Courses in ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (DIVISION 361)

For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course. NOTE: If you must miss a class due to religious observances, contact the instructor or leave a message for the instructor with the department (764-6330).

PROFESSIONAL SEMESTER:

The English Department's Professional Semester is an experimental, integrated, team-taught program, designed for students who are committed to teaching English in the secondary schools or who wish to explore that possibility. This program, which will carry 12 hours of credit, along with English 305 to be taken concurrently for 3 hours of credit, will normally constitute the student's entire course load for one term, and will meet the following requirements in the Teaching Certificate Program (students who have already accumulated some of these credits are welcome to negotiate):

English 490-001. Reading, Writing and Criticism in the Teaching of English. (7 credits). (This is the equivalent of English 325 plus English 417. Concurrent election of English 491/Education D491 and English 305 is required.)

English 491/Education D491. Teaching English-Methods and Practicum. (5 credits). (This is the equivalent of Education D440 and Education 307. Concurrent election of English 490 and English 305 is required.)

The Professional Semester is not taught as a collection of separate courses, but rather as a coherent program with flexible scheduling arrangements and opportunities for large and small group projects and discussions, guest consultants and lecturers, and student planning of many segments or aspects of the program. As a hypothetical example, one might focus on the question of audience, taking up criticism on how literature reaches its audience and including poetry, a Shakespeare play, a modern novel, a film, to explore how the different genres affect an audience. In the same unit students might also examine the communications potential of language in a number of contexts and write brief papers addressed to various audiences. Discussion and observation of different local secondary schools will be arranged under Education D491 on a concentrated basis for a portion of the semester.

The Professional Semester can accommodate up to 25 students and with the practicum to be arranged. Students should keep MW 4-5 open for tutoring under Ed D491. Registration requires overrides, available in the English Department Office in 7607 Haven Hall or from the instructor for the program.

Students interested in participating in this program can get more information from the instructor: The professor can also put you in touch with students who have participated in the program and who will be happy to tell you what it was like. A brochure with a general description of the teaching certificate program in English is available in the English Department Office.

WRITING COURSES:

After taking or placing out of Introductory Composition, students may elect English 225 for further practice in the fundamentals of expository and argumentative prose. English 325 offers the opportunity for work in argumentative and expository prose at a more advanced level.

Several sections of English 223, the beginning course in creative writing, are available each term; the work is multi-generic, and two of the following will be covered in each section: fiction, poetry, and drama. More experienced writers may apply for admission to specialized sections of English 227 (Playwriting), English 323 (Fiction or Poetry), English 423 (Fiction), English 427 (Playwriting), and English 429 (Poetry). Admission to these advanced courses is by permission of the instructor, who will require writing samples.

INDEPENDENT STUDY:

Independent study in English must be elected under one of the following numbers: 226 (Directed Writing, 1-3 hours), 299 (Directed Reading, 1-3 hours), 426 (Directed Writing, 1-4 hours), 499 (Directed Reading, 1-4 hours). There is a limit to the total hours that may be taken under any one number (3 in 226; 6 in 299, 426, and 499). All elections require permission of the professor, on an election authorization (override) form to be turned in at CRISP and also on a departmental approval form. GSTA's are not normally authorized to supervise independent study.

124. College Writing: Writing and Literature. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

By connecting the two terms of its title, Writing and Literature aims to help prepare the student to produce the range and quality of expository prose expected in college courses. Works of literature will be considered for their effective use of language and argument. They will serve as reference points for thinking and writing strategies. Characteristically, sections of English 124 will involve the writing of a minimum of six essays, with considerable attention given to the preparation of drafts and to revision. The literary works which will serve as points of reference will vary from section to section and from term to term. Course descriptions for individual sections are available in 224 Angell Hall.

125. College Writing. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

Like English 124 (Writing and Literature), English 125 (College Writing) prepares students for the various kinds of academic writing required of them as undergraduates at the University of Michigan. In addition to informal exercises or impromptu essays, students can expect to write six or more formal papers exemplifying the various modes of discourse which comprise our academic community. Individual course descriptions are available in 224 Angell Hall.

217. Literature Seminar. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (HU).

This exciting range of courses will give the student the opportunity to focus early in the College career on a sharply defined topic or body of literary works, and to do so in a seminar format, with much emphasis on discussion and writing. Whatever the topic of the seminar, students will be introduced to large questions of how one interprets and values the works one investigates, of the relation between those works and the cultural order of which they are a part, and of the function(s) of criticism at the present time. Literature Seminars will be limited to approximately 20 students, and will serve to fulfill the College's Humanities Distribution requirement.

Section 001 The Literature of Modern War. This course, limited to twenty students (not necessarily sophomores), explores the impact (pun intended) of modern war on writers through careful reading of a variety of literary texts fiction, poetry, memoirs. While the required reading list is still tentative, the following are "probables": Civil War Crane RED BADGE OF COURAGE. World War I Remarque ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT, Hemingway A FAREWELL TO ARMS, Wilfred Owen POEMS, and Robert Graves GOODBYE TO ALL THAT. Spanish Civil War Orwell HOMAGE TO CATALONIA. World War II Kurt Vonnegut SLAUGHTERHOUSE FIVE, Heinrich Boll THE TRAIN WAS ON TIME, and J. G. Ballard, EMPIRE UNDER THE SUN. Vietnam. Michael Herr DISPATCHES (or Mark Baker NAM). Some course pack materials will probably be added. Each student will undertake an independent research project leading to a term paper. (Length of paper? Less important than quality.) Multimedia projects making use of film, art, music, or journalism will be encouraged, although the student may stay within literature if preferred. There will be regularly scheduled conferences with the instructor to germinate ideas and develop research technique in preparation for the paper. Regular attendance and oral participation are, of course, the sine qua non of any worthwhile seminar. In a course like this everybody learns from everybody. There will also be a final examination. Cost:4 (Eby)

Section 002 Hollywood and The Visual Culture. In this course we shall discuss texts that consider the consequences of the rise to dominance of visual media like movies and television. Writers have dramatized/documented the way that Hollywood as a site of mass culture has attracted and worked upon representative "actors" in an American Dream. Conversely, Hollywood has sent into the world images, icons, and stories that have shaped twentieth century culture in profound ways. In order to better understand the dynamics of this cultural transformation, and the varieties of literary responses to it, we shall begin by discussing Susan Sontag's On Photography and Nathaniel West's The Day of the Locust, and proceed to other texts, in whole or in part, by Joan Didion, James Balwin, Neil Postman, Mark Crispin Miller, Robert Stone, as well as readings from anthologies and a significant number of poems on the topic. We shall also study a couple of films, such as The Purple Rose of Cairo and The King of Comedy, pertinent to our theme. Each student will deliver a brief oral report, keep a reading journal, and write several papers. Cost:3 (Goldstein)

Section 003 Literature and Prejudice. This course is divided into 4 modules: witchcraft persecution, sexism, anti-Semitism, and racism. In each module, we will emphasize literary and nonliterary representation of events and persons having to do with the issue of prejudice. In unit one, we will read trial evidence of the Salem witchcraft persecutions, Arthur Miller's The Crucible, and Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown." The unit on sexism will focus on images of women in painting: we will trace how the same women are represented by painters over their careers. The unit on anti-Semitism will stress the Holocaust and the writings of Hannah Arendt, Claude Lanzmann, and Arthur Miller. The final unit on racism will examine the case of Emmett Till, the young boy lynched in Mississippi at the start of the Civil Rights Movement, as represented in James Baldwin's Blues for Mr. Charlie and journalistic accounts. Requirements: class attendance and participation; two papers (5 pages and 7-10 pages). (Siebers)

Section 004 Visions and Revisions. Contemporary novelist John Irving once observed that "Half my life is an act of revision." In this course, we will examine the act of revision closely, not in terms of an individual author's own work (as the Irving quotation suggests) but in terms of how writers revise the work of others. We will, therefore, examine several canonical works that more contemporary writers and film makers have adapted. The original texts might include, for instance, Shakespeare's The Tempest, Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, Brontë's Jane Eyre or Conrad's Heart of Darkness. The "re-visions" might include Cesaire's A Tempest, Forbidden Planet (a modern science-fiction film adaptation of The Tempest), Bishop's "Crusoe in England," Tournier's Friday, Bunuel's film version of Robinson Crusoe, Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea and Coppola's Apocalypse Now. Questions to be addressed include: How do writers both challenge canon formation (the body of established literary "masterpieces") and confront racial and sexual assumptions of the past by rewriting "great" works of art? What anxieties about influence do modern writers experience in relation to previous literary accomplishments? How do film makers imagistically recreate the written word? Students will practice the art of revision in two major essays of their own. They will also be required to complete an exam and several shorter writing assignments and, because this is a seminar, participate actively in class discussions. Cost:2 (Flint)

Section 006 Fear, Loathing, and Fascination: How Writers Depict Foreigners and Outsiders. Often, reactions to people seen as being "foreign" or "different" take either of two extremes, almost opposite forms: fascination with-idealization-and imitation of what is foreign, or distrust-fear-and persecution of anyone or anything that appears unfamiliar. How do writers write about people who come from outside the boundaries of their familiar cultures and societies? Are foreigners reduced to caricatures or idealized as being superior to the society upon which they intrude? Sometimes, groups or people who belong to a society are seen as being outsiders in a symbolic sense, and either form (or are forced into) splinter groups or subcultures within the dominant culture. How do such outsiders exist in relation to mainstream society? In this class, we will explore these issues through writings from a variety of eras and cultures. Writers and works examined will include some (but not necessarily all) of the following: Herodotus, Euripides' Medea or Bacche, Tacitus, Shakespeare's Othello, E.M. Forsters' Where Angels Fear to Tread or Passage to India, Jean Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea, D.H. Lawrence's The Plumed Serpent, Bram Stoker's Dracula, Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye, Prosper Merimee's "Carmen," Bernal Diaz, Joseph Conrad, Chinua Achebe, and Ralph Ellison. Required work will consist of lots of reading, active participation in class discussions, three 6-8 page papers, occasional brief written assignments, and perhaps a class presentation. No Midterm or Final. (Nowicki)

Section 007 Novels About Novelists. Writers often write about writing often in the forms of essay or autobiography. But why do novelists sometimes write novels about novelists? And what insight can these novels give us into writers and the writing process? Into fiction and its relation to "real life"? We will explore these and other questions by reading and discussing at least four Kunstlerromane ("artist-novels"). Two recent novels, John Irving's best-seller The World According to Garp and Robertson Davies' popular novel What's Bred in the Bone, provide lively, entertaining and often humorous glimpses into the lives of their artist-protagonists. James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Margaret Laurence's The Diviners offer poignant portrayals of the struggle for identity and self-fulfillment through writing. These tentative selections will be supplemented by several related short stories and essays. Requirements include participation in class discussion, two short essays, an informal, ungraded reading journal, and perhaps a final exam. All students with an interest in fiction are likely to enjoy this course; budding fiction writers may be especially intrigued by the issues we raise. (We may also hold optional meetings outside of class to see and discuss film versions of the stories we read. (Steiff)

223. Creative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (Excl). May not be repeated for credit.

All sections of 223 teach the writing of two of the following three genres: fiction (including personal narrative), drama, and poetry. Different sections will emphasize the individual genres to varying degrees. Classwork involves the discussion of the process of writing and the work of a few published authors. Students will do exercises meant to develop a sensitivity to language and a facility with evocative detail, voice, form, and so forth. Most classroom time, however, is devoted to reading and discussion of student writing. A final portfolio of revised finished work of 35-50 manuscript pages may be required. Course descriptions for individual sections are available in 224 Angell Hall.

224. The Uses of Language. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (Excl).

The aim of this new second-year writing course is to help students improve the critical thinking and writing skills introduced in English 124 or 125. Each section of 224 will focus on the ways a particular value system affects individuals, and will read, talk, and write, about that system. For example, students might consider the values that prompt ethical choices, or shape identity, or promote spirituality. Students will explore the way that language is used as a vehicle for urging specific beliefs in order to uncover rhetorical strategies at the heart of such modes of discourse. Classes will be conducted in workshop format and revision will form an integral part of the analytic process.

