Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

A survey of European civilization its politics, institutions, intellectual life, economic development, and social change from the fall of Rome to the Thirty Years War and the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century. A textbook will provide a basic chronology, and a series of weekly readings in primary sources will give students some familiarity with the actual authors of the ideas and events that make up this history. Two lectures a week will focus on the central interpretive problems of each historical period. Two section meetings a week will be devoted to discussion with active participation by students of the assigned reading. There may be occasional quizzes. There will be three short essays on the assigned reading, a midterm, and a final. Emphasis is placed on learning methods of historical analysis and interpretation, not on rote memorization, but one goal of the course is to give students a general sense of the development of western culture in these centuries. (Tentler)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course explores European history from the Enlightenment through the Second World War (1715 to 1945). While structured around the "turning points" of modern European history, this course also examines the social, economic, cultural and political factors that shaped these transformations. Using a lively and varied selection of primary and secondary reading materials, the course combines the scholarly works of historians with testimony of those who experienced the events we will study. In addition to historical monographs, historical novels, and excerpts from the works of Mill, Marx and Engels, and Nietzsche, readings will include transcripts of the trial of the king during the French Revolution; popular scientific debates about sexual and racial inequalities from the 1860s and 70s; soldiers' letters from the trenches of World War I; women workers' poignant letters about maternity; and a compelling study of the transformation of one northern German town during the Nazi rise to power. The course will emphasize critical and creative interpretation of lectures and readings in discussion sections and in written work (mid-term and final exams and one 5-page essay). Course consists of two lectures and two discussion sections weekly. Cost:3 WL:4. Course should open up upon demand; check with department if full. (Canning)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 122. (Murphey)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

A survey of early American history from the period of initial colonization through the Civil War. The course will be organized around the interactions of the three dominant cultures which came together in early America: Native American, European, and Africa. We will explore the internal dynamics of each culture (family life, religious beliefs, political system, labor arrangements, gender roles) and how the clash of cultures shaped the experience of Americans in the colonial and national periods. Specific topics will include the problems of forming communities in an alien environment, the transition to slave labor and the origins of an African-American society, the American Revolution and the creation of the republic, the emergence of sectionalism, and the impact of early industrialism. Students will attend two lectures and two section meetings each week, and read a series of monographs and primary documents. A midterm, final exam, and written assignment are required. (Juster)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

What are the forces that have shaped contemporary America? This course will attempt to answer this question by focusing on such topics as the meaning of race, class, gender and ethnicity in American society, foreign policy in the twentieth century, patterns in economic development, the urbanization and suburbanization processes, and the politics and meaning of liberalism and conservatism in recent America. Themes that will be traced through these years will include the tensions between altruism and self interest in domestic and foreign policy, between unity and diversity in the population, and between the market and the government as institutions to allocate resources. Students will attend two lectures and a section meeting each week, take mid-term and final examinations, and complete an additional writing assignment. Readings will include a textbook and about a half a dozen other paperbacks including novels, autobiographies, and synthetic overviews of aspects of American history. (McDonald)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).

A survey of Roman history from the founding of Rome in the eighth century B.C. to the emergence of a Christian Roman empire in the fourth century A.D. Topics to be discussed include the consolidation of Italy under Roman rule; overseas wars of expansion into the Mediterranean; the domination of military commanders such as Pompey and Julius Caesar; the establishment of an empire by Augustus; and the conversion of Constantine to Christianity. Readings will include a survey textbook and many ancient texts in translation. Classes will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussions led by TAs. Final grade is based on two tests, frequent quizzes, and participation in discussions. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. Cost:2 WL:1 (Van Dam)

209/ABS 265. Clash of Empires: History of the Near East in the Late Bronze Age. Familiarity with the history and geography of the Near East is helpful. (3). (Excl).

