The Department of Classical Studies believes that the literature, monuments, and social institutions of the ancient world, together with the reflections of the Greek and Roman thinkers about their own cultures, are of unique value in themselves, well worth our contemplation and understanding; and that as we attempt to learn about and appreciate classical civilization, we necessarily learn as well a variety of contemporary methodologies and disciplines.

The department offers three groups of courses for distribution, those in Classical Civilization (introductory courses that require no knowledge of Greek or Latin), courses in Classical Archaeology, and upper level language courses in Greek and Latin authors or genres. While only a few courses are repeated in yearly or biennial rotation, most courses are offered less regularly. This system guarantees that the instructor approaches the subject each time with fresh impetus. We believe in a healthy change and variation in our course offerings. The undergraduate advisor of the Department of Classical Studies will consider and, if appropriate, authorize other classical civilization, literature, and archaeology courses for distribution credit upon request by students during the first drop/add period each term.

Classical Civilization offerings include the general surveys of Greek and Roman civilizations (CC 101 and 102), which provide (through readings, lectures, and discussions) a broad understanding of the literatures, thought, and social development of ancient Greece and Rome, and thus provide the student with knowledge of and appreciation for our cultural origins, as well as an acquaintance with modern methods for understanding an ancient culture. These courses are taught each year. CC 101 is offered in the Fall and CC 102 is offered in the Winter. Other courses provide understanding of particular aspects of the ancient world, approached from a variety of disciplines and studies literary, philosophical, historical, sociological, and so on. Some students (particularly those who have already developed special interests in such disciplines) may wish to explore one of these topics without having had a broader introduction.

Classical Archaeology offerings include the broad surveys of the archaeology and monuments of Greece (Cl.Arch 221 offered in the Fall) and Rome (Cl.Arch 222 offered in the Winter) and a general introduction to archaeological field methods (Cl.Arch 323). Other courses use the material remains of specific cultures both to introduce students to the diversity of the ancient world and to demonstrate how, through a variety of multi-disciplinary approaches, the archaeological record can be used to reconstruct the life-ways of past societies.


222/Hist. of Art 222. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).

The Roman empire stretched from the marshes of Britain to the deserts of Egypt. It survived for over twice as long as the United States has been an independent nation. Its inhabitants ranged from world conquering emperors to beggars and slaves. This course will introduce the archaeology and art of that vast, long-lived and diverse imperial society. Topics will range through time and space to provide some sense of life within the empire: the agriculture and trade practiced, the monuments and images erected, the gods (new and old) worshipped, the amenities and entertainments enjoyed. Lectures will provide general coverage of the subject, with weekly discussion sections allowing students to explore specific issues in detail. There are no prerequisites for this course and all interested students are welcome. Requirements consist of two hour exams and a final exam. Cost:2/3 WL:1 (Alcock)

396. Undergraduate Seminar. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission.

See Latin 497. (Alcock)

435/Hist. of Art 435. The Art and Archaeology of Asia Minor. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course will examine the art and archaeology of the Lydians, Greeks, and Romans (and, to some degree, that of their predecessors) in Asia Minor. Town planning, urbanization, architecture, sculpture, and vase painting will be followed, with attention to origin, distribution, and social and political use of types and styles. The process of Hellenization will be one focus of attention, and Romanization will be another. An hour exam at midterm, and a 10-20 page paper will be required. (Pedley)

436/Hist. of Art 436. Hellenistic and Roman Architecture. Hist. of Art 101 or Class. Arch. 221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course focuses on the architecture of the Hellenistic and Roman worlds from approximately 300 B.C. to the age of Constantine (early fourth century A.D.). Hellenistic religious sanctuaries and town planning will be discussed, and their influence on the developing architecture of the Roman west. Roman architectural innovations in materials, techniques and building types will be analyzed. While the course will briefly discuss the Roman provinces, the emphasis will be on the major monuments of Imperial Rome. There will be a midterm, final, and one paper. The text books for the course are Frank Sear, Roman Architecture, and William L. MacDonald, The Architecture of the Roman Empire, Vol. 2. Supplementary readings will be given in course packs. Cost:2 WL:1 (Cormack)