Section 001 Language and Ethics. If writing is thinking, and thinking about what we value helps us to know who we are, then this composition class is a course about self-discovery. We will conduct this exploration of the relationship between who we are and what we think using a dual focus. The first has as its goal a consideration of the process of making ethical choices - not so that we can learn what to think, but so that we can consider the process thinkers go through when making choices for themselves. To do that, we will read four short novels Before and After, by Rosellen Brown, Crackpot, by Adele Wiseman, The Book of Daniel, by E.L.Doctorow, and Beloved, by Toni Morrison, and see the Woody Allen film, Crimes and Misdemeanors. In all of these works characters are involved in making ethical choices or trying to understand the choices others make. These writers worked out their own sense of how one makes those choices by writing about them. You will do the same thing only you won't be writing stories about fictional characters. Instead, you will be writing narrative arguments about subjects having to do with making value judgements or ethical choices. That brings us to the second focus of this course. Narrative arguments are a particular kind of essay that tells stories usually in the first person - and makes arguments at the same time. This engaging form reminds us that our position on intellectual issues begins in our personal stories Because this form articulates the connection between the "I" that writes and the readers' public concerns, it has become increasingly popular both in professional and academic writing. We will work on making narrative arguments which speak for us and speak to others both intellectually and emotionally. You will do four papers, two revisions, and short weekly responses. You will also read each others' narrative arguments and respond to those in writing. (Wolk)

Section 002. This course invites students to sharpen their writing and thinking skills by exploring the ways in which different writers have engaged with the questions of what we call "religious" or "sacred" or "holy" experience. How do they (and we) talk and write about God? What kind of language do we use? How does it differ from secular language? How do different writers evoke the sacred? And how do we respond to these texts? We shall explore the ways in which sacred texts speak to the secular society at large as the bearer of certain basic values crucial to a spiritual heritage, and we shall consider issues of authority and institutionalized religion. Our goal is to look closely at inspirational writing in a variety of different contexts, and to learn to articulate our own thoughts about forms and values as they conflict with or compliment society's values. This is not a Religion course, but in writing about spiritual issues, students will be encouraged to explore their own beliefs and convictions. Our readings will include selections from Presence by Ralph Harper, Tongues of Fire by Karen Armstrong, Religious Experience by Proudfoot, The Gateless Barrier by Robert Aitken as well as a selection of seminal religious writings from Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Buddhism. Students will write 4-6 essays which will evolve through class discussion, drafts and revisions. (Swabey)

Section 003 Language and Identity. This course fulfills the Race or Ethnicity Requirement but is open to anyone who wishes to improve his or her writing skills while exploring a thought-provoking theme. We will explore the theme of individual identity in a pluralistic society and the ways that language shapes our identities. The question of what it means to be an American will be at the heart of this course. We will investigate the American experiment from a number of critical perspectives. We will examine the cultural forces that form our sense of self. We will give special and sustained focus to theories of prejudice, racism, and sexism, and to the problem of equality in the United States. Course readings include two works of fiction: Herman Melville's Benito Cereno and Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. Other readings will be selected from Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing and Racism and Sexism: An Integrated Study. Students will write five 4-6 page papers and will respond in writing to the ideas and drafts of classmates. (Carlton)

225. Argumentative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (Excl).

This course furthers the aims of English 124 and 125 in helping to analyze the various claims of a given issue and to develop ways of exploring and defending positions, ideas and beliefs in writing. Careful attention will be paid to process of reasoning, the testing of assumptions and claims, the questioning of beliefs, and the discovery of ideas and evidence through analysis and rigorous articulation in written discourse. The course will also focus on considerations of style, formal strategies techniques, and revision as integral to precision in making points and developing argumentative ideas both for purposes of individual reflection as well as for the purpose of persuading an audience.

Section 024 Literacy. For Winter Term, 1993, this course is jointly offered with Linguistics 277. (Kirk).

230. Introduction to Short Story and Novel. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
Work in class will be devoted to discussion of particular works of fiction. The aim of discussion will be to gain an understanding and appreciation of literature. We will read stories and novels. In addition to the final exam, there will be short written exercises and papers with perhaps a midterm. (Lenaghan)

Section 002. The novel began as a way to interpret its society, but it also offered new ways to represent the inner life of the individual self. By surveying short stories and novels from the eighteenth century to the twentieth, we shall ask how fiction combines these apparently opposite concerns community and the individual. I want to ask how writers make their characters seem real human beings, and why some writers form characters who seem hardly ordinary or even human; what techniques writers invent to represent social conflict (even in texts that are not overtly political), and how they imagine the solutions to conflict. Required Work: Two essays (4-6 pages), Reading Journal, Final Exam. Required Texts: Aphra Behn Oroonoko, Daniel Defoe Moll Flanders, Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice, Nathaniel Hawthorne Tales, Katherine Mansfield Stories, F. Scott Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby, Flannery O'Connor The Complete Stories, Toni Morrison Beloved. (Coltharp)

Section 003. Emphasizing a multicultural approach to literature, this course will introduce students to a wide range of fiction, both traditional and non-traditional, covering different genres and historical periods. We will analyze and interpret texts through the conventional literary analytic categories of point of view, symbolism, metaphor, irony, etc., as well as through the categories of race, class, and gender. In part, the course will stress studying the significance of texts within their specific historical and social contexts. Doing so should help us answer the broader question this course will raise: What is "literature"? The works we read will interrogate the category of "literature" itself by questioning and blurring the divisions between fiction and other forms of writing (historical, legal, political, etc.) The readings for the course might include shorter works by such authors as Herman Melville, Henry James, Edith Wharton, Theodore Dreiser, Kate Chopin, Dostoevsky, Carlos Bulosan, Sandra Cisneros, Richard Wright, and Tillie Olsen. We will also read three or four short novels which might include William Dean Howells' The Rise of Silas Lapham, Jean Paul Sartre's Nausea, Mike Gold's Jews Without Money, William Attaway's Blood on the Forge, and Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony. One Novel we are sure to read is Grace Lumpkin's The Wedding. Requirements for the course will include two 4-5 page papers, a final 6-8 page paper, weekly written responses to the fiction or in-class writings, one oral presentation, attendance, and class participation, as well as a final exam. (Libretti)

Section 004. In this class, students will engage in discussions about many aspects of fiction and learn to review rudiments of literary analysis. That is, you should be ready and willing to discuss themes, symbolism, point-of-view, etc. with me and your classmates. We will then go a step further and try to draw connections between various individual works or writers and allow selected pairs or groups of texts to enlighten, complicate, and challenge each other. We will read many short stories, written by Swift, Poe, Hawthorne, Melville, Twain, Dostoevsky, Camus, Wright, O'Connor, Borges, Tan; and we will read several longer stories or short novels, including Henry James' Turn of the Screw, Kate Chopin's The Awakening, and Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Because we will be concentrating on shorter readings, we will read only two or three full-sized novels, one of which will be Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway. While we will keep chronology in mind, we will not necessarily read our texts in chronological order. Instead, by reading works of different styles from one period or of similar themes from different periods, etc., we will analyze mostly through comparison and contrast. Required Work: Course work, in addition to reading the assigned texts, include 2 papers (4-5 pages), 1 final paper (6-8 pages), at least 1 oral report on readings, weekly in-class writing of 1-2 pages, attendance, and class participation. (Kim)

Section 005. This course will provide a broad overview of the development of the short story and the novel as literary forms, with particular attention to how the cultural conditions of a particular time affect how stories get written. We will spend some time covering literary basics such as plot, character, theme, voice, etc., but more importantly, among the questions we will ask over the term are "In what ways do writers of fiction respond to their historical moments throughout her stories? How do literary activity and other cultural, political, and intellectual pursuits overlap? How does the definition of 'fiction' change with shifts in time and place, for both writers and readers?" Readings will include selected fiction from among authors as diverse as Geoffrey Chaucer, Samuel Richardson, Emily Brontë, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Charles Chesnutt, Joseph Conrad, Edward Bellamy, Nella Larson, Gertrude Stein, Virginia Woolf, Donald Barthelme, Alice Walker, and Maxine Hong Kingston. Required work will include up to 4 short response papers(1-2 pages each), 1 longer essay (7-10 pages), and a final examination. (LeRoy-Frazier)

Section 006. How do readers, writers, and their fictional texts interact to make meaning? How might a story reflect the personal experience and the large culture from which the author wrote? How can an anticipated audience help shape fiction? How and why might different readers interpret the same text differently? On the other hand, what shared expectations about fiction might a community of readers such as our class, studying together at a university draw on and further develop? In this course we'll address such questions by reading and interpreting a variety of short stories, novellas, and novels from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Our short stories will be taken from a wide-ranging general anthology (Elements of Fiction), a collection of tales by Edgar A. Poe, and The Conjure Woman, a series of interconnected stories by Charles Chesnutt. The tentative list of novellas and novels would be Hawthorne's The House of Seven Gables, Melville's Billy Budd, James' The Turn of the Screw, Conrad's Heart of Darkness, and Morrison's Beloved. Active participation in class discussion will be expected. Other requirements will include frequent short papers responding informally to the reading, two longer papers, and a final exam. (Robbins)

Section 007. "The good ended happily, and the bad unhappily. That is what Fiction means." This course will explore fundamental questions about reading and writing literature. What, for example, is the relationship between an author and his or her speaker? What are some of the narrative techniques that authors use to express their ideas? After all, we do not experience life or think in sentences and paragraphs. We will compare more traditional narratives, like that in Edgar Allen Poe's The Tell Tale Heart, with more experimental techniques of narrative construction, like Mario Vargas Llosa's multiple talking pictures in his recent novella In Praise of the Stepmother, in our exploration of different forms of literary expression. We will also discuss what we consider to be the purpose of literature. Is fiction merely a source of diversion and entertainment or is it supposed to improve its readers morally or intellectually? Is censorship of erotic, offensive, and violent material ever appropriate? We will read four short novels and a score of short storeies. You will also write three critical essays and present a brief oral report to the class on an interview that you will conduct with a fiction writer. Among the texts and writers we will read are Mario Vargas Llosa, Toni Morrison, Willa Cather, William Faulkner, James Baldwin, Alice Walker, Maxine Hong Kingston, Kurt Vonnegut, Louise Edrich, Italo Calvino, and Thomas Pynchon. I also welcome your suggestions. To end with another quotation from Oscar Wilde: "There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written." Is this true? Requirements include: 3 essays, two 4-5 pages and one 6-8; One interview with a fiction writer; One class presentation (15 minutes). (Infante)

239. What is Literature? Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
In this section of the course, we will raise and discuss questions related to the acts of reading and interpretation. We will also explore some of the basic techniques of analyzing different forms of writing. We will examine a broad range of texts, including theoretical, critical and literary works. The class will be based on a discussion format. Assignments will include weekly writing exercises, a midterm, and a final paper. (Gregg)

Section 002. We do many things with books: throw them, sell them, ban them, read them, print them, store them, write them, and more. Doing so we act simply and mysteriously. How do readers turn pulp and ink into "literature"? and how is it that literature moves us to joy, despair, boredom, or the delight of heightened attention? As we discover the possibilities of "interpretation," we will consider how prose and poetry attract us, what a character is and what a story does. Our class will explore books in relation to ourselves and the social world. We will look to the ways in which common elements of our lives can be read as "texts" and review the many ways in which famous books have been read. Throughout, I will introduce practical guides for the student A HANDBOOK TO LITERATURE and A RESEARCH GUIDE FOR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS, for example as well as pose difficult questions. What makes a book good? How do we construct literary history? Why study literature at all? Classes will be run primarily as discussions. There will be two exams and several short writing assignments. Our goal will be to expand and better the vital ways we talk and write about books. (Leon)

Section 003. (Honors). This course aims to enable students to read and discuss literature with precision and point, and to take pleasure in its effects. Over the course of the term we will address a series of large questions, among them the following: a) How does one determine that one is reading "literature" rather than other types of writing? b) What importance has "literature," as a cultural activity, and what are its relationships with other cultural activities, including the other arts, politics, religion, and philosophy? c) What ways of talking about "literature" are most current (e.g., "cultural" criticism," "gender" criticism, "formal criticism....").We will focus our discussion primarily on literary texts themselves drawn from a wide range of times and places; other readings will include critical and theoretical writing, and (at least for the term) reading the weekly New York Review of Books. There will be frequent short (3-4pp.) essays, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:3 (Williams)

Section 006. In asking the question "What is Literature?" we will be more interested in exploring boundaries and characteristics of different types of writing than in arriving at a specific answer. In that process of exploration we will look back upon our experiences as readers as well as examining closely a variety of texts. Texts will include long and short fiction, drama, film, poetry, "new" journalism, and essays, drawn from a wide range of cultures and historical periods. A more detailed list is available upon request from the instructor. There will be frequent writing of short pieces and a final examination. Cost:3 (Howes)