See Ancient and Biblical Studies 265. (Beckman)

221. Survey of British History from 1688. (3). (SS).

This lecture course covers the history of Britain in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Topics include: British society and politics in the 18th century; 18th century economic and cultural change; industrialization and the making of modern class identities; the impact of the French revolution on British politics; regional differences and the histories of Scotland and Wales; the "Irish question" in the 19th and 20th centuries; the development of working class politics; Liberalism, Conservatism, and the emergence of Labour politics; gender and the activities and ideas of women; sexuality in the 19th and 20th centuries; imperialism, science, and the ideas about race; the position and activities of Blacks and Asians in Britain; social and cultural modernity; the impact of the two world wars; Britain in the post-colonial era; British-American relations; youth in Britain in the post-war era; the sixties and seventies; Thatcherism; and contemporary British social, political, and cultural movements. Assignments will include several short papers; small groups discussions; and a take-home final consisting of two longer essays. No special background is required, but familiarity with modern European history would be very useful. Readings will include both primary and secondary materials and both historical and literary sources. Cost:2 WL:1 (Israel)

251. Modern China. (3). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. Cost:2,3 WL:3 (A. Feuerwerker)

260/Am. Cult. 260. Religion in America. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the historical study of religion in America, from the early seventeenth century to the present. Emphasis falls on broad movements of people and ideas rather than denominational histories. Religion obviously is and has been crucial in the historical experience of peoples of the United States and its predecessor colonies. Moreover, religion has become in the past 15-20 years a subject of major importance in historical writing, with growing relevance to a broad range of other areas, including social history, intellectual history, the history of science, and political history. For both of these reasons, history of religion is central to the study of American history. The course will emphasize the theories, methods, and problems that have been applied to or arisen within the historical study of religion. (Turner)

265. A History of the University of Michigan. (3). (HU).

The University of Michigan has been a leader in shaping the modern American university. The course will examine this heritage and history from the perspectives of students, faculty, fields of study, administration, etc. It will explore the factors that have shaped the University and place it within the larger social, political, national, and international context. The only prerequisite is an interest in your University and its place in history. Presentation will be through lectures with slides. Grading will be based on essay/objective exams; term project or research paper; photo quiz to acquaint students with central campus, its architecture and embellishment. Readings will be from a course pack and 2 or 3 required texts. Cost:2 WL:1 (Steneck, Steneck)

275/CAAS 231. Survey of Afro-American History II. (3). (SS).

See CAAS 231. (Kelley)

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (3). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. The course will study four different historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Native Americans, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries; and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. We will focus on American history, although comparisons will be drawn to other societies. The course is a basic introduction, however, first-year students must obtain permission of the professor to enroll. Classes are taught in lecture format, and will include a variety of audio-visual sources. Reading assignments will range from modern histories to poetry and old medical journals. There will be two essay-style examinations, and frequent short quizzes. This is a challenging and demanding course. Those who miss the first meeting without advance permission will be dropped from the course. Cost:1-5. Required purchases cost $15, but additional required reading assignments, available on reserve or for optional purchase, cost up to $110 additional if bought. WL:4 (Pernick)

285(University Courses 265). Science, Technology, and Society After The Bomb. (3). (HU).

The enterprise of science changed dramatically after WW II, both intellectually and socially. The consequences of being able to split the atom and, more recently, to engineer biological blueprints have made science literally a life and death activity that touches every human. This course will explore the growth and implications of scientific and technological development from the end of WWII to the present. There will be two lectures and one discussion per week. There is a discussion on Friday. Course has discussion sections which generally will meet at another time in place of the Friday. Students will work in small groups on one problem during the term, e.g. energy, pollution, global warming, health care issues. Each group will hand in a jointly written report at the end of term and present a class report. Three or four books will be assigned reading. Students will be expected to make use of the Message System and a course CONFERence. Cost:Under $50 WL:1 (Steneck)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

316. History of Eighteenth-Century Europe. (3). (SS).

This course is designed both to cover the period and area, and to introduce problems of comparison of states' developments. The varying interactions with society of five or six states (at least France, England, Prussia, Russia, Poland) will be studied through lectures and reading. In particular, the aim is to understand why, in what has been called the age of the democratic revolution, that revolution took root in France rather than elsewhere. Students will read first in general works treating the eighteenth century, and then in more detail in the histories of France and two other countries that they will choose for purposes of making comparisons. There will be an hour exam, an essay of eight to ten pages, and a final examination. (Bien)

333/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of East Central Europe. (4). (SS).