453/Class. Civ. 453. Roman Burial Customs and Monuments. Class. Civ. 102 or Hist. of Art 101 or Class. Arch. 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course will review Roman funerary monuments. The structure of the course will be essentially chronological, beginning with the Republic and concluding with late antique sarcophagus production. Ash urns and sarcophagi of the early Republic will be studied, and their possible derivation from Etruscan funerary monuments. The transformation from cremation to inhumation will be addressed, and the attendant rise in sarcophagus production throughout the Empire. The relationship of mythological scenes depicted on sarcophagi to the life of the deceased will be addressed. Free-standing monuments, both in Italy and throughout the provinces, will be discussed; can chronological or provincial typologies be constructed? Burials of non-elite and elite members of society will be studied, including a chronological analysis of the burial monuments of Roman Emperors (and their wives and families), and the evidence they provide for Imperial burial rites. Whenever possible, the ritual associated with burial will be analyzed, making use of both literary and art historical/archaeological evidence. There will be a midterm exam (with slide identifications and comparisons, and essay questions), a longer final examination, and a brief research paper (10 pages) due at the end of the term. (Cormack)

Classical Greek (Division 385)

101. Elementary Greek. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 502. (4). (LR).

In combination with Greek 102, this is the first half of a year-long introduction to ancient Greek and is designed to prepare students for the reading of Greek texts. Greek 101 concentrates on fifth-century B.C. Attic Greek which was the language of the "golden age" of Athens. The Greek language of that time and place represents a cultural and linguistic central point from which students can pursue their own interests within a wide range of Greek literature which extends from the Homeric epics to the Byzantine era and which includes the archaic, classical, and hellenistic periods as well as the KOINE Greek of the New Testament. The purpose of the course is to develop the fundamentals of the language so that these fundamentals can then be applied to whatever area of ancient Greek students wish to pursue. Cost:2 WL:1 (Dobrov)

102. Elementary Greek. Greek 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103 or 310. (4). (LR).

Greek 102 is the second term of the elementary ancient Greek sequence and requires that the student has already completed Greek 101, or its equivalent. Students wishing to begin Greek in Winter Term should elect Greek 101. In Greek 102 students supplement their study of syntax and grammar by reading selections from authors of prose (e.g., Plato, Herodotos, New Testament) and poetry (e.g., Euripides, Homer). There will be short, written assignments for most class meetings, a number of short quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Hanson)

302. Second-Year Greek. Greek 102 or equivalent. The language requirement is satisfied with the successful completion of Greek 301 and 302. (4). (LR).
Section 001.
This course is the second half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. The primary goal of the student in Greek 302 is to learn how to read Homer; hence emphasis is placed on Homeric vocabulary and grammar. The class will translate and discuss readings from the Odyssey. Midterm and final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (D.O. Ross)

Intermediate and Advanced Courses

402. Greek Drama. Greek 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.
We shall read Hippolytos and Bacchae in Greek and a number of other Greek tragedies in English translation. There will be short, written assignments for most class meetings, emphasizing mastery of classical Greek idiom, rendering of Greek into English, and analysis of poetic and dramatic techniques. Grading will be based on class participation and daily assignments, on a midterm and a final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Hanson)

460/Class. Civ. 411. Parody and Utopia. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl).

See Classical Civilization 411. (Humphreys, Most)

497. Senior Greek Seminar. Honors student or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Latin 497. (Alcock)

509. The Homeric Epic. Permission of instructor required for undergraduates; advanced ability to read Greek. (3). (Excl).

The course will provide an introduction to reading Homer as a literary artifact, but also as an artifact constructed and thus "read" by professional readers (scholars and philologists) in antiquity, and into the present. Thus, the question of the origins of Homeric poetry ("the Homeric question") will be approached from the inverse direction: how and why did Homer become a question? The main emphasis will be on reading a substantial amount of Homer in the original, with the aim of mastering Homeric language, by translating, discussing, and analyzing the text. Requirements will include one interpretive essay (8-10 pp.), one research essay (8-10 pp.), occasional short in-class presentations, and two translation exams. Cost:3 WL:2 (Porter)

Modern Greek (Division 433)

102. Elementary Modern Greek, II. Elementary Modern Greek 101 or permission of instructor. (4). Gagos. (LR).

The course follows the same paidagogical scheme as MGr101, with class room dialogues, non-competitive group games and improvised scenarios. Instruction in more advanced grammar and syntax is effected through both formal methods and drills. By the end of the term students are exposed to approximately four-fifths of modern Greek grammar and syntax and are expected to be linguistically competent in a variety of everyday contexts. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, a one hour midterm exam and a final. (Graduate students should elect this class as 502.) Cost:1 WL:1 (001: VanDyck; 002: Kyriazis)

202. Second Year Modern Greek, II. Modern Greek 201 or permission of instructor. (4). Gagos. (LR).

This is the final term of the Modern Greek language sequence and students will be able to fulfill their language requirement. The course focuses on expanding vocabulary through reading more complex journalistic prose and literary texts (20th century poetry and prose) and discussion of those texts. Special attention is paid to the historical depth of the language through instruction in etymology. The proficiency gained by the end of Modern Greek 201 should enable students to express themselves in Modern Greek on topics of interest; students ought to be able to read, with dictionary help, all writings in Standard Modern Greek. Class participation, comprehensive tests, one midterm and a final examination will determine the final grade. Cost:1 WL:1 (Gagos)

Latin Language and Literature (Division 411)

Elementary Courses

Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential facts of morphology, syntax, semantics, vocabulary, history and culture are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English vocabulary improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.