Section 008. We will look at a variety of texts, artifacts, and contexts that will help us to define more clearly the nature and properties of this thing we call "literature", and - of equal importance to understand the variety of interpretive strategies that we might use to gain some leverage on "literature" (whatever that might be). In the first half of the course, we'll be reading a number of works in different media, to help us begin to grasp the range and possibilities of literary experience. In the second half, we'll concentrate on interpretive strategies for texts widely understood to be literary. But our aim throughout will be to gain a greater awareness of the number of ways the products of the human imagination might be approached and the multiplicity of the notions of literature that these approaches create. Texts will include: Dickens, Great Expectations; Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter; Morrison, Beloved; Speigelman, Maus (or Maus II ); shorter pieces by Roland Barthes, Ferdinand de Saussure, "Nate Shaw," and others. (Freedman)

Section 009. We start with the hypothesis that literature is all of the following: anarchic, profound, quotidian, fun, skull-rattling, soporific, Oz-like, Kansas-like, subversive, sly, multi-valent, seductive, translucent, death defying, screwy, and important. Then we test the hypothesis. We will read and discuss a number of powerful texts, works that deal with all the givens of the human experience (familiar stuff like love, hate, ambivalence, changing, fear, belief, honor, betrayal, identity, accommodation, coming of age, transcendence, duty, heroism, aspiration, confusion, belonging, not belonging, etc.) and works that play with our expectations of literature. We'll be interested in both the texts themselves and the process of making meaning around them. Most of the works studied will be in familiar narrative forms a few short novels and quite a few short stories (some fiendishly tricky); however, we will also examine other kinds of writing as imaginative works - memoirs, personal essays, journals, autobiography and we will look at some samples of literary criticism, both practical and theoretical. Issues we'll explore: (1) how different critical methods and assumptions shape our reading of literature, (2) how texts, despite our most aggressive critical incursions, sometimes evade analysis and resist categorization, (3) how we talk about the elements of a text and the text's relation to its author, to its cultural context, to its genre, and to its readers, (4) what varieties of discourse both texts and readers (critics) employ to make meaning, (5) how critical thinking about literature draws in issues from a wide range of intellectual disciplines, such as psychology, philosophy, linguistics, history, sociology, politics, (6) in what ways literary critical skills can be applied to understanding other forms of discourse. Classroom Mechanics: discussion, lecture, student reports, guest presentations, films. Assignments: Regular exploratory writing in the form of reading notebooks, two short papers, one collaborative research project resulting in a critical casebook or a panel report, final exam. (Pearson)

Section 010. The aim of this course is to question the nature of "literature" in its most diverse manifestations. Works of classical literary merit will be studied alongside such other forms as philosophical essays, creation myths, modern political speeches, and a few selected visual '"texts" a rock video, a piece of architecture, a handful of paintings and sculptures, and perhaps a film. Such a range of texts will help us confront a number of issues germane to the understanding of and possible definition of literature. For example: What does it mean to study the Bible as literature rather than sacred text: How did "Shakespeare" become a monumental landmark on the literary landscape when many of his works were unsigned and not intended for publication? While considering these and other questions we will also examine the act of reading, lour assumptions and expectations about literary language and literary art. The course pack will include excerpts from the Bible, short fiction by Melville, Poe, Gilman, Lawrence, Kafka, Momaday, Bambara, and work by Emerson, Nietzsche, and Malcolm X. We will also read two plays, Sophocles' Antigone and a work by Shakespeare. Two novels are also scheduled: Calvino's If on a Winter's Night..., Mary Shelly's Frankenstein or Chopin's Awakening. Course requirements include attendance and active participation; also 3 short response papers and two essays. (Buj)

Section 011. This course is primarily designed to help you join a community of people who carry on a continuing, informed conversation about literature. The literature studied will reflect both the social issues of the times and each author's unique shaping of that material. We want to read closely not only to see what an author says but how she or he says it. Thus, our readings will often focus on the dynamics of the imaginative process. Moreover, if we begin this term finding ourselves reading, rhythmically, somewhat slow, understated works, we will progressively find ourselves in the midst of the potentially explosive energy of Beckett's Rockaby, Fowles' French Lieutenant's Woman, Thornton's Imagining Argentina, and Irvings' The World According to Garp. The format of the course will be discussion and more discussion; the focus will be on the exchange of ideas to find the critical questions that are most significant to us. The requirements for the class will include: two thoughtful and analytical essays (8pp./ea.); a short weekly response to a text; and a comprehensive final exam. Although still tentative, the readings will be selected from the works of the following authors: Wordsworth, Dickinson, Whitman, Dickens, Hardy, Hawthorne, James, Yeats, Eliot, D. H. Hwang, Toni Morrison, Naylor, Atwood, A. Tyler, Dorris, Allende, Erdrich, Hong Kingston, Julia Alvarez, Tan, Marmon Silko, Nanci Griffith, Holly Near, and Sting. (Back)

Section 012. Literature, as we use it today, is a young word, not much more than 250 or 300 years old. Throughout the term, we will focus on a number of questions regarding literature, and will begin from the most basic questions like "What is it?" "What kind of people read and write it?", "Does it concern me?", and "What's it about?" Hopefully, we'll even move on to questions like "How much does literature cost?", "Is literature profitable?", "Is it valuable?", and "Who determines its value?" While examining a variety of practices, methods, and theories that have been developed to talk and write about literature, we will also question the extent to which our own notions of literature are inherited from other historical periods, as well as exploring how historical conceptions of literature have changed the cultures from which they originated. Coming up with thoughtful, playful, well-articulated views on these larger questions will constitute one of the term-long goals of the class, and we'll have plenty to talk about. Requirements: 1. Three analytical essays of 4-5 pages typewritten. For each essay, you will choose a different critical approach to analyze some specific aspect from a text on the reading list. 2. Three exploratory short essays of 1-2 pages each. Although the texts for this class are not set, you can expect most of the following to be on the syllabus. In addition, we will read from a course pack of essays. Barths Mythologies Baum The Magic Land of Oz Brontë Wuthering Heights Carter The Bloody Chamber Crews The Pooh Perplex Williams Keywords Wordsworth and Coleridge Lyrical Ballads 1802. (Gamer)

Section 013. In this course, we will ask questions that provoke us to think about what "literature" is, and what our purposes might be in reading and discussing books and other forms of writing. We will consider some problems of making literary judgements and estimating value, and examine some of the ways that categories such as "traditional", "popular", "elite", and "canonical" are interpreted in different eras. We will explore these questions through readings of literary, non-literary, and critical writings. Class proceeds by discussion. The texts are likely to include: Calvino, Uses of Literature; Brontë, Jane Eyre; Hardy, The Woodlanders; D.H. Lawrence, stories (and a film adaptation); Atwood, Cat's Eye; Phillips, Machine Dreams; Ramsey, Coyote Was Going There, and a course pack. Course requirements include frequent informal writing exercises, three short papers, a brief presentation in class, and a final exam. (Heininger)

Section 014 Literary Relationships. To address the question of "What is Literature," this section will focus on the dynamics of literary relationships. We will talk about relationships between reader and writer, considering how the narrative voice of a text speaks to us, shaping our responses; how we, as readers, also push against that narrative voice, composing our own sense of what a text means; and how matters of gender, of culture, of belief cause us to read the same texts differently. Concurrently, we will explore the relationship between a particular text and its context its historical period, its literary tradition, its author's biography asking what that relationship contributes to the text's meaning. To keep us centered as we weave all these perspectives together, the chosen readings will be ones that treat a common theme: the theme of "becoming." This shared concern will allow us to see the wonderfully diverse ways that writers create versions of stories about young people becoming adult, being initiated into the complexities and ambiguities of a larger world, attempting to sort out good from evil, the imaginary from the real. As we ask the questions prompted by different critical perspectives, as we read the fiction of authors such as Hemingway, Morrison, John Fowles, Rosellen Brown, DeLillo, Kafka, Mary Shelley, and David Lodge, we will have as our goal your "becoming" more savvy readers of literary texts. Class requirements include two papers (5-7 pp), brief weekly written responses to the readings, a final exam, regular attendance, and active participation in class discussions. Cost:2 WL:1 (Wolk)

240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 001 (Honors).
An introduction to lyric poetry, with reading drawn from a wide range of English and American examples, from the 16th century to the present. We will begin by considering some basic elements of poetry (including prosody, diction, tone, metaphor) and various verse forms, with attention to the evolution of some of these (the sonnet, for example). The class will typically proceed by intensive discussion of a few poems each day. We will study the work of at least one poet at length, probably Mary Oliver. The work of the course will include short exercises, three or four short papers, and a final examination. (Knott)

Section 002. In this course we read and study poems rather carefully so that we can read poetry with more enjoyment and knowledge. This activity is prerequisite to concentrating in English. The course can also be a good one for students not intending an English concentration but who want to know more about poetry. We go by as much reading of poems in class and as much discussion as we can. We invite familiarity with the main manifestations of English and American verse through the close reading of a given few. That way we can hope to get some sense of the range of lyric poetry as well as some skill at seeing how different kinds of poems are put together and how they work; and this not for its own sake but so that we can know more clearly, enjoy more deeply. Toward the close of the course we will study the work of one major poet perhaps Yeats or Frost or Dickinson. There will be a number of written exercises, two relatively short papers, one hour exam and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (McNamara)

Section 003. This course is for anyone interested in reading poetry with increased pleasure and understanding. Close reading of specific poems will be used to illustrate questions of sound, diction, rhythm, figures of speech, the line, form, authorship, audience, and context. There will be numerous short, ungraded (but required) writing assignments, group presentations, one or two longer papers, a midterm and a final exam. Other requirements for the course are regular attendance and active participation in class; final grades will reflect all the requirements. Text is The Norton Anthology of Poetry. (McIntosh)

Section 004. This class will involve the reading of poetry now and then. It will also involve practice in the skills of reading, listening to, and voicing poetry (broadly defined) for purposes of appreciation and understanding, including: description, interpretation, explanation, and evaluation. We will also deal with procedures of communication, role-taking, memorization, performance and short essay writing. (Wright)

Section 005. In this section we will assume that an understanding of poetry can assist in the understanding of just about anything else. Studying poetic traditions will provide the context we need to fully appreciate contemporary poetic directions that include, for instance, some lyrics of rap, rock, blues, and folk music. We will look for ways in which poetry's impact is felt in day-to-day living. Above all, we will learn to both respect the diversity of poetic expression, and evaluate the quality of that expression. An exam and frequent short papers will encourage this learning. (Moss)

Section 006. This course is designed to enhance your enjoyment of poetry and to give you the skills that will help you to write about it. We will closely examine poems in a wide range of free and traditional forms, with equal emphasis on content (meditations on unrequited love, flea/mosquito bites, sinking ships, and interrupted dreams) and technical aspects (metaphor, rhyme, meter, tone) and how they intertwine. In one class we might look at a few poems written in different centuries on the same subject to see how poetry has evolved, and why it had to. We will also discuss whether I have just used the word evolved with any validity. On occasion we will read early drafts of work by such poets as Frost, Eliot, Yeats and Wilbur to better comprehend the deliberations that culminate in a poem. Required: participation in discussion, frequent short essays (2-3 pp), one "rewrite" of a poem from our anthology, quizzes, and a final exam. Text: The Norton Anthology of Poetry. Cost:2 (Rosser)

Section 007. The aim of this course is to introduce you to the art of poetry so that you can read and discuss any poem with understanding and delight. Our basic strategy in the course will be to explore poetic expression in as many ways as possible: through silent reading and reading aloud, through close analysis and more impressionistic response, through class discussion and individual study, and through various forms of writing (both spontaneously exploratory and more carefully argued). During the term, we will move from a general survey of poetic techniques and forms to a more detailed study of the work of a selection of authors from the Renaissance to the present. For the former, we will use Western Wind by John Frederick Nims. For the latter, we use The Norton Anthology of Poetry. To record your day-to-day interactions with texts, I will ask you to keep a poetic journal. More formal writing will include four (ungraded) exercises in poetic analysis and four (graded) papers (3-5 pages) on individual authors and poems. Cost:2 (Cureton)