See Russian and Eastern European Studies 396. (Eagle)

346/Nat. Res. 356. Environmental History and the Tropical World. (3). (Excl).

The primary objective of this course is to analyze the history of change in the natural resources endowments of the developing world, as those resources have come under intensive exploitation over the past two centuries, especially by the colonial regimes and capitalist economies of the industrial "North". We will concentrate on three subject areas: the depletion of tropical forests, the transformation of savannah lands, and the degradation of mountain systems. At two points in the course we will consider more systematically the types of historical analysis which can contribute to understanding today's natural resources policy issues. We will end with a brief survey of the history of the international wildlands conservation movement, in the context of our understanding of the domestication of the planet. Cost:2 WL:4(Tucker)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

The wars of this century have been important experiences both for American society and for millions of individual Americans. This course examines those wars through literature, histories, films, lectures, and discussions in order to find patterns of change: changes in how America fights wars and changes in the society that results from them. It also examines changes in the personal perceptions of the experience of war: perceptions not only of the combat soldiers but also of the many others affected by wars. Among the readings are Gray, The Warriors, Hanley, Writing War, March, Company K, Sledge, With the Old Breed, and O'Brien, The Things They Carried. There will be a midterm and a final exam. Please register for only ONE lecture section and one discussion section. Cost:4 WL:4 (Collier)

371/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine how social constructions of gender, race, class, and sexuality have shaped women's lives in the U.S. from the Civil War to the present, and how some women have pushed at the boundaries of those constructions through, for example, changing patterns of work, leisure, education, and intimacy; through political activism; through labor organizing; through involvement in a variety of social movements; and through popular culture. We will emphasize the diversity of women's historical experiences by region as well as by social category, and will situate those experiences in the larger contexts of social, economic, and political change on local, national, and even global levels. Requirements include a midterm, a final, and a paper, as well as active participation in discussion sections. Films will be shown. Cost:3 WL:4 (Johnson)

376/Amer. Cult. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (Excl).

See American Culture 372. (Robinson)

389. War Since the Eighteenth Century. (3). (Excl).

This course deals with the war and military organization in Europe and North America since the beginnings of modern states (about 1500). It emphasizes the more recent period, from just before the 18th-century American and French Revolutions to the present time. Its focus is on the interaction of warfare a changing set of techniques and technologies with the broader political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects of war. Attention is also given to particular military campaigns and battles, but mainly to make clear the technical aspects of war and to illustrate important trends and patterns. The approach of the course is comparative, between the differing histories of nation-states, and between the divergent military experience of Europe and North America. The aim of the course is to explore the central role played by war in the history of the modern, Western world. Three weekly lectures, with readings discussed at Friday's lecture; hour exam and two-hour final, optional term paper, and occasional in-class written exercises. Paul Kennedy, Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, and Russell Weigley, American Way of War, are the main books, supplemented by other books; reading assignments are fairly heavy. (Shy)

391. Topics in European History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 History of the Jews in Spain.
The course examines the history of the Jews in Spain, from their earliest settlement in Roman times to the Expulsion of 1492. After a survey of the Roman and Visigothic periods, it treats the flowering of Jewish courtier culture in Moslem Spain. It then deals with the transition to a Christian environment, as the Reconquista proceeds. Internal development are examined, including the controversy over philosophy and the emergence of Kabbalah. External pressures during the century prior to the Expulsion are examined, including the riots of 1391, the Jewish-Christian disputation of Tortosa, and the establishment of the Inquisition. Finally, the course analyzes the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain and the formation of the Sephardic diaspora. There will be two brief papers and a final exam. (Bodian)

393. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Women and Industrialization in the U.S.
This course explore the historical relationship between the organization of industrial capitalism and the constructions and realities of "women's work." Drawing on the analytical categories of gender, class, race, ethnicity, and sexuality, the class will investigate the origins and meanings of evolving ideologies of paid and unpaid labor as well as the implications of these cultural formations for women's wages, occupations, leisure activities, political consciousness, and social relations. Although readings range across the full span of U.S. history, special attention will be paid to the early industrialization of gender, from 1790s to the 1880s. (Karlsen)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators needing ECB requirement and by override only. Apply for overrides and 3613 Haven Hall beginning Monday, Nov. 16 MWF 8-10 a.m. or W 2-4 p.m. ONLY. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 History of the Jews in Germany, 1648-1945. This colloquium will deal with the major issues in the history of German Jewry from 1648 to 1945. It will deal first with the conditions of Jewish resettlement after the Thirty Years' War and the role of court Jews in the centralizing German states. It will examine the Enlightenment debate on the status of the Jews in the late eighteenth century and the related "Jewish Enlightenment" in Berlin. The dramatic changes in nineteenth-century German Jewish society ideological and social will be studied in light of the opportunities and pressures associated with the struggle for Emancipation. The reaction against Jewish Emancipation within German society and the rise of modern antisemitism will be examined up to the destruction of German Jewry under the Nazis. Cost:2 (Bodian)

Section 002 History of the American West. Out beyond the hundredth meridian lay one of the most obscure and fascinating places in all the world. It is a place at turns both mythical and fantastic, a region steeped in folklore and brimming with legend. It is not easy to put one's finger on this place; its boundaries remain vague and ambiguous. But somehow we manage to conjure an understanding in our minds, a picture of this place we call the American West. In this course, we will search for the identity of this region, exploring the history of this place in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. How did the American West come to be and at whose expense? What were the social, cultural, and ecological impacts of the conquest of this vast land? These and other questions will be explored through class discussions and brief oral presentations. Two interpretive essays will also be required. Cost:4-5 (Steinberg)

Section 003 Constructing the Political: Representations of power and the idea of virtue in pre-modern political thought. Students will read selected works of Plato, Augustine, Machiavelli and Hobbes. The main work of the seminar will be to analyze how several "canonical" thinkers in western political theory have understood human nature, social order and the value of political activity. In particular, we will look for ways in which notions about male and female, slave and free, higher and lower (class/status) have underwritten constructions of both social and political order. Finally, we will look to see how it is that the very different understandings of the past about the relationship between religion and the state, ethics and politics, or the occult and the rational - have informed the conceptions of justice, political efficacy and political power to which the western tradition is heir. Six 5-7 page papers and active class participation determine one's grade. There will be no exams. (Downs)

Section 004 Public and Private Spheres in Ancient Greece. This course traces the development of ancient Greek ideas about the relation between public and private life, from Homer to the Hellenistic period. Special background is not necessary. Students will be evaluated on the basis of contributions of class discussion and a number of short papers. Students' writing will also be evaluated for the purpose of ECB certification. Course meets for one two-hour lecture/discussion session per week. Cost:2 WL:2 (Humphreys)

Section 005 Culture and Conflict in Frontier China. This colloquium will survey conflict within the multicultural environment of the Asian mainland in both the pre-modern and modern eras. Topics include the central role of conflict in the development and definition of Chinese cultural identity, the nature and meaning of frontier in the Asian context, the reciprocal influence of the "center" and "periphery", and the formation of multicultural empires. Students will be expected to review representative texts and prepare a substantial term paper. Cost:3 WL:4 (Forage)