In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 194, 231, and 232. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with little or no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit the department office in 2016 Angell Hall, 764-0360, or contact Professor Knudsvig in 2012 Angell Hall, 764-8297.

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 193, or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hours examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 193 or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

194. Intensive Elementary Latin II. Latin 193 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 221, 222, 231, 232, or 503. (4). (Excl).

This is a continuation of Latin 193, a beginning language course which will have covered, by the end of the Fall Term, the essentials of Latin accidence and syntax, with some experience in reading continuous Latin prose. The second term of this introductory sequence will continue the reading of prose and will then include one of the first six books of Vergil's AENEID. Students need not have taken Latin 193 to enroll in Latin 194. Initially there will be a systematic review of Latin grammar, and throughout the term attention will be paid to details of grammar to ensure a command of language necessary for increasing ease in reading. Therefore, anyone with a knowledge of elementary Latin could profit from the course. The AENEID has been chosen as the main text because of its inherent importance for later European poetry and literature, and will be considered in class discussion as such not simply as an exercise in translation. Cost:2 WL:3 (001:Myers; 002:D.O. Ross)

231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from such authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D. as Caesar and Livy. Class discussions center upon the readings. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).

SECTION 001. This class will ask you to bring together and apply the knowledge and skills you have acquired in studying Latin to the reading of the greatest work of Latin literature. We will work closely with the text, slowly and methodically learning techniques of translating Vergil's poetry into clear and precise English prose. We will review grammar as necessary. We will also study Vergil's epic in English translation. By term's end we should have both a good understanding and appreciation of what the AENEID is all about and an ability to confront a Latin passage of the poem with some skill and comprehension. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:2 WL:1 (Wallin)

SECTIONS 002-003: The goal of this course is simple: to learn to read extensive passages of Vergil's AENEID, with comprehension and enjoyment. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and time of the Emperor Augustus. Quizzes, hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. Cost:2 WL:1

Intermediate Courses

302. Intermediate Latin II. Latin 194, 222, 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course will provide an introduction to the prose and poetry of the late Roman Republic (First Century B.C.), and is designed for students who have completed Latin 194, 222, 232, or the equivalent. Class time will be spent primarily in translation and discussion of Cicero (not necessarily the speeches), and Catullus, or passages of Caesar and Ovid. Emphasis will be placed on a further mastery of Latin grammar and translation skills. There will be several hour exams and a final. (Pedley)

402. Imperial Prose. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
The course will focus on those sections of Tacitus' Annales that relate to the decline in the fortunes of the family of Germanicus and the rise of Sejanus (selections from books 2 and 3, book 4 entire). There will be two hour exams (translation only) and each student will be expected to make an oral presentation. There will also be a paper (c. 10 pages, based on the presentation if the student so desires) and a final examination (translation and essays). Class time will be divided between translation and commentary on Tacitus' account. The final grade will be based on class participation (20%), the hour exams (10% each), the oral presentation (20%), the final paper (20%), and the final exam (20%). (Potter)

410. Poetry of the Republic or Later Empire. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

Poetry of Lucretius and Catullus. Translation and discussion of two Republic poets, one of science, the other of the human psyche. Hour exam, final exam. Cost:1 (Witke)

Advanced Courses

497. Senior Latin Seminar. Honors students or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Urban scenes and urban concerns dominate our perceptions of life in the ancient world. Yet rural landscapes played an integral part in shaping Greek and Roman culture. Survival was ensured through the cultivation of the countryside. Land ownership served as the chief basis for personal power and prestige. Battles were fought in rural settings, and gods worshipped in rural shrines. A variety of "classical landscapes" will be examined from a variety of perspectives: archaeological, literary, historical and art historical. Ancient perceptions and artistic representations of the countryside will form one major subject for debate, as will changes in rural life through time. The course will have a seminar format. Students will be expected to make a class presentation and to write a final paper. This class meets together with Classical Archaeology 396. Cost:2 WL:1 (Alcock)

