systems and biological instrumentation. Particular aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics, and statistical mechanics are introduced with examples drawn from enzyme folding and catalysis. The applications of physical chemistry which are discussed include the role of non-covalent bonds in the stability and folding of proteins and nucleic acids, the role entropy in the polymerization of proteins, the nature of specific and non-specific interactions, the energetics of cellular transport, DNA supercoiling, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, the use of fluorescence in cell biology, the principles of light and electron microscopy, and the principles of the detection of radiation by photographic and scintillation techniques. Ten graded problem sets and four examinations will be given. Cost:3 WL:3 (Langmore)

424. Cell and Developmental Genetics. Biol. 305; a course in cell or developmental biology is helpful but not required. (2-3). (Excl).

This course is an in-depth analysis of current information on gene control of developmental processes in multicellular organisms. Stress is placed on reading articles in scientific journals. For each topic covered in lecture, a list of references including one or two key review papers is provided. Students are encouraged to read one or more of these papers. No examinations; student evaluation is based on two term papers (one being an extensive analysis of a topic covered in the lectures and the other a compilation of short summaries of the papers read during the term) and participation in class discussion. Students electing the course for 3 credits are required to present a seminar. Cost:2 WL:3 (Rizki)

425/Anatomy 425. Systems Neurobiology. Biol. 325 or 422, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course treats ensembles of nerve cells as developing and functional entities. It assumes a level of understanding of cellular neurobiology such as can be obtained in Biology 325 (Animal Physiology) or Biology 422 (Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology). The topics include development of the nervous system, sensory systems (especially the visual system), motor systems, and behavior. Students are evaluated by one or more hour exams, one or more papers, and a final exam. There are three lectures per week, and no optional lab. Cost:3 WL:1 (Easter)

428. Cell Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415 or their equivalents. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

Biology 428, like Biology 427, provides a capstone for the undergraduate concentration program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, and affords an in-depth analysis of the molecular basis of cell structure and function in eukaryotes. Students from other programs in Biology are welcome, if they have the listed prerequisites. Course topics include: structure, function, biogenesis of plasma membrane, intracellular organelles, and cytoskeleton; secretion, endocytosis; signalling; motility; reproduction. Emphasis is on interpretation of experimental data. Three lectures plus one discussion per week. Computer-assisted instruction is in planning. Text: Molecular Biology of the Cell (Alberts et al. ), second ed.; and companion Problems Book. Two in-class midterm exams; quizzes; final exam. Cost:3 WL:2, in 1121 NS. (Shappirio et al. )

429. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Biol. 427 or 428, or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 428. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The course consists of one lecture and one 4-hour laboratory session each week. Additional time outside of scheduled lab sessions will be required. The laboratory sessions introduce microscopy, cell fractionation, electrophoresis and tissue culture. Mammalian systems are given emphasis. The lectures trace the history of cell biology but emphasize the background of techniques used in the laboratory. Grades are based on two lecture exams and two lab grant proposals. The course is required in the Cell and Molecular Biology concentration and is appropriate for concentrations in Biology. Cost:2 (Mann)

450. Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Lectures on the evolution, behavior, ecology, and life history of amphibians and reptiles. Laboratory exercises and field trips emphasize identification, life history, adaptations, and field methods. (Nussbaum)

468. Mushrooms and Molds: Biology and Use. Biol. 154 or equivalent. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The mushrooms and molds have changed the course of human history and continue to have a profound impact on man and the global ecosystem as important plant, insect and human pathogens and as important nutrient recyclers. Their increasing importance in biotechnology has brought new recognition to these fascinating and unique organisms. This course surveys the members of the Kingdom Fungi, provides an introduction to their ecology, physiology, genetics, and importance in biotechnology, medical mycology, and plant pathology through lectures, laboratories and field trips. This course is important for students interested in careers in biotechnology, medical mycology, biodiversity, plant pathology, forest pathology, systematics and ecology. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a term paper on a topic of the students' choice. General Biology (Biol 154), or equivalent, is a recommended prerequisite. Cost:2 WL:3 (Fogel)