Section 006 Michigan in the Era of Industrialization. This course will focus on the period in Michigan history from 1880-1920. It will examine several themes in that period including immigration, industrialization, settlement patterns, etc. A general familiarity with United States history is required. History colloquia are conducted in the seminar format and are limited to a small number of students. As a result, emphasis is placed on student participation in discussions. Each student will be required to write a major research paper that will draw on the resources of the Bentley Historical Library, which contains original manuscripts and archives relating to the history of the state. The course provides an opportunity for students to gain familiarity with a critical period in the industrial and social history of the U.S. and to do original historical research. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, class discussion, and a seminar paper. Cost:2 WL:2 (Blouin)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators and by override only. Apply for overrides and 3613 Haven Hall beginning Monday, Nov. 16 MWF 8-10 a.m. or W 2-4 p.m. ONLY. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 Soldiers, Diplomats, Merchants, and Missionaries: Americans Involved in Modern Japan. This course deals with Americans who went or were invited to Japan and who played a part in the changes experienced by the Japanese in the last 150 years. It will deal with individual Americans from different walks of life: government representatives, military figures, businessmen, advisers, travelers, missionaries, teachers. It will explore their motives for going to Japan, their activities, and the consequences of their activities as well as the broader significance of the American role in modern Japanese history. Major emphasis will be given to critical reading, class oral reports and discussions and several writing requirements. Some attention will also be given to the nature and methods of historical inquiry. Reading assignments will be included in a course pack. Grading will be based on oral and written reports, contribution to class discussions, and a take-home exam at the end of the term. Cost:1 WL:2 (Hackett)

401. Problems in Greek History II. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Parody and Utopia. (1 credit)
For Winter Term, 1993, this course is jointly offered with Classical Civilization 411. (Humphreys, Most)

411. Medieval Society, Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries. (3). (Excl).

Between the eleventh and the fifteenth centuries western Europe, confronted with the challenging demands of dramatic economic change, developed social patterns and constructed cultural forms which were broadly shared and which would continue to define it long after the Middle Ages had passed. This course will concern itself with that social and cultural process. Some of the topics to be looked at in depth will be: the establishment of political order through lordship and vassalage (as well as knighthood and the development of the idea of chivalry); the assertion of domestic order through new definitions of kinship and marriage (with some attention to the reluctance of men to accept monogamy and to the disruptive possibilities encouraged by contemporary attitudes toward love); the extension of religious practice beyond the monastery into a newly confident lay society, both male and female (paying particular attention to the effect of a money economy on religious attitudes and the role of women in constructing new modes of religious expression, both orthodox and heretical). We will study, finally and in some detail, the effect on these social and cultural patterns of the demographic catastrophe of 1348 the Black Death. In addition to the examination, students will write a paper on a subject of their choice using some original sources (in translation) as well as the usual historical studies. (Hughes)

413/MARC 413. Intellectual History of the Italian Renaissance. (3). (Excl).

The course will commence with a discussion of the culture of the Northern and Central Italian city-states in the 13th century. Emphasis will be placed on the civic and public nature of city life, and it is in this context that the ideas of Dante and others of his generation will be considered. Next we shall treat the emergence of Italian humanism tracing its religious and political strands leading from Petrarch in the 14th century to his more civically minded successors in the following century. After this, we will evaluate the leading ideas of Italian Neoplatonists and their impact on fields as varied as poetry and science. Machiavelli and Machiavellianism will be examined for an understanding of the rise of a new political ethic. Courtly society and courtly culture will be studied in order to appreciate the social and political transformation occuring in Italy in the 16th century. The course will close with an analysis of scientific developments leading to the New Science of the 17th century. Cost:2 WL:2 (Becker)

417. Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present. (3). (Excl).