511. Letters of Cicero. (2). (Excl).

As at present envisaged, the course will concentrate on Cicero's correspondence with Caelius Rufus (Ad Familiares VIII and II), with particular attention to problems of reading and interpretation. Those intending to participate are encouraged to reread R.G. Austin's third edition of Pro Caelio, pp. V-XVI and the speech itself, also to brush up on the history of the late Roman Republic. Texts of the Letters Ad Familiares will be needed: W.S. Watt's Oxford Classical Text or D.R. Shackleton Bailey, Ciceronis Epistulae ad Familiares (Teubner; some copies are available). WL:1 (Shackleton Bailey)


Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

102. Classical Civilization II: The Ancient Roman World (in English). (4). (HU).

This course serves as a general introduction to Roman Civilization, that is, the history, literature, social life, institutions, and contributions of ancient Rome. The course will focus on the continuing creation and development of the Roman Identity as the city grew from an Italian town to the center of a world Empire. We will proceed chronologically from the founding of the Republic in the sixth century B.C.E. to the second century C.E. We will read ancient authors (in translation) including historians (Livy, Sallust, and Tacitus), poets (Catullus, Vergil, and Horace), as well as occasional inscriptions and other documentary evidence and authors (Cicero, Petronius). Lectures will follow certain common themes and ideas, with occasional presentation of special topics (e.g., Roman law, the ancient book, Roman Games, slavery). There will be two short papers, a midterm examination, and a final exam. Cost:3 WL:3 (Myers)

411/Greek 460. Parody and Utopia. (1). (Excl).
Section 001 Parody and Utopia. (1 credit).
Any discourse about Utopia necessarily takes a critical position with regard to other authoritative discourses in its culture. This course will examine the relations between utopia and parody in late 5th century Athens on the basis of a number of plays by Aristophanes in which the discourses of science, tragedy, religion, and politics are parodied. The class will meet twice weekly. Some of the shorter (1-hour) meetings will be used for examining philological problems in detail with students who know Greek and historical problems with the rest of the class. Knowledge of Greek is not required, but for graduate credit, Classics students will be expected to read one play and selected scholia in Greek (or an equivalent amount of Greek assigned by the instructors.) Required work: one oral report. (Humphreys, Most)

453/Class. Arch. 453. Roman Burial Customs and Monuments. Class. Civ. 102 or Hist. of Art 101 or Class. Arch. 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Classical Archaeology 453. (Cormack)

454. The Roman Army. Upperclass standing. (3). (HU).

The Romans regarded themselves, and were regarded by their contemporaries, as a particularly warlike people, and the acquisition and maintenance of their empire by military force played a great part in determining the nature of their social and political institutions. Thus an appreciation of the nature of the Roman army is important to any study of Roman history. This course will provide an introduction to the Roman army itself and its wars; its weapons, organization, tactics, fortifications as well as issues such as recruitment and terms of service. In addition, there will be consideration of the wider social, political and economic significance of the army and warfare in the Roman world. Background information on Greek and Hellenistic warfare will be provided too. Form of evidence to be examined will include primary written sources (in a course pack) and archaeology (illustrated by slides). Assessment will be by a written assignment, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Pollard)

462. Greek Mythology. (4). (HU).

Greek Mythology is designed to acquaint the student with the major myths and epic cycles of ancient Greece from the creation myths and their Near Eastern prototypes through the Trojan War and the wanderings of Odysseus. The development of various myths will be illustrated through Greek literature and art. We will also discuss the use and treatment of Greek myths in English literature, modern psychoanalytical theory, and comparative anthropology. Required texts will include Homer's ODYSSEY, parts of Hesiod's THEOGONY and WORKS AND DAYS, the HOMERIC HYMNS, and a selection of tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. An additional course pack will provide readings for discussion sections which will meet once a week to consider a variety of theoretical approaches to mythology, and other critical questions. Course requirements include two hour tests and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Dobrov)

467. The Good Life. (3). (HU).

This course is a survey of ethical philosophy in Ancient Greece from the fifth to second centuries B.C., beginning with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and ending with the dominant Hellenistic schools, viz. the Stoics and the Epicureans. We also meet up with a variety of Cynics, Cyrenaics, and Skeptics along the way. The course acquaints the student with a wide range of ancient philosophical texts and provides a framework for their critical assessment. It also provokes reflection about how moral philosophy interacts with society. Finally, it seeks to assess the evolution of moral discourse within the early Western tradition. The course will proceed by tracing a number of themes throughout the period we are studying, both theoretical issues such as, e.g., the nature of eudaimonism, and specific topics, such as feminism in ancient thought. Readings include primary sources and modern moral theorists. The requirements are three short papers and one term-paper. WL:1 (Rappe)

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