140. Introduction to Arabic Culture and Language. (3). (Excl).

This course will offer a general survey of the social, religious, cultural, historical and linguistic aspects of the modern Arab world. Special attention will be given to family, gender relations, East-West relations, the role of the past and of social change, Arabic art and music. It will include an Arabic language instruction component focusing upon the basic communication needs. The course material will be explored through lectures and videos supported by listening and viewing guides in addition to discussions based upon the assigned readings. A good deal of the course is specifically intended to increase students' sensitivity to racial bias and acceptance of multi-cultural diversity. There will be emphasis on developing effective outlining, writing, and oral presentation skills. Grades will be based upon class participation, short essays, monthly language tests, and a final project. (Rammuny)

204/Rel. 204. Islamic Religion: An Introduction. (4). (HU).

This course is meant to be a well-rounded introduction to Islam in theory and practice. After situating Islam in the Arabian and Middle Eastern contexts we shall examine the fundamental sources of Islam; study the beliefs and practices of Muslims; and learn about some of the principal areas of Muslim intellectual activity (law, theology, mysticism, and philosophy). The emphasis of the course is on the early, formative centuries of Islam, though we shall deal with modern religious developments in the Muslim world. Two exams and a quiz. Cost:2; WL:1 (Mir)

260. Ancient Egypt and its World. (3). (HU).

The course is an undergraduate survey of the culture of ancient Egypt, focussing on Egyptian religion (the gods and their cults, life after death, mummification, etc.), ways of thinking (practical wisdom and elevated philosophy), basic institutions (the kingship, the priesthood, etc.), literature and science. The student will be taught the elements of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, how it was deciphered and the derivation of our own alphabet from it. Throughout, special attention will be given to a comparison of Egyptian ideas, values and religious thought to our own with open-ended class discussion. There is a midterm (40% of grade) and final exam (60% of grade) and an optional 10-page paper at semester's end. Three textbooks, all paperbacks, are compulsory. (Krahmalkov)

275. Islam and the West to 1800. (4). (HU).

The encounter of Islam with Christian Europe, from the early Middle Ages until the modern period. Emphasis on: the concept of holy war, in its Muslim and Christian versions, and the history of military encounters, especially in Spain and during the Crusades; economic relations, commerce and travel; cultural exchanges; and the ideas which these two great civilizations formed of each other. No prior requirements. Provides introduction to some important aspects of Islamic civilization. Requirements: biweekly short papers, midterm and final exams. (Bonner)

446. Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the modern literature of the Arab Lands, Iran, Israel and Turkey. The course is taught by four professors, each of whom will examine the literature in which he/she specializes. Lectures introduce major literacy figures and their works within the framework of the historical and social circumstances of their lives. Materials are in English translation. Cost:A course pack worth $10.00 for each of the four segments of the course possible. (Stewart-Robinson)

450. Near Eastern Issues. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 The Arabic Novel.
The rise of the novel as a genre in modern Arabic literature has always been a very controversial issue, in point of origin and possible influences, both intrinsic and foreign. This course will attempt to subvert some of the prevalent, mainly Egyptian-oriented notions about the emergence of the Arabic novel, and re-examine some of the counter-arguments that are mostly Northern, Shami-oriented. We will deal, among other issues, with some of the highly ignored events that were played down by the historians of the Arab Nahda (Renaissance) in the nineteenth century ( e.g., the Protestant translation of the Bible into Arabic), and examine the relationship between orality and literacy within the history of narrative art in Arabic literature. The reading list will include a selection of Arabic novels, from Mahfuz to Munif. Requirements are a presentation in class, and a term paper. Cost:3 (Shammas)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature; Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. Cost:1 WL:3 or 4 (Schramm)

474/Hist. 443. Modern Near East History. (4). (Excl).

See History 443. (Cole)

481/Rel. 481/Engl. 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (4). (HU).

See English 401. (Williams)


120/Rel. 120. Introduction to Tanakh/Old Testament. (4). (HU).

ABS 120 is designed to introduce the student to the modern study of the Old Testament or Tanakh (no prerequisites). Lectures and readings will focus on ancient Israel's religion, literature, and history and their contribution to modern Western civilization. The approach will be literary, historical, and critical, using methods employed by scholars of different religious persuasions. ABS 120 is designed to challenge the student with a series of questions and issues often ignored or neglected in spite of the widespread use of the Bible today. The course grade will be based upon daily assignments, attendance, and quizzes (20%), two major examinations (a midterm, 30%, and a final, 30%, the exams are NOT cumulative), and an introductory essay (8-10 pages) on topic of choice (20%). The required texts are the Revised Standard Version of the Old Testament or the Jewish Publication Society's Tanakh, and a course pack. Cost:2 WL:3 (Schmidt)

202. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. ABS 201 or equivalent. (3). (LR).

Lessons and exercises in a standardized form of the language of the Hebrew Bible. Presentation of grammar and vocabulary. Daily recitations and weekly quizzes. Cost:1 WL:3 (Schramm)

265/Hist. 209. Clash of Empires: History of the Near East in the Late Bronze Age. Familiarity with the history and geography of the Near East is helpful. (3). (Excl).

The struggle among the great states of Egypt, Mittanni, Khatti, and Assyria for domination of Western Asia c. 1600-1180 BCE. Political events and their ideologically-conditioned presentation in the ancient sources will be studied against their ecological and geographic background. Primary documents will be read in translation, and the process by which the modern historian