This course combines lectures with discussions of important secondary accounts and primary materials. The course seeks to describe the complex of ideas which develop out of the anti-positivist revolt and symbolism and which result in the modernist movement. Changes in scientific ideas, economics, political theory, aesthetics and religion are all considered. An effort is made to demonstrate the relationship of the ideas of modernity to the rise of the totalitarian movements of the Left and the Right. The total cost of the paperbacks used in the course is not likely to exceed $50. There is no term paper, its place being taken by regular discussion periods. There will be a midterm and a final exam. (Tonsor)

431. Byzantine Empire, 867-1453. (3). (Excl).

A survey taking the Byzantine Empire from the accession of the Macedonians till the Empire's fall to the Ottomans. The course focuses on both internal political history and foreign affairs (relations with the west; the great Church split between Rome and Constantinople; relations with Crusaders and with Slavic neighbors - Russians, Bulgarians, and Serbs, relations with the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks). The main texts are: Ostrogorsky's HISTORY OF THE BYZANTINE STATE, and Jenkins' BYZANTIUM: THE IMPERIAL CENTURIES; and for the final two centuries, Nichol's THE LAST CENTURIES OF BZANTIUM. Flexible requirements: Besides the final examination, various options exist: 1) a short paper and hour exam; 2) a longer paper and no hour exam. (J.Fine)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (Excl).

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of fifteen independent republics, the experience of Communism in Russia and Eastern Europe is being rethought as if the seeds of destruction had been planted already in the revolution. This course looks at the complex evolution of political structures, social developments, and cultural responses during the 70 years of the Soviet system. Beginning with the prerevolutionary crises and political movements, it surveys the rise of Stalin, the building of a "totalitarian" state, and the successive reforms that ultimately unraveled the system. The history of Russians is examined along with that of many non-Russian peoples. Students are required to attend two lectures and one discussion section each week, write a research paper, and take two take-home examinations (midterm and final). (Suny)

439. Eastern Europe Since 1900. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys the 20th century history of Eastern Europe in a broader European context. Eastern Europe (or East-Central Europe) is a key to the understanding of contemporary history, as most political movements, ideologies, cultural trends, and wars of our time originated in this area. The course focuses on the countries between Germany and Russia, mainly on Poland, Czecho-Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, but also on Bulgaria, Albania, former Yugoslavia, and the former Soviet republics of Moldova, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Topics include: the description of Eastern Europe (symbolic geography and geopolitics, from Mitteleuropa to the fall of the Iron Curtain); empires vs. nation-states: the failure of political identity; states, societies, and individuals: elites, intelligentsias, state bureaucracies, 'working classes', and 'new men'; religion, culture, and politics; Socialism, Nationalism, Fascism, and Communism; the two world wars and their consequences; the Other Europe: a synthetic history of the Soviet bloc, from 1945 to the early 1990s. Requirements: one midterm, one final, two essay; a list of readings; and initiative. Some knowledge of one of the languages spoken in the area would be highly appreciated. (Antohi)

443/GNE 474. Modern Near East History. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course surveys the emergence of the modern Middle East from the three great Muslim empires of the early modern period, the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal. It discusses both indigenous developments and the Western impact in the nineteenth century, looking at reform bureaucracy and millenarian movements as responses to these changes. We then examine the rise of nationalism and the break-up of the Ottoman Empire during and after WW I, and these phenomena are seen as the context for the beginnings of the Palestine issue. Attention is paid to the interwar efforts at building strong states in the region, whether in the Turkey of Ataturk, the Iran of Reza Shah, or Wafdist Egypt. The last part of the course looks at the rise of socialist and pan-Arab ideologies, as well as of opposing ideologies such as Islamic activism after WWII. The impact of petroleum, the Palestinian issue, the turn toward bourgeois liberalism, and Shi'ite movements such as the Iranian Revolution and the Hizbullah phenomenon in Lebanon, and the Gulf War of 1991, will all be addressed in this section. Students will take a midterm and a final examination, and will write a ten-page term paper on a subject of their choosing. Reading in this class, as with most history courses that earn 4 credits, is heavy, about 200 pages a week. Cost:4 WL:3 (Cole)

448/CAAS 448. Africa in the Twentieth Century. (3). (Excl).