Section 008. In this section I will take a fairly traditional approach to poetry, emphasizing form, imagery, and meaning in an orderly progression. We will read well-known poems from a broad range of British and American literary history as well as some poems that are off the beaten track. Students should be prepared to study poems in advance of class and to write a few lines of their own poetry (ungraded) now and again. The pace of each class session will be varied by group work, an occasional video, and lively discussion. Requirements: Class attendance (absolutely mandatory) and participation based on careful reading; in-class writings; quite a few quizzes; short written analyses every week; a final exam. Text: An Introduction to Poetry, X.J. Kennedy (This is the only cost for the course). Cost:2 (Crawford)

Section 009. Through reading and discussion we shall explore the questions we may ask of poems in a variety of forms from different periods. Poetry is a source of pleasure, and to understand and appreciate a poem fully as to understand any complex game we need to acquire knowledge and skill: fluency. We will read aloud, memorize, analyze, discuss. There will be frequent short writings, and few longer papers, a computer conference and, probably, a midterm and a final. Regular attendance and active participation in class meetings are required. Students who cannot meet this requirement should not take this course. (Cloyd)

Section 010. Our recurrent question will be about the relationship of imagination and poetic form. We will also examine some of the ways in which gender, social class, the conventions and the instruments of production at once constrain and enable poetic voice. The course is not conceived as an historical survey of the lyric genre in English, but we will examine poems from a variety of historical periods, by authors who represent a variety of aesthetic, conceptual and political persuasions. At the end of the term, we will read individual books of poetry by two or three contemporary authors. Two 5-page papers, frequent in-class writing, regular contributions to class discussion. Cost:3 (Gregerson)

Section 011. We'll read a wide variety of poems drawn from the last four centuries; our aim will be both understanding and enjoyment. At first we'll develop a battery of questions likely to be fruitful in close reading. Later we'll apply those questions to poems short and long, simple and complex, as we seek to discover in each case the best avenue to interpretation. From time to time we'll try to view matters from the poet's perspective by composing verse in various forms. For the last 2-3 weeks we'll focus on the works of a single major poet. Written work; journals, frequent short papers, one longer paper, a midterm, a final exam. Cost:2 (English)

Section 012 Undergraduate Poetry Writing and Reading Workshop. This class will consist of very close reading of both student work and the work of established poets, mostly 20th century, in English, and also covering more work in Translation by Latin American and South American poets, and other poets usually found outside of the literary mainstream. Open to students with an intense interest in reading and writing poetry. (Lux)

245/Res. College Hums. 280/Theatre 211. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. (4). (HU).

See Theatre and Drama 211. (Cardullo)

270. Introduction to American Literature. (3). (HU).
Section 001 On the Road: The Endless Journey in American Literature.
Jack Kerouac explored one of American literature's most dominant themes when he published his 1957 novel On the Road. While his book helped to launch the countercultural movement which would come to be known as the Beat Generation, it did far more than that. It gave full expression to a theme that had been present throughout the American experience, the sense that we Americans are paradoxically most at home when we are on the road. This course will begin with a close examination of Kerouac's book, and then move to examine the literature preceded and followed it in portraying to this most central American characteristic. From Frederick Douglass and Mark Twain in the 19th century to contemporary works like Toni Morrison's Beloved and the film "Thelma and Louise," American writers and artists have reveled in this life on the road, on the run, fleeing something, heading somewhere. We'll look at how a variety of these authors as different as Ernest Hemingway, Flannery O'Connor, John Updike, and Leslie Marmon Silko have wrestled with this urge, and we'll consider a number of films on the same topic. Idealists, dreamers, outlaws, and pilgrims all hit the road in search of something very close to the heart of what it means to be an American. In trying to discover what that is, students will be required to write three papers, a midterm, and final examination. (Harrison)

285. Introduction to Twentieth-Century Literature. (3). (HU).

We will consider how a variety of writers reflect and respond to the major historical, social, political, philosophical, and moral issues and preoccupations of this century. The works we will study are eclectic and arbitrarily chosen; there is no attempt to be all-inclusive, nor will we limit ourselves to English and American authors. Our subject will be some representative works of modern thought and literature. We will place equal emphasis on what these works say and how they say it. Our purpose is to sharpen the insight and intelligence with which we read and analyze some of the probing "documents" of our time. Reading: some standard authors and works; some idiosyncratic selections. Candidates for the reading list (availability of texts and reasonableness of prices will be factors) include works by Camus, Kafka, Bellow, P. Roth, D.M. Thomas, Morrison, Beckett, Kosinski, Stoppard and several others, including a selection of modern poets. Informal lecture and discussion, the amount of which will be influenced by the size of the class. Two papers and an essay final exam. Cost:2 (Bauland)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

302. Writing About Good Books. (4). (Excl).

The goals of this course are a) to engage students in books that are enjoyable and instructive and b) to help them write more effectively and with increased pleasure. The writing portion of the course lays great emphasis on revision. Each paper is written in two drafts, and the main criterion for grading is the thoroughness of revision of the first draft. There are four books and four papers, each written in two drafts. There are no exams. WL:1 (Meisler)

305. Introduction to Modern English. Recommended for students preparing to teach English. (3). (HU).

This course surveys the forms and functions of contemporary English. We will consider some of the major dimensions of English structure (orthography, phonetics, intonation, word formation, syntax, etc.) and how these structures characterize both English speakers and their linguistic purposes. During the term, we will explore the social and geographical dialects of Modern English (e.g., British vs. American English and Black English Vernacular), its professional jargons (e.g., the language of advertising, religion, law, and politics), and its situational varieties (e.g., the language of conversation, oral narrative, and literature) and will affect our actions and attitudes (e.g., our notions of 'good' English vs. 'bad'). Requirements for the course will include a language journal, a midterm, a final exam, and a project investigating some aspect of Modern English structure or use. Cost:4 WL:1 (Cureton)

315/Women's Studies 315. Women and Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Fictions of the Body.
In this course, we will explore contemporary women's fiction as it engages in the postmodern project of theorizing the body in the text, and the text in the body. The novels we will read all work to "rewrite" the female body by dismantling traditional patriarchal constructions of that body. Reading fiction alongside theory, we will consider how feminist strategies of reading and writing scrutinize the codes which have governed representations of the female body as an object to be contemplated and controlled by a male gaze. Some questions that are likely to arise include: How do fictional texts rewrite the female body that has been constructed/constrained by "official" discourses (medical, legal, philosophical)? How do new "technologies of the body", and the debates around them, work to deconstruct and reconstruct the female body? In what ways do novels de-mystify and de-naturalize dominant representations of the female body? How do women writers shed light on the relations between female bodies and consumerism as it is imagined in popular culture? The course will be structured so as to place fictional texts and theoretical texts in dialogue with each other (lecture, student-facilitated discussion). Texts will include a course pack of critical and theoretical essays (available at Accu-Copy), and the following novels (available at Shaman Drum): Margaret Atwood, The Edible Women; Rebecca Goldstein, The Mind-Body Problem; Gayl Jones, Corregidora; Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye; Joanna Russ, The Female Man; Audrey Thomas, Mrs. Blood; Fay Weldon, The Life and Loves of a She-Devil. Midterm, 2 papers, final. Also satisfies New Traditions requirement. (S.Robinson)

Section 002 Women Poets of the Last Ten Years. We will be reading eight to ten volumes of poetry published since 1982 by American women: Rita Dove, Jories Graham, Marilyn Hacker, Sharon Olds, Adrien Rich, C.D. Wright, and several others, plus material from a supplementary course pack. The course is designed not to overlap with Professor Gregerson's English 315/004 taught in the Fall term. Intensive close reading will be the basis for discussions of public and private history, lyric form, "identity" (gendered, class, national, racial, educational, and bodily), and poetic voice. Two papers. Midterm. One oral presentation. Attendance at and report on poetry readings. This course satisfies the New Traditions and American Literature requirement for English concentrators. (Ellison)

Section 003 IMAGES OF WOMEN IN CONTEMPORARY THEATER. The course will explore the participation of women in theater in the U.S. and Europe since the 1950's as playwrights, producers, directors, and actors. We will study texts and performance documentation, seeking to discover how women construct production such as staging, setting, costuming, and casting. Frequent informal staging of scenes will aid our study of performance. We will read about a dozen plays including Churchill's CLOUD NINE, Benmussa's THE SECRET LIFE OF ALBERT NOBBS, Shange's FOR COLORED GIRLS WHO HAVE CONSIDERED SUICIDE WHEN THE RAINBOW IS ENUF, and Norman's ' NIGHT MOTHER. Reading will also include essays and criticism from theater journals (The Drama Review and Women and Performance), the feminist theater literature, and the popular press. Students will write two papers and perform in or assist with in-class performance projects. Satisfies new traditions requirement. WL:1 (Cohen)

316. Intellectual Problems in Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Psychology of Literary Experience.
For Winter Term, 1993, this course is jointly offered with Psychology 501.001. (Landman/Rosenwald)

317. Literature and Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Global English.
Contemporary literature in English is a global enterprise, shaped by the language itself (and language policies that support it) and by historical and literary traditions. Fiction, poetry, and drama now being written deal with the culture (and counter-culture) of English. Colonial and Post-Colonial literatures illuminate the international enterprise. Just as nineteenth-century America was a "post-colonial" society, attempting to wrest control of literature form its British origins so today, in the Caribbean, Africa and Asia, modern writers are attempting to find a distinctive voice for their own experience. Reading in English 317-001 includes examples from the major forms of literary expression over the past century, selected to highlight the theme of the course. Engaging in themselves, these works invite us to challenge our ideas about "ownership" of our language and literature. Requirements: Attendance at lectures, three essays, a midterm, and final. A course pack and three novels provide the readings. "Global English" won an LS&A "Excellence in Education" award in 1992. Satisfies New Traditions Requirement. Cost:3 (R. Bailey)

Section 002 Madness, Murder, and Mayhem: The Literature of Extremity. Human beings are sometimes placed in extreme, extraordinary, or incomprehensible situations that are said to "test their humanity." Some undergo severe traumas or experience psychological states that produce crises in their lives and the lives of those around them. There are many masterful works of literature that are about such situations, or use such situations as metaphors, and in this course we will read several of them. We will focus on novels and short stories about such subjects as slavery, entrapment, schizophrenia, alcoholism, torture, incest, mania, obsession, violent social upheaval, miracles, religious mysticism, murder, grief, isolation, abandonment, and amnesia. We will be considering some of the following questions; Can extraordinary situations be rendered in mere words? How do writers represent conditions of extremity? How do writers capture the ineffable? How do they employ silence and subtext, indirection, juxtaposition, etc.? What literary, rhetorical, linguistic, psychological resources do they draw on? What risks do they run? What responses are legitimate in readers of such texts? What criteria shape critical judgements of such texts? What distinguished "legitimate" from "exploitative" treatments of such subjects the sublime Greek tragedy from the lurid National Inquirer article? Should we make such distinctions? To what ends do writers take on such subjects? an important question. What questions do such works seem to pose about human psychology, human responsibility, the nature of consciousness, the nature of identity, ethics: How do readers and critics grapple with representations of extremity? How do we discern what is figurative and what is representational(realistic), if at all? What responsibilities do writers about such subjects have to their subject matter, their characters, their readers, people who have personal experience of situations similar to those depicted, their society? etc., etc. Requirements include lots of reading, active discussion minimum of two papers, final take-home exam. (Pearson)

Section 003 Literature and Homicide. This course is interested in the ways in which narrative prose deals with provoking social facts. Homicide is certainly such a fact, and this course examines some of the very different ways in which imaginative writers have treated it. We will be reading Doestoyesky's CRIME AND PUNISHMENT. Faulkner's LIGHT IN AUGUST, Wright's NATIVE SON, several murder mysteries, and, to conclude the course, Truman Capote's IN COLD BLOOD and Mailer's THE EXECUTIONERS SONG. The course will proceed mostly by lecture, but strenuous efforts will be made to allow for some discussion. The course is designed to accommodate students from other departments who, though they have no extensive background in literature, have a lively interest in the way that our real and imaginary experiences of socially important phenomena are organized, and to what effect. Cost:3 WL:1 (Faller)

318. Literary Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 The Dramatic Impulse.
In this course we will attempt to understand how drama differs from, and also how it resembles, not only other kinds of literature but also other kinds of performance. We will work closely with a number of plays written in different periods and styles, ranging from medieval religious cycle plays to twentieth century commercial productions. Our primary aim will be to consider these plays as performable texts, and questions of presentation will be inseparable form questions of literary merit. Along with a final exam and a couple analytical essays (2), lots of class participation will be required and will count for a substantial portion of the grade. (Ingram)