478. Advanced Ecology. A general ecology course (Biol. 381 or equiv.); or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course will cover current ecological topics, including effects of changing environments. The development of these topics will be placed in a historical perspective of how ideas and research develop. The philosophy of science, hypothesis testing and the development of critical thinking will be emphasized. Students will lead discussions. Readings will be from the primary literature. Assignments will include written critiques, a research proposal and a peer review of proposals. Cost:1 WL:2 (Rathcke)

483. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (Excl).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorous, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). Wetzel's Limnology, 2nd ed., is the text. This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course Biology 484 described below. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lehman)

484. Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 483 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Field and laboratory techniques in aquatic science. The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes during both ice cover and open water conditions will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, use of automated data acquisition technology, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lehman)

487/Nat. Res. 409. Ecology of Fishes. One course in ecology. (3). (Excl).

Ecology is the study of interactions which determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. For fishes, these interactions can roughly be categorized into physiological, behavioral and population-community interactions. Ecology of Fishes is organized to examine all of these interactions. Although fishes are emphasized, other aquatic organisms are also included. Also, aquatic ecosystems of interest include not only temperate freshwater systems, but also tropical and marine ones. The course gives special emphasis on bioenergetics of fish, and how energy flow is viewed on an individual, population, and community level of organization. The course consists of 3 hours of lecture per week (for 3 credit hours). There is also an optional lab (3 hours per week) for one more credit hour. The lab emphasizes field ecology of fishes, as well as laboratory analyses of energetics and behavior. Evaluation of students is based on 2 midterm exams and a final exam, which emphasize essay questions involving synthesis. The lab is evaluated on a lab notebook and an exam. Reading materials include a course pack (estimated cost $20) and reserved readings. Cost:1 WL:1 (Seelbach, Breck, and Clark)

497. Community Ecology. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl).

An examination of current theory and research on ecological communities. Emphasis is on the analyses of patterns in community structure and species diversity, and the mechanisms responsible for generating and maintaining these patterns. Specific topics include the roles of species interactions such as competition, predation, and mutualisms, environmental variation, and biogeography, in community processes. A background in ecology is required. Readings are from the original literature. There are two one-hour lectures and one two-hour discussion per week. Cost:1 WL:3 (Marino and Werner)

513. Microbial Genetics. Genetics; and microbiology or biochemistry or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Lecture and discussion focus on analysis of original papers dealing with the genetics of E. coli and other prokaryotes. Topics include mutation and repair, transposition and rearrangement, chromosome maintenance, gene-transfer and acceptance, regulation, and variation and evolution. Paper and oral report. (Helling)

515. Molecular Biology of Plants. Biol. 305, and 411 or Biol. Chem. 415. (3). (Excl).

Recent advances in the study of molecular processes and genetic engineering of plants are the topics of this course. The course is designed for both advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. There will be two 1 1/2 hour lectures per week. The course will begin with an overview of basic techniques of plant molecular biology, including cloning and sequencing DNA, plant transformation, and analysis of gene expression. The overall structure of plant genomes will be examined, and the activity of specific genes will be discussed in detail (i.e., function/structure relationships). In the second part of the course, molecular aspects of plant growth and development will be examined. This will include the analysis of genes and gene products that control the development of plant cells, tissues, and organs. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in the plant's response to various environmental factors (e.g., gravity, light, pathogens) will be examined. Grades will be based on two take-home exams, a critical review paper, and short presentations by the student. Cost:1 WL:3 (Pichersky and Schiefelbein)

541/Anatomy 541/Physiology 541. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology. Permission of instructor. (4). . (Excl).

The course provides an overview of the hormonal regulation of mammalian reproduction at the system, cellular, and molecular levels. Topics include basic and clinically-orientated material related to properties and mechanisms of action of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones and gonadal sex steroids, the neural control of reproduction, anatomy and endocrine regulation of the testis and ovary and of the male and female reproductive tracts, endocrine control of menstrual and estrous cycles, mechanisms of fertilization and implantation, and the endocrine basis of pregnancy and fertility regulation. Primarily for upper-level undergraduates or graduate students with a strong background in biology. Permission of instructor is required. Evaluation is by written examinations and presentation of a poster. The course is team taught by several members of the multi-departmental Reproductive Sciences Program. Cost:2 WL:4 (Foster)

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