The course surveys the history of sub-saharan Africa in the twentieth century, stressing the impact of colonialism on diverse African societies, social and economic change, the development of anti-colonial political movements, and the significance of acquiring independence. Readings will include novels and political documents as well as historical studies. (Cooper)

450. Japan to 1800. (3). (Excl).

Japan offers one of the most colorful of the world's premodern histories. This course will explore the evolution of Japanese civilization from its prehistoric days to the last phase of the age of the samurai, covering such major topics as the emergence of the state, aristocratic lifestyle, rise of the warriors, feudalism, peasant and lord, sexuality, and mass culture. The course is organized in a chronological fashion. Occasional films and slide presentations will supplement lectures. Students will answer three essay questions and write one paper. The basic text is John W. Hall's Japan from Prehistory to Modern Times. No prerequisites for taking the course. (Tonomura)

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; and the presidencies of Carter, Reagan, and Bush. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Review sessions will be scheduled. Cost:3 WL:4, a student may also visit the faculty office to see about getting on a Waitlist into the course. (S.Fine)

477. Latin America: The National Period. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth century. The approach is both thematic and chronological, focusing on: (1) the colonial heritage, political independence, and the development of new forms of political rule (2) agrarian transformations and labor systems (including slavery, wage labor, peasant cultivation and peonage); (3) popular movements of resistance and rebellion; (4) the social construction of racial and ethnic identities; and (8) the U.S. and Latin America. Selected countries will be discussed under each topic, with particular emphasis on Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, the Andes, and Central America. Requirements include a book review, a longer essay, a midterm, and a final. Texts include Benjamin Keen, A History of Latin America, selected novels, and several historical and anthropological monographs. The format of the course is lecture/discussion. Cost:4 WL:1 (Scott)

487/Engl. 416/Women's Studies 416. Women in Victorian England. (3). (Excl).

See English 416. (Vicinus)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (Excl).

See Economics 491 (Levenstein)

508. Magic, Religion and Science in Early Modern England. Hist. 220 and junior standing are recommended. (3). (Excl).

The mental world of men and women in the early modern age (1500-1800) was very different from ours. Magical beliefs suffused the thinking of ordinary people in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; religion was a matter of urgent importance and political struggle for people of all classes. By tracing the intertwined histories of magic and religion in this period one can follow the evolution of most important elements of popular culture. This course does just that, and shows that there were profound shifts in beliefs. It follows the fortunes of official religion, asking how deeply and how quickly the Reformation transformed the religion of ordinary people, and analyzes clerical hostility to magic, focusing on magical healing, astrology, alchemy, and witchcraft. Finally, it will consider the causes and cultural meaning of the rise of science, exploring both the ways in which magic fostered science and ultimately came to be defined as antithetical to it. The course does not presuppose a background in English history, but students should be broadly familiar with the major European cultural movements in this period the Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment. (MacDonald)

517. History of Ireland Since 1603. (3). (Excl).

A narrative history of modern Ireland from the time of the collapse of Gaelic culture at the Tudor conquest until the present. Lectures will treat aspects of cultural and social as well as political history. The main texts will be Moody and Martin, THE COURSE OF IRISH HISTORY, and R.F. Footer's MODERN IRELAND 1600-1972. Course work will include two hour exams, one term paper, a final examination. There is no course prerequisite and no prior knowledge of Ireland is required. Cost:2 WL:1 (McNamara)

531. History of the Balkans Since 1800. (3). (Excl).

History 531 is a lecture course which surveys the history of the modern Balkans the area which consists of the present-day countries of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania from roughly 1800 to the present. There are no pre-requisites nor required background. Interested freshman should feel welcome. Grading is based on: one hour exam, a one-hour written exam, writing on one essay question out of about four, one course paper (approximately 15 pages, topic according to student interest but cleared with instructor) and a written final exam (2 essay questions to be chosen from a list of about 8 questions). Major issues to be covered are: liberation movements of the Serbs and Greeks from the Ottomans, development of their two states, the crisis of 1875-78 with international involvement ending with the Treaty of Berlin, Croatia and Bosnia under the Habsburgs, the development of Bulgaria after 1878, the Macedonia problem, terrorist societies, World War I, the formation of Yugoslavia, nationality problems in Yugoslavia between the Wars, German penetration and the rise of dictatorships in the inter-war Balkans, World War II with Yugoslav and Greek resistance movements (including the Greek Civil War), Tito's Yugoslavia, its 1948 break with the USSR and Yugoslavia's special path to socialism. Cost:3 WL:4 (J. Fine)

550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (3). (Excl).

This is a systematic analysis of state, society, men, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: 1) the concept and structure of empire; 2) soldiers, diplomacy, and war; 3) society, cities, and literature; 4) barbarian challenge, economic development, and social change; 5) state, society, and culture in early modern China. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. Cost:4 WL:1 (Chang)

559. U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (3). (Excl).

This course examines American diplomacy since the outbreak of World War I. Major topics include entry into and participation in the two World Wars, the origins and development of the Cold War, the war in Vietnam and the diplomacy of the post-Vietnam era. Although extensive attention is given to the world setting in which America acted, the primary emphasis is upon the formulation and execution of American policy, including investigation of the forces, domestic and foreign, which influenced it. A textbook and reading for a term paper are required. In addition to the paper, an hour exam and a final examination are required. Cost:1 WL:1 (Perkins)

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the intellectual discourse of educated Americans from around 1865 until the near present. Its focus will be on ideas about God, the physical world, human nature, morality, society, government, race, gender, and art. The readings for the course will include works in both nonfiction and imaginative literature. Students are asked to complete one midterm examination, a paper examining in some depth the writings of an American intellectual, and a final examination. Students wishing further information should communicate with Professor Jon H. Roberts at the History Department. (Roberts)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A study of the origins, development, and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprise in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the anti-trust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920s, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, postwar business developments, and current business trends. (Lewis)

580. The History of American Constitutional Law. (3). (Excl).

This course is a survey of the evolution of American constitutional law from 1789 to the present. It will rely primarily upon reading the selections from the opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court to be found in A.T. Mason and D.G. Stephenson, Jr., eds., American Constitutional Law, and Stanley Kutler, ed., The Supreme Court And The Constitution. The goal will be to discover how the different material circumstances and social and political assumptions of each age in American history have been reflected in the Supreme Court's shifting conceptions of the meaning of the Constitution. In this way, we will seek to define how beliefs about the essential character of American republicanism have been altered through time, and in addition, to appreciate the Supreme Court's changing understanding of its own role in the constitutional order. There are no prerequisites for the course, but History 160-161 or an equivalent understanding of the general structure of American history is assumed. There will be a midterm examination of ninety minutes, a ten-page term paper, and a two-hour final examination. Cost:2 WL:4 (Thornton)

588. History of History II. (3). (Excl).

A survey of historical writing and the development of historical consciousness from Vico to the present. An effort will be made to relate the development of historical method to concrete historical problems and the objectives of significant historians. While, in the realm of pure theory, there may be an abstract "philosophy of history," this course will seek to demonstrate the relationship of theory to the solution of the practical historical problems of meaning and purpose. Lectures deal with significant historians, movements, methodologies and controlling ideas. There will be a midterm and a final examination. A term paper 2500 words in length on a topic to be chosen by the professor is required. The text for the course is, Fritz Stern, The Varieties of History from Voltaire to the Present (New York, Vintage Books, 1973). (Tonsor)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Modern Indonesia, 1799-1992.
This course will be a historical survey of Indonesia by far the largest and socially most complex nation in Southeast Asia. Generally accepted notions of colonialism, revolution, progress, development and tradition will be studied and questioned. Comparative approach will be used, but the course's basic aim will be to heighten students' sensitivity to the particular nation's history and culture. (Mrázek)


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