Section 002 Science Fiction. Science Fiction will examine both the history and the diversity of science fiction prose by reading some of the best examples written since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Generally, we will approach each primary text in three ways: through a consideration of its backgrounds (scientific, mythic, and so forth), Through specific questions the text raises (moral questions, questions of plausibility, and so forth), and through the traditional discipline of criticism (What is science fiction? What is the relationship of character theme and so forth?). The written work will revolve around weekly, short papers, two preliminary quizzes, and an objective final exam. Books include: Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, Oxford (1818); Edgar Allan Poe (d. 1849) The Portable Poe, Vintage selections; Nathaniel Hawthorne (d. 1864) Selected Short Stories of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Fawcett selections; H.G. Wells, The Time Machine & The War of the Worlds, Fawcett (1895 & 1898); Eugene Zamiatin, We, Avon (1920); Karel Capek, War with the Newts, Northwestern U Pr. (1937); Olaf Stapledon, Star Maker, Dover (1937); Ray Bradbury, The Martian Chronicles, Bantam (1946-1950); Arthur C. Clarke, Childhood's End, Ballantine (1953); Walter Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz, Bantam (1959); Robert A. Heinlein, The Moon is a Harsh Mistress, Berkley (1966); Ursula K. Leguin, The Left Hand of Darkness, Ace(1969); Stanislaw Lem, The Futurological Congress, Harcourt Brace (1971); William Gibson, Neuromancer, Ace (1984) Cost:5 (Rabkin)

319. Literature and Social Change. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 U.S. WRITERS ON THE LEFT FROM THE 1930s TO THE 1960s.
(Satisfies New Traditions and American Literature Requirement.) In the early 1930s, a new generation of radical writers set out to revolutionize the U.S. literary landscape by directly confronting the issues of racism, class oppression, sexism, war, and exploitation in their fiction, poetry, drama, reportage and criticism. In works such as JEWS WITHOUT MONEY, UNCLE TOM'S CHILDREN, TOBACCO ROAD, ROPE OF GOLD, and WAITING FOR LEFTY, authors such as Mike Gold, Richard Wright, Erskine Caldwell, Josephine Herbst, and Clifford Odets expanded the boundaries of content and form of art in ways that left an indelible mark on our culture and national consciousness. Already established writers such as Ernest Hemingway responded to the Spanish Civil War in his novel FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS. Pioneering socialist-feminist writers such as Tillie Olsen and Meridel Le Sueur published chapters of works that would later achieve acclaim as YONNONDIO and THE GIRL. Yet by the post-World War II era, many of these writers and their associates were under direct attack by the state and federal governments, the news media, the churches, and demagogic politicians. Some were sent to prison, others went into exile, and still more repudiated their pasts or simple disappeared. This course will meet twice a week to explore many of the complex issues in literary radicalism from the Stock Market Crash of 1929 until the end of McCarthyism in the 1950s. Requirements include two papers, a midterm and a final exam. The course will meet the "New Traditions" and "American Literature" requirement in the English Dept. Cost:5 (Wald)

320/CAAS 338. Literature in Afro-American Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

See Afroamerican and African Studies 338. This course fulfills the New Traditions and American literature requirements for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:3 (Chrisman)

323. Creative Writing. Junior standing and written permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Poetry.
We will do whatever we can, repeating what works and abandoning what does not, to stimulate the development of poems. Sometimes we will be lucky; poems will visit us, rarely fully formed, more often as ragged ideas or something in between. Other times, we will not wait, for poems can be notoriously tardy; we will go to the poems, there to claim them assertive, not brutal acts. Writing poetry, finally, is not enough; we will also read and comment thoughtfully on student and published poems. Students who want to enroll in the course should get on the waitlist for the course at CRISP, and bring a manuscript to the first day of class. A list of those admitted will be posted shortly thereafter. (Moss)

Section 002 Media and Other Arts. A course in mixed media composition, especially combinations of poetry, drama, and fiction with graphic arts, painting, music, dance, and photography. Prerequisite: experience with one or more of these art forms and interest in exploring their relations with other forms of art. Permission of instructor to be obtained before CRISP registration by conference hours (posted on door of 2617 Haven Hall). Requirements are explained in detail during the pre-election interview. They include maintaining a journal of varied writing and other forms of composition and completing a series of weekly composition projects, individual and collaborative. Cost:1 WL:3 (Wright)

Section 003 Fiction. Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and, finally, to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Students who want to enroll in the course should get on the Waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to class the first evening. A list of those admitted will be posted shortly thereafter. Cost:1 WL:Admission by Permission of Instructor (Ezekiel)

Section 004 Poetry. Students who want to enroll in one of these courses should get on the waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to the first day of class. A list of those admitted will be posted shortly thereafter. WL:Admission by Permission of Instructor (Rosser)

Section 005 Fiction. Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and, finally, to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Students who want to enroll in this course should get on the waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to the first day of class. A list of those admitted will be posted shortly thereafter. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lychak)

325. Essay Writing: The Art of Exposition. (4). (Excl).

This is an upper level composition course for students interested in improving their writing, with particular attention paid to the development of individual style expressed in the details of voice, tone, nuance, and rhythm. All classes will proceed on the assumption that these basic principles inform good writing: that writing is thinking; that writing well requires attention to issues of audience; that revision is a necessary part of the writing process; and that all writing reflects the writer's view of the world. Class discussion will include a consideration of student writing. To focus discussion and to provide subject matter for writing assignments, readings by professional writers will be assigned in most sections. Writing assignments will vary according to instructor, but the general requirement is forty pages of prose (300 words to a page). Course descriptions for individual sections are available in 224 Angell Hall.

Section 002 Conflicts and Choices. In this writing class, we will be grappling with questions that reveal underlying conflicts which affect our judgements in the decisions we make. Our work will entail uncovering individual issues of discord and attempting to see how these personal issues speak to a public forum. We, in part, will examine texts that reveal a lawyer struggling to convince a jury to convict a sixteen year old to first degree murder, an analyst trying to come to grips with the "challenger disaster," a minority writer trying to understand how his ethnic background can survive in his mind as he attempts to integrate himself into a "majority" profession, a novelist exploring how personal relationships develop and are sustained, a holocaust survivor wondering about the process of decision making for survival, and a civil rights leader asking the essential question of how we can enact our lives to produce the best of all societies. We will work through what is called the "five arenas of the mind" those basic areas that expose diverse conflicts - using texts of both professional and non-professional writers that illuminate those struggles Some of what we read will be critical analysis and some will be fiction, but we will always be concerned with how we think and how we write. The class format will be discussion and more discussion, and we will be working through our own essay writing consistently in class. The conception of the class is one that celebrates the process of challenging and revising former ideas, one that works towards recognizing a synthesis of more complex possibilities. Each student will write a minimum of five essays, with an option for one revision. (Back)

Section 004 The Essay as Literature. The essay has traditionally allowed its authors to explore in dept, and with freedom of form, a variety of topics covering both personal issues and public debates. Students in this course will enjoy similar freedom as they develop their own ideas and their own style, while at the same time, keeping to the essay's demands of conciseness and depth of thought. We shall focus on those ordinary moments that, upon reflection, become extraordinary, those insignificant gestures that, through writing, illuminate some larger truth in our own lives. We shall read well-known essayists who have explored the larger mysteries of life by closely observing moments of everyday life. We shall work as a group of writers, sharing drafts and helping each other define and refine our ideas. By the end of the course, students will have revised their best essays and submitted one for publication. Our reading swill be selected from Modern American Prose, and from selected newspapers when editorials and perspectives are written in the essay form. (Swabey)

329. Practical English. (4). (Excl).
Section 001.
Practical English is a workshop that allows its members some freedom in determining what they will write. But it also demands intense participation, commitment to peer groups for editing, and willingness to use progressive revision for writing improvement. The workshop simulates a business or professional atmosphere in which writing and speaking are linked. Students typically produce such practical forms as letters, reports, memos, summaries, proposals, speeches, working papers, essays, minutes, and evaluations. Late work is never accepted. Requirements: attendance at all class sessions and at small group meetings outside of class; timely completion of a set of assignments and of an external community project; oral presentations to the workshop. The pages of finished prose usually number 25-30 (not including required drafts). No exams. This course fulfills the upper-level writing requirement. If you are not present at both the first and second sessions of the class, your CRISPed place will be given to someone else. Text: A Writer's Reference, Diana Hacker (2nd ed., 1992). Cost:3 (Crawford)

Section 002. In a workshop, students will cultivate written and spoken forms that have wide practical use in groups: letters, memos, reports, essays, prospectuses, speeches, public drafts, working papers, and more. Much of the work will be collaborative. Although students will compose and revise individually, they will usually create specific assignments, edit, and evaluate in groups. This workshop thus reproduces a crucial feature of social and professional life: acts of writing and speaking typically occur in continuing chains of composition, evaluation, and revision leading to collective results ideas, documents, plans of action. Clearly, success in this course requires everyone's commitment to group effort. Students will be expected to focus considerable time and energy on writing, editing, reading, and working together. Appropriate readings to be chosen by the workshop. No exams. Individual grades will be based on a minimum of two speeches, a minimum of twenty-five pages of finished speeches, a minimum of twenty-five pages of finished prose, and class participation. Writing Requirement for non-concentrators. Required text: Hodges' HARBRACE COLLEGE HANDBOOK. Cost:1 (Rabkin).

English 350 & 351

This two-term sequence is designed to give students a principled sense of the range of literary works written in English; the first term will characteristically deal with works produced before the later seventeenth century to about Milton, that is; the second term will begin at about that point and proceed to the present. These courses will be open to English concentrators and to non-concentrators alike. The substantial writing involved with either of the courses will fulfill the ECB Junior/Senior Writing Requirement.

351. Literature in English after 1660. (4). (Excl).
Section 001- The Battle for Reality.
Literary history is not a matter of neat eras with conventional names. It is a battle for your sense of reality in which a writer pits her or his vision against those of predecessors and contemporaries as well as against the social consensus. For instance, the very question "What's real?" would seem stupid to the eighteenth-century poet Alexander Pope. You would know the truth, Pope argues, if your human vanity did not do everything in its power to evade that reality. Yet a generation later, William Blake will find Pope's desired reality nothing better than the exhausted and disastrous remnant of our failure of imagination. This is not a survey course, then. It would be futile to survey three centuries of British and American literature in any case. Rather, this course concerns episodes in literary history, moments when the world and accepted literary forms are turned upside-down. We'll focus on 18th and 19th Century British literature, with significant forays into American literature. Fiction writers will include Swift, Austen, Brontë and Melville. Poets will include Pope, Blake, Wordsworth, Whitman and Dickinson. Emphasis will be on writing critical essays three will be required - and a final exam will follow an essay format. Three hours of lecture with me each week, one hour of discussion with TAs; but the "lectures" too will include discussion and debate. If your sense of the real is not unsettled by this course, it or you will have failed its intention. This course fulfills the ECB upper-level writing requirement and counts as a pre-1830 course for concentrators. WL:1 (Weisbuch)

367. Shakespeare's Principal Plays. (4). (HU).

Shakespeare's Principal Plays, introduces students to the major works of Shakespeare, tracing his achievement through a study of plays drawn from the major genres in which he wrote. In this term, we will follow that pattern, reading comedies and tragedies, one or two history plays, one of the Roman plays, and one of the great romances. This course will have a dual focus: a study of Shakespeare as a writer of the stage, whose writings are designed to come to life fully only when they are produced in the theatre; and a study of Shakespeare as a writer who often situates his plays in the context of the family. Students in the course will be expected to read and re-read the plays, join in discussions and attend lectures, write two essays, and complete both a midterm and a final examination. In addition, all students will have an opportunity to join in a group project involving the presentation of a scene from one of the plays. The text for the course is The Riverside Shakespeare. This course fulfills the pre-1800 requirement in English. (Jensen)

368. Shakespeare's Principal Plays, II. (4). (HU).

This course is primarily designed for students who have had English 367 and want to continue their study of Shakespeare. This term the class will focus its attention on the Comedies and the Histories, developing a series of approaches to these plays based on an acquaintance with the Tragedies. In lectures the class will examine the possibilities of reading the plays with an eye toward performance; sections will develop additional aspects of the repertory and have frequent small-scale assignments. The class as a whole will have both a formal midterm and final examination. Plays to be studies include: A Midsummer Night's Dream, Measure for Measure, The Winter's Tale, Troilus and Cressida, The Tempest and The Merchant of Venice, with special attention to the relationship between "comedy" and "romance"; and Richard III, Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2, and Richard II, with special attention to history in its dynamic relationship to political, social, and cultural realities. This course is also open to students who have not taken English 367, but who come to it equipped with some other experience in reading Shakespeare's drama. Satisfies pre-1830 requirement. Cost:3 (Brater)

English 370, 371, & 372

Each of these courses will range over the materials of the periods indicated below in one or more of a variety of ways. Some may be multi-generic surveys; some may focus on the development during the period(s) of specific genres; some may be topical, others formal in their principle of organization. All sections will emphasize the development of student skill in writing essays analyzing the materials and evaluating the approaches in question.

370. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Epic and Romance.
In this course we will read a selection of some major works composed in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. We will begin with Old English poetry, including the great heroic poem Beowulf, continue with Middle English literature, including works by Chaucer and the Gawain poet, and then move on to Shakespeare, completing the course with Milton's Paradise Lost. There will be a midterm and a final exam, and two papers. This course fulfills the pre-1800 requirement in English. (McSparran)

Section 002 English Medieval Romances. The romance was a French invention of the twelfth century. Fusing stories of adventure and that kind of love we now call romantic, it quickly became popular all over Europe, representing and analyzing a new kind of ideal life. The greatest English examples of the type were written some two hundred years later and are, variously ironic, variations on romance themes. In this course our primary focus will be on three of these works: Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", and Malory's Morte D'arthur. We will also read a number of other works, such as the Lancelot of Chretien de Troyes, the Romance of the Rose, and perhaps some Arthurian texts, both as independent works and as context for the English romances. This will be a discussion course. There will be a final exam at the scheduled time, one hour exam, and either a paper or a second hour exam. There will also be occasional in class written exercises. The grade will be an average of the exams and paper. [Note: This is a tentative description.] This satisfies the pre-1600 requirement. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lenaghan)

371. Studies in Literature, 1600-1830. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Travelers, "Natives", and Readers.
In this class we will try to reconstruct early modern attitudes concerning race, culture, nationalism, colonialism, and even a few more significant concepts by reading accounts, both real and imagined, that recorde or anticipate encounters between english speaking travelers and Africans, Natives of the Americas, and other non white peoples. Most readings will be drawn from the 17th and 18th centuries, after the period of "discovery" but during the time when images of the "other" were greatly influenced by popular literature. In addition to tracing the literary images of the era to their roots and the enthusiam for exploration and colonization, we will follow the use of literary portraits and political, religious, and philosophical arguments of the period. Three papers, two requiring research, midterm, final. (Fulfills New Traditions and Pre-1800 Requirement) (Artis)

Section 002 "Kind" and "Humankind". As the word "humankind" implies, we are collectively one part of "kind", a totality of being (in an earlier meaning of the term) that exhibits order and purpose and is the basis for our understanding of "natural law". But how do we conceive of "kind"? What is our proper place in it? What obstacles prevent our finding that place? Perennial questions such as these were answered very differently during the period covered by this course (from around 1600 to 1830), and the most complete or most interesting answers frequently took literary form. We'll focus on three of these literary attempts to say what 'kind' and 'humankind' are, and what fosters a harmonious relationship between them: Milton's Paradise Lost (1667), Pope's An Essay on Man (1732-34), and Wordsworth's The Prelude (1805. We'll also consider other works, by these three authors and their contemporaries, as they bear on our central themes. We'll have several short papers, one or two longer papers (c. 1500 words), one or two hour exams, and a final exam. I'll also ask you to keep a reading journal and to take part, with others, in occasional oral presentations. Also satisfies pre-1830 requirement. Cost:4-5 (English)

Section 003 Literature and Transgression. When the seventeenth-century French dramatist Racine wrote "Crime, like virtue, has its degrees," he identified not only the parallels between virtue and vice but also the fascinating variety of human transgressions. Following Racine's dictum, this course will examine various degrees of transgression, from extortion, theft and murder to blasphemy, rebellion and grave-digging, in British literature written between 1660 and 1830. Authors we will read include John Milton, Aphra Behn, William Congreve, Daniel Defoe, Alexander Pope and Mary Shelley. Students will be required to complete two major essays, an exam, several small writing assignments as well as participate vigorously in class discussion. Satisfies pre-1830 requirement. Cost:2 (Flint)

372. Studies in Literature, 1830-Present. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Literature and Technology.
English writing from 1830 to the present displays an explosive variety of forms and contents. We will study this period in relation to the development of modern technologies. We begin with the transition from a pre-industrial age (the age of Cooper's "frontier" and Carlyle's "rural England") to the urban life of industrial modernity (the world of Dickens' HARD TIMES ). Later readings include Mark Twain's A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN KING ARTHUR'S COURT, Virginia Woolf's MRS DALLOWAY, and Thomas Pynchon's CRYING OF LOT 49. Throughout, we will consider how literature can help us understand the histories and technologies that have shaped both ourselves and what we read. How, for example, did the inexpensive magazines of the later nineteenth century affect the modern short story? How does our sense of what a modern story is inform the way we live our lives? At the same time, we will seek to expand our sense of what literature and writing can be. Class will be run through brief lectures and discussion. There will be two exams and several short writing assignments. Cost:2 WL:1 (Leon)

Section 002 The Argument with Nature. From the expression of "If you've ever seen one redwood, you've seen them all" to that of the Greenpeace activist, issues regarding the spiritual, commercial, and legal value of Nature and nature are debated now as they have been, as both history and literature record. Those favoring Old Testament literalism, scientific testing, manifest destiny and other pursuits of the American Dream contend with romanticists, ecologists, and those who equate the loss of wilderness lands or steps in ecological systems with a loss in spiritual and social consciousness, even a loss of humanity itself. This course will consider both historical and literary treatments of these concerns in the debate. Discussion-based class sessions on early religious and poetic interpretations (Course pack), and major works selected from Attwood, Erdrich, Faulkner, Fowles, Hardy, Hurston, Melville, Nash, Thoreau and others. Composition requirements include five shorter papers, two major essays, final exam. This course fulfills the American Literature Requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:3 (DePree)

Section 003 Multiculturalism in American Literature. This section of English 372 is a study of conceptions of multiculturalism and history as narrated or symbolized and interpreted in American literary works since 1846. The course begins with works which reflect concerns in nineteenth-century America to create, recognize, or question an American culture in the face not only of a continuing "English" legacy but also of multiracial, multicultural, women's and men's experiences distinctive to Americans and their national and international aspirations and "destiny." The course goes on to focus on twentieth-century works within traditions of Euro-American, Afro American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American literatures where authors' views of multiculturalism play central parts. Relations between culture and how an author conceives of history are examined, particularly in cases where an emphasis on history, historical contexts, and historical construction of cultures, in the works studied, is counterpointed by themes and motifs of broken, forgotten, and repressed histories. Book-length works by Herman Melville, Mark Twain, Kate Chopin, William Faulkner, Zora Neale Hurston, John Okada, Leslie Kilko, Toni Morrison, and Sandra Cisneros will be read in the course. Their books will be supplemented with readings by the authors contemporaries. Three papers and frequent quizzes are required. Also fulfills the American Literature and New Traditions Requirement. Cost:5 (Sumida)

Section 004 The Representation of War, The Search for Peace. This course will examine the literature of war time from the mid-19th century to Viet Nam, with special attention to the conflict between militarism and pacifism in the 20th Century. Authors likely to include: Tennyson, Sasson, Owen, West, Wolf, Lawrence, Hemmingway, McCauley, Simpson and O'Brien. Two papers (5-7 pages), midterm, final. Class proceeds by discussion. (Heininger)

393. Honors Survey: Eighteenth-Century English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Honors Restoration and 18th Century.
This course has several purposes: to acquaint you with the English literature and history of the Restoration and eighteenth century; to acquaint you with the scholarly methods and resources that will help you research and write your Honors essays next year; to provide a forum for integrating literary theory and other aspects of literary studies in addition to the one provided by English 394. Writing assignments and in-class presentations, on both literary and critical texts, will be frequent, and class participation will be essential. Authors surveyed will include Dryden, Congreve, Behn, Pope, Swift, Haywood, Johnson, Gray, and Austen. Books will be available at Shaman Drum and a course pack at the Liberty St. Kinko's. This course satisfies the pre-1830 requirement. Cost:5 (Krook)

394. Honors Survey: History of Literary Theory. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This will be an introductory survey of major developments in literary theory during the past two centuries, with particular emphasis on the sweeping changes that have taken place in the past twenty-five years. Major areas of study will include Romanticism, Modernism, New Criticism, Structuralism and Post-structuralism, Marxism, and Feminist and African American Theory. Throughout the course we will be using various branches of literary theory to help us answer basic questions about what and why we read, questions like: What is a literary text? Who or what is an author? In what ways are texts embedded in society and politics? What is the proper relationship between literature and criticism/interpretation? Is there a difference between literature and propaganda? Are male readers/writers different from female readers/writers? On what principles was our literary canon established, and should it be revised? Should criticism have a social agenda? Mix of lecture/discussion, but with a strong emphasis on student participation. 2 papers and a final exam. WL:1 (Freedman)

401/GNE 481/Rel. 481. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (4). (HU).

The Bible is a book, a text: it is also a collection of texts of the most astonishing variety and range. Our emphasis this term will be on that second characteristic. We will not try to read all the works there collected, but will select examples from the historical books (Torah) the Prophets, and the Writings from the Gospels, Letters, and the Apocalypse. Our first task will be to try to understand these works both in terms of form and content, and then in terms of the circumstances which gave rise to and shaped them. We will also study how the Bible came to have the form as a whole that it does now, and consider its transmission, both as text, and, more widely, as cultural influence. Students will be encouraged to study especially the literary influence of the Bible in authors of interest to them. Exactly which books of the Bible are read will be determined in part by class need: we shall surely touch on Genesis, Exodus, Job, the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastics, Isaiah, Hosea, one gospel, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistle to the Romans, and the Apocalypse. There will be, in all likelihood, three essays of moderate length, a midterm, and a final. Class attendance and lively participation in discussion will be essential. This course fulfills the Pre-1600 Requirement for English concentrators. Cost:2 WL:1 (Williams)

412/Film-Video 412. Major Directors. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Great Major Directors: The Films of Ingmar Bergman.
The Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman has made during the past 35 years a group of films that remain one of the most impressive artistic achievements of our time. His films are more than films: they are explorations into psychology and society, examinations of values and beliefs, and expressions of our culture's anguish and confusion. Yet his films are strong statements about endurance and survival, passion and love. Bergman creates a distinct cinematic style to convey his vision, utilizing the techniques of the medium in striking and sometimes innovative ways. This class studies the career and achievements of Ingmar Bergman by examining the following films: The Naked Night, Smiles of a Summer Night, The Seventh Seal, Wild Strawberries, The Magician, The Virgin Spring, Through a Glass Darkly, Winter Light, The Silence, Persona, Hour of the Wolf, Cries and Whispers, and Fanny and Alexander. The class will proceed by lecture and discussion, examining the films in some detail and also discussing some relevant critical texts. Students will write a few short papers, a term paper of approximately ten pages, and a midterm and final examination. (Konigsberg)

413/Film-Video 413. Film Genres and Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Avant-Garde and Cinema.
This course traces the history of one of the most imaginative and fertile forms of film making from its origins in the earliest cinema to the present. Considerable emphasis is placed on the achievements of the American independent/experimental cinema which during the past 50 years has challenged the notion that cinema could not be made, for personal expression and political statement, by the individual. Film makers to be covered include: Leger, Richter, Duchamp, Clair, Man Ray, Cocteau, Dali/Bunuel, Vigo, Kirsanoff, P. Strand, Fischinger, Lye, H. Smith, Daren, Peterson, Cornell, Menken, Maas, Anger, Brakhage, Breer, Conner, Warhol, Sharits, Show, Jacobs, Kubelka, Rainer, Export, Friedrich, Thornton, Trinh Minh-Ha, Riggs, Davis, Chenzira, Dash, Tajiri. Cost:2 WL:2 (Rayher)

Section 002: Comedy and Horror, 1974-1986. This course is part of the Comedy Semester. Film comedies rarely win Academy Awards, or any awards for that matter, yet comedy is arguably the thing that Hollywood has consistently done best throughout its history. We often brand comedy "escapist" because it inescapably seems less serious than serious drama, providing us instead with a relief from the tensions of daily life. Yet Hollywood comedy often offers more insightful glimpses into quotidian existence than drama, providing sharp observation of contemporary mores and concerns. Where, for example, the melodramas of the 1920s were frequently played against settings entirely created within the big film studios, slapstick comedy literally took to the streets, on occasion opportunistically taking advantage of actual events like fires and street races. From the social success comedies of Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd in the 1920s through the gender-bending comedies of Blake Edwards in the 1980s, Hollywood comedy has provided a brightly burnished reflection of American life for over eight decades. That reflection and its significance for American culture will be the subject matter of this course. Hollywood comedy is simply too rich and varied to be contained by one course in one term. So, rather than attempt to convey the full breadth and depth of Hollywood comedy, this course will provide a chronological survey of some of the most striking achievements, works that represent key moments in the development of Hollywood comedy. To establish a continuity across such a wide range of material, there will be a focus on the work of a number of comic artists Chaplin, Ernst Lubitsch, Frank Capra, Preston Sturges, Billy Wilder and Blake Edwards - which will enable us to trace out crosscurrents and developments. Films by Howard Hawks, Jerry Lewis, Woody Allen and Michael Shulz will also be shown. Finally, there will be some reading in comic theory Herni Bergson, Northrop Frye, Suzanne Langer, and others - in order to bring some general thinking about comedy to bear on the particularity of Hollywood. There will be two required film screenings per week. Frequent written analyses of the films with a close attention to visual style and an endterm exam will be required. WL:1 (Paul)

416/Hist. 487/Women's Studies 416. Women in Victorian England. (3). (Excl).

This is an interdisciplinary course using historical documents and literature to explore the changing position of women in Victorian England. The Victorian age (1837-1901) in England saw some of the most culturally repressive attitudes toward women, but also some of the strongest efforts to emancipate women. These extremes coincided with the first industrial revolution, and a stime of great disparities in wealth and poverty. We will examine the stereotypes of the ideal woman, and the many responses to them; the struggle to improve women's education and to open the professions; the living conditions and lives of working women; and such general issues as sexuality, crime and prostitution. Readings will include a volume of primary sources, three novels, an autobiography. poetry, critical essays and a course pack. Requirements: one critical paper, one annotated bibliography of primary sources; and one final exam. This course meets the new traditions requirement. (Vicinus)

417. Senior Seminar. Senior concentrator in English. May not be repeated for credit. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 The Politics of Sentiment in the Early American Novel.
(American Literature and New Traditions Requirement). This seminar will explore the rise of the novel in America, a genre first made popular by women writers. Beginning with the late eighteenth-century novels of seduction, Charlotte Temple and The Coquette, we will move to the early nineteenth-century "historical romances" Hope Leslie and Hobomok, and finally end with the best selling novel form of the nineteenth century, the "domestic" novel, made popular by such works as The Wide, Wide World, The Lamplighter and Ruth Hall. In order to put these novels in a historical context, we will also be looking at secondary material on the politics and law of this period between the Revolutionary and Civil wars, exploring nineteenth-century notions of the "nature" of femininity and its relation to the "liberal" culture which these novels help construct and critique. This course meets the new traditions requirement. (Barnes)

Section 002 Transported Narratives. (New Traditions) In Transported Narratives, we will study novels and short stories that have entered the American literary scene from other cultural environments. Focusing upon the process rather than the fact of having been transported, we will examine each text in terms those elements of form, social norm and daily life which decisively mark it out as having traversed national, ethnic, social and linguistic boundaries. Reading materials include: Ousmane Sembene, God's Bits of Wood; Ngugi wa Thiong'o, Matigari; Lu Hsun, Selected Stories; Tahar Ben Jelloun, The Sacred Night; Alejo Carpentier, The Kingdom of This World; and Maryse Conde, Heremakhonon. Students will submit four three page papers and one long paper of not less than ten pages. This course meets the new traditions requirement. (Esonwanne)

Section 003 Film Styles-Fiction, Film & Culture: Lean and Kurosawa. David Lean and Akira Kurosawa have left the imprint of their directional styles on the films they have made more than most other directors. We will view half a dozen films of each, comparing their styles and what these reflect about their differing cultural backgrounds British and Japanese. We will also discuss the ways they have adapted some of their films from works of fiction and stage drama. The films will be chosen from a narrowing of these lists (sources to be read are given in parentheses): For Lean: Great Expectations and Oliver Twist (from the novels by Charles Dickens), Blithe Spirit and Brief Encounter (from plays by Noel Coward), Bridge on the River Kwai (from the novel by Pierre Boulle), A Passage to India (from the novel by E.M. Forester), Lawrence of Arabia, Ryan's Daughter. For Kurosawa: Throne of Blood (from Shakespeare's Macbeth), Ran (from Shakespeare's King Lear), The Lower Depths (from Maxim Gorky's Play), Rashomon (from two short stories by Ryunosuke Akutagawa), The Idiot (from Dostoevsky's novel), Ikiru, Dodeskaden, Seven Samurai, Dreams, Stray Dog. (All of Kurosawa's films are in Japanese with English subtitles.) Since some films are considerably longer than two hours, the class will sometimes run over an extra hour or more. No previous experience with film is required, but attendance at the showing and discussion of the films is crucial. There will be frequent writing of short pieces and a final exam. This course may be elected to satisfy the junior-senior writing requirement. Cost:5 (Howes)

Section 005 Confessional Poetry. (Satisfies American Literature Requirement). This course explores the idea of confession within autobiographical American poetry, 1959-1990. While a confession implies a real, worldly self telling an absolute and often shocking truth, poetic form and the nature of writing contradict these notions of self and truth. To make confession the business of poetry is, as Robert Lowell writes, to "make what can't be done / the one thing you can do." But by submitting to this double bind, the poets in this course investigate a central desire of writing: the desire to make something pure out of an impure medium. Requirements for the course: 2 papers, a midterm, a final, an oral report, regular attendance, and weekly responses to readings. Poets and critics we'll read include: John Berryman, Elizabeth Bishop, Olga Broumas, Paul de Man, Jacques Derrida, Louise Gluck, Robert Lowell, Sharon Olds, Anne Sexton. Cost:3 (Terada)

Section 006 The World and the Stage. (Pre-1830) Senior seminars are places where students who have learned various ways of approaching texts can come to grips with their own preferred methodologies. Our own literary criticism can be done well or badly depending on our awareness of what's involved. In this section we will broaden our sense of what the activity of criticism entails, and will try our skills on certain selected playtexts from the Elizabethan and Jacobean theater. Our principal activity will be critical practice which of course means lots of writing - rather than the mastery of a reading list. We'll do a number of short papers, and will work through several drafts of a long critical essay, in our effort to discover what kinds of things one can credibly and persuasively say or write about such texts. Seminars are by their very nature participatory, and in this seminar lots of class participation will be required; if you prefer just to sit back and listen in class, this course isn't for you. Also satisfies pre-1830 requirement. (Ingram)

423. The Writing of Fiction. Open to seniors and graduate students; written permission of the instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and, finally, to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Students who want to enroll in this course should get on the waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to the first day of class. A list of those admitted will be posted shortly thereafter. Cost:1 WL:1 (Ezekiel)

427. Playwriting. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

An intensive seminar in the art of Adaptation. We will limit ourselves to the virtually unlimited resources of fictional and non-fictional material which has been (or might be) brought to the stage, exploring the various strategies, esthetic ideologies, and practical concerns of the professional adaptor. Texts we will consider include The Grapes of Wrath (and the subsequent Steppenwolf Theater production), The Book of Job (and JB), The Recruiting Officer (and last year's Broadway Tony nominee Our Country's Good), An Enemy of the People (Ibsen's original & Miller's update), The Life and Times of Harvey Milk (and Execution of Justice ), and the instructor's own adaptation of Born Guilty, among others. Students will propose and outline several adaptations of their own and continue on to revise at least one hour-long adaptation based on source material of their own choosing. The course is open to any student who has taken Playwriting 227 or an intensive screenwriting course and is well versed in the fundamentals of dramatic structure. To enroll, sign up on waitlist at CRISP and come to the first day of class with an original play or screenplay to submit during interview. WL:1 Cost:2 also copying expenses (OyamO)

428. Senior Writing Tutorial. English 223, 323, and 423/429 or equivalent (3). (Excl).

This course is a combination writing workshop/thesis tutorial for undergraduate students who are in their last year at Michigan, have taken the 200-,300-, and 400-level writing workshops, and have been accepted into the Creative Writing Program. Students will complete a major manuscript of fiction or poetry. Supervised reading and writing assignments will also form a part of the curriculum. Regular tutorial meetings between students and faculty will take place: workshops in fiction and/or poetry might be arranged. The course is designed to afford students and faculty the greatest flexibility and latitude in devising the most beneficial working arrangements, given the particular needs of students taking the course that term. Cost:2 WL:1 (Hagy)

429. The Writing of Poetry. Written permission of instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

This course is a poetry-writing workshop. Students will circulate and discuss their poems written during the term, as well as analyze a selection of poetry and criticism by eminent contemporary poets. We shall use an anthology of recent poetry as our central text. Students should be prepared to devote considerable time to composition and revision, and to extensive commentary on their fellow students' writing. Each student will keep a journal of readings, ruminations, and materials for poems. Some experience in creative writing courses is desirable, though not essential. Permission of the instructor is required. Leave a sample manuscript of 3-5 pages in Professor Goldstein's mailbox in the English Department office during the week before the first day of class, or bring a manuscript to the first class. A class list will be posted on the door of 1617 Haven Hall after the first day of class. Cost:1 (Goldstein)

431. The English Novel from Dickens to Conrad. (4). (Excl).

This course will study the development of the nineteenth-century English novel and its relationship to cultural history. Often deeply engaged with social and political issues of the period - imperialism, evolutionary theory, urban poverty, class division, and what came to be called the "Woman question" nineteenth-century novelists focused on a wide spectrum of social and personal relations using a variety of genres and narrative techniques. We will enter the London slums to solve a murder mystery in Dickens' OUR MUTUAL FRIEND, and we will examine the structure of provincial society in Eliot's MIDDLEMARCH. Other texts we will study include Elizabeth Gaskell's CRANFORD, Sarah Grand's THE HEAVENLY TWINS, Bram Stoker's DRACULA, and Joseph Conrad's HEART OF DARKNESS. Participation in class discussion is strongly encouraged, and there will be two papers and a final exam. Cost:3 (Vrettos)

432. The American Novel. (4). (Excl).

In one of those cultural contradictions of capitalism, most of the major works of American fiction have been oppositional to the prevailing values of American society to its optimistic, progressive pragmatic, materialistic ethos. Well, sort of...sometimes. In any event, the thematic nexus (such as it is) for this course will be the relationship of the artists' visions of America to the dominant culture. But more important than the thematic thread on which we string them will be the works themselves, in all their uniqueness. The novels to be studied are The Scarlet Letter, Huckleberry Finn, Portrait of a Lady, The Awakening, Sister Carrie, The House of Mirth, The Great Gatsby, Their Eyes Were Watching God, and The Sound and the Fury. Two essays (of five pages each) will be assigned, and a midterm and final exam will be given. Also satisfies American Literature requirement. Cost:3 (Beauchamp)

433. The Modern Novel. (4). (Excl).

This course will seek to answer some fundamental questions relating to the modernity of the novel in the twentieth century: What distinguishes the modern novel from its precursors? Do modern novels share common features of language, ideology, and style that differ from the ones that defined fiction in the nineteenth century? What are the central ideas that have informed modern fiction and how can we discuss the sometimes tenuous relation between these texts and their contexts? Through a close reading of some of the most prominent works of modernism, we will examine the ways novelists writing in what was seen as a period of radical change and immeasurable decline responded to a crisis of society, history, and self by developing new modes of literary style and language, new conceptions of character and society. We will examine both the formal and thematic issues that dominate these works, the relation between modern writers in exile, and the persistent deployment of the "Other" (the woman, the Black, the colonial) in modern fiction. Readings include Conrad Almayer's Folly, Joyce Portrait of the Artist as A Young Man, Ford The Good Soldier, Woolf To the Lighthouse, Forster A Passage to India, Mansfield In a German Pension, Stein Three Lives, Lawrence Sons and Lovers, Rhys Wide Sargasso Sea, and Kincaid Annie John. Course requirements: regular quizzes, two short papers, a midterm, and a final examination. Cost:1 (Gikandi)

434. The Contemporary Novel. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 The Postmodern Novel.
In this course we will explore the trials and tribulations of the "postmodern condition" as it is imagined by novelists and cultural critics/theorists. Beginning with a survey of recent attempts to define the postmodern - in philosophy, history, literary theory, and political theory - we will move on to a consideration of how fiction participates in the revolutions of postmodern culture. Our main focus for lecture and discussion will be on how postmodernism attempts to breakdown the boundaries between fiction and history; popular and "high" culture; individual identity and collective ideology; technology and "reality"; the world and the text. We will pay particular attention to the political valences of the postmodern by focusing on how gender, race, class, and sexual differences get refigured by artistic practices which question and critique "official" constructions of history, literature, and identity. Texts: A course pack of critical-theoretical writings on postmodernism (available at Accu-Copy); novels by both "central" and "marginal" postmodernists (available at Shaman Drum). Some possibilities: Kathy Aker, Angela Carter, Thomas Pynchon, Maxine Hong Kingston, Gabriel Garcia-Marquez, Gayl Jones, Don DeLillo, D.L. Doctorow, Marianne Wiggins, Ishmael Reed, Donald Barthelme, Jeanette Winterson, Samuel Delany, John Fowles. Midterm, final, 2 papers. (S. Robinson)

441. Contemporary Poetry. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Studies in Three Great Late-Twentieth-Century Poets.
Rather than taking the approach of reading a handful of poems each by a great number of poets, what we will do in this class is to try to become thoroughly acquainted with the work of three of the most celebrated poets of our time two American, one Irish. We will read Elizabeth Bishop's Complete Poems alongside her Collected Prose, for the pleasure of seeing how she worked out various experiences in poetry and in prose. Some have seen Bishop as someone who led a privileged, upper middle-class life filled with travel to foreign countries. Through a close look at what her life looked like from the inside, we will see how superficial the socio-economic view of her turns out to be. For Gary Snyder, perhaps the first poet to put ecological issues and Eastern philosophies at the center of his life's work, we will explore his No Nature: Selected Poems while at the same time reading his essays, The Practice of the Wild. Seamus Heaney, the best-known Irish poet of our time, writes poems reflecting an experience of the Irish countryside, but is also largely preoccupied with how experience and the language impinge on each other. His book of prose writings, Preoccupations, will allow us to examine other "takes" on many of the question that arise in his poems. Workload: frequent short quizzes; two five-page papers; a take-home midterm and final. Cost:3 (Tillinghast)

444/Theatre 322. History of Theatre II. (3). (HU).

See Theatre and Drama 322. (Woods)

448. Contemporary Drama. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the variety of dramatic forms in the Western European tradition of the second half of the twentieth century. To accomplish this goal, the class will focus its attention on a variety of topics, including the rise of the theatrical avant-garde, the theater of the absurd, the theater of social protest, and new constructions of dramatic realism with an accent on gender and multi-cultural issues. Playwrights whose work will be considered include Beckett, Ionesco, Genet, Pinter, Durrenmatt, Duras, Osborne, Bond, Arden, Stoppard, Churchill, Hare, Heiner Muller, and Hanif Kureishi. Class assignments will include a midterm, a final, and several short written exercises. This course will make extensive use of video, film, and other recorded material. Cost:4 (Brater)

449/Theatre 423. American Theatre and Drama. (3). (HU).

After a brief overview of American drama and theatre before their coming-of age in the early 1920's, we will concentrate on the major dramatists and movements since then, while not neglecting the scope of modern American dramatic productivity and theatrical activity. A common body of reading forms the basis for class discussion. It will focus on O'Neill, Williams and Miller and will also include representative works of Rice, Kaufman, Odets, Albee and several others, including some more recent playwrights of note (possibilities include, but are not limited to: Mamet, Shepard, A. Wilson, Henly, McNally, Gurney, Guare: much will depend on available texts at reasonable prices). We will treat plays as dramatic literature, theatrical art, and manifestations of their historical, philosophical and social milieu. Students may choose their required outside reading (beyond the common body of selections) from a wide list. You will read between 25 and 30 plays. Informal lecture and discussion, the amount of which will probably be a function of the size of the class. Reading journal (to be submitted twice); 2 papers (the second to be more ambitious); final essay examination; some secondary reading. Satisfies American Literature requirement. Cost:3 (Bauland)

467. Topics in Shakespeare. Prior course work in Shakespeare is recommended. (3) (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Shakespeare's Final Works Complete.
If our biographical information is accurate, Shakespeare retired from the profession of writer and playwright around age forty-eight. At a time when he was enormously successful and (presumably) in good health, he left London for his home town and never produced or published again. It is a remarkable choice, virtually unprecedented among great authors, and it raises especially interesting questions about the works that immediately precede this retirement. Included in this group are some of his most beloved plays and some of his most difficult and we will read them all; three tragedies, four romances, and a kind of hybrid history play: Antony and Cleopatra, Coriolanus, Timon of Athens, Cymbeline, Pericles, The Winter's Tale, The Tempest, Henry VIII. Close attention to language, culture, and theater, and a recurrent interest in what it means to end a career on purpose: do these writings point toward Shakespeare's choice to stop writing? A short paper, a long paper, a final; class participation important. Note: this is a course designed for students who have already had a basic introduction to Shakespeare and who wish to delve deeper into this inexhaustible subject. This course meets the pre-1800 requirement. Cost:2 WL:1 (Barkan)

469. Milton. (3). (Excl).

In this course, we will read widely in Milton's poetry and prose. We will ask many of the same questions Milton did: how could a poet possibly influence politics? what is the relation between interpreting The Bible and understanding present-day history? what is the relation between censorship, creativity, and law? what is the relation between divine will and human authority? what kinds of independent choices can human beings have in the face of divine power? why would anyone think Genesis needs to be rewritten, and why would anyone do it, even if she or he thought so? Requirements include class participation, two essays, an in-class midterm, and a take-home final. Books will be available at Shaman Drum and a Course pack at the Liberty St. Kinko's. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement. Cost:4 (Krook)

471. Nineteenth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).

An introduction to the classic period of American literature, 1825-1865. We will read not only from familiar texts such as The Scarlet Letter, Moby-Dick, Walden, and "Song of Myself", but from less familiar ones such as Catherine Sedgwick's Hope Leslie, Caroline Kirkland's A New Home, and Harriet Jacob's Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. The course will proceed chronologically from Hope Leslie and Hawthorne's early tales to the poems of Emily Dickinson. Some themes we will take up are: The invention of American literature as a struggle for intellectual independence from Europe; the memory of New England Puritanism as reinterpreted by nineteenth-century writers; the effort to find and voice spirituality, in nature and outside of it; the cultural and personal identity of women and men as imagined in their writings; and the presence of slavery in the American imagination before the Civil War. Two papers and a final. Regular attendance and class participation expected. (American Literature Requirement) (McIntosh)

472. Twentieth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).

Representative American fiction from about 1900 to mid-century. An attempt to get here from there. We open with the work of "literary gangsters" like Stephen Crane's MAGGIE and RED BADGE OF COURAGE and Dreiser's SISTER CARRIE, move on to Harold Frederic's mauling of Protestant fundamentalism in THE DAMNATION OF THERON WARE and Frank Norris' expose of political corruption in THE OCTOPUS (or his grotesque San Francisco novel McTEAGUE), and take a quiet R-and-R with the rich-and-famous of Edith Wharton's CUSTOM OF THE COUNTRY or HOUSE OF MIRTH. Then on to the Big Three of the Twenties: William Faulkner's LIGHT IN AUGUST (unless everybody has already read it, in which case we pick another), F. Scott Fitzgerald's THE GREAT GATSBY and Ernest Hemingway's saga of sleeping bag and Spanish Civil War in FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS. Then down to the wire with two final works: Nathaniel West's trashing of Hollywood in DAY OF THE LOCUST (maybe picking up his LONELYHEARTS en route), along with a contemporary work of fiction that the class wants to read. Above list still tentative. We may also add one more text (O'Connor? Updike? Pynchon? Barth?). Writing requirements: the usual papers (short and long) and final examination. Also satisfies American Lit Requirement. Cost:4 (Eby)

473. Topics in American Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Class and Money in American Fiction.
This course will explore the interrelationships of class and money in some American fiction. These will range from the rags-to-riches success formula of Horatio Alger's Ragged Dick of the 1880's to Tom Wolfe's satire of the glitzy get-rich 1980s, Bonfire of the Vanities. In between we will read W.D. Howells' A Traveler from Altruria, Henry James' The American, Jack London's Martin Eden, Theodore Dreiser's Sister Carrie, Edith Wharton's The House of Mirth, F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, Sinclair Lewis' Babbitt, John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, and Philip Roth's Goodbyeets Columbus. Grades in the course will be based on three hourly exams and one essay (or perhaps two). This also satisfies American Literature Requirement. Cost:3 (Beauchamp)

Section 002 Three Modern Poets: Pound, Eliot, and Stevens. The course will examine what three major writers Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, and Wallace Stevens have to teach us about the kinds of relations possible among art, society, and individual experience. We will consider their chief works both in themselves and as responses to personal, political, and literary problems. The readings are primarily poetry, with some critical prose by the authors themselves. We proceed by a mixture of lecture and discussion. There are two papers (about six pages each) and a final examination. Also satisfies American Literature Requirement. Cost:3 (Bornstein)

Section 003 Chicano Literature. (New Traditions, American Literature). For Winter Term, 1993, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 498.001. (Zimmerman)

482. Studies in Individual Authors. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Robert Frost and Thoreau.
This course will use the writings of Thoreau [THE MAINE WOODS, WALDEN, A WEEK ON THE CONCORD AND MERRIMACK RIVERS, some essays and some entries from the JOURNALS] as occasion for looking into specific Frost Poems. About two thirds of the way through the term we will focus our attention solely on Frost [COLLECTED POEMS, edited by Lathem]. You will keep a journal for in-class writings, will write about six short papers [2-4 pages], and will memorize poems on weeks you are not turning papers in. We will find ways to have discussion in a class of 35. There may be one test during the term. No final exam. (American Literature) (Clark)

Section 002 Jonathan Swift. (Pre-1830). Satire, invective, burlesque, parody: all are tools for pointing out the difference between things as they really are and as they are presented to us by our politicians, our government, our society and our culture. We'll spend some time in the beginning on the history of satire, and students will have an opportunity to write a little satire as well as to follow and report on satire in our own time. Mostly however, we'll read and discuss the works of Jonathan Swift, the greatest writer of satire in The English Language: A Tale of a Tub, "The Argument against Abolishing Christianity," various political essays, satirical poems, and of course, Gulliver's Travels and "A Modest Proposal". This course meets the Pre-1830 and American Literature requirement for English Majors. (Cloyd)

483. Great Works of Literature. (1). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Primo Levi and the Memory of Auschwitz.
Primo Levi was a Jew from Torino who survived a year in Auschwitz. His books, which deal recurrently with this experience, arguably constitute one of the major moral and stylistic projects of this century. In this course we will discuss four of them: Survival at Auschwitz, The Reawakening, The Periodic Table, and The Drowned and The Saved. We will also read selections from his book of shorter pieces, Another's Profession. We will examine in particular his understanding of the role of memory and remembering in constituting social experience, and observe the ways in which he confronts the problem of writing about the unspeakable. (Williams)

495. Honors Survey: The Twentieth Century. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

English 495 is the required course for the last term of the regular Honors program. A very few other students, for special reasons, may be admitted by permission of the instructor. The course, this year, is entitled MODERNISM AND AFTER. Fiction is most likely to include: Bennett, THE OLD WIVES' TALE; Woolf, TO THE LIGHTHOUSE; Lawrence, WOMEN IN LOVE; Ford Madox Ford, THE GOOD SOLDIER; Joyce, ULYSSES; Pynchon, GRAVITY'S RAINBOW. Poetry will include some of Yeats', T.S. Eliot's, Auden's, and some more recent. WL:Permission of Instructor (Gindin)

496. Honors Survey: Thesis and Comprehensive Examination. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

Number for thesis and comprehensive exams in the regular Honors program. This course Satisfies the upper-class writing requirement with the ECB and students should so modify their enrollment in the course. (Gindin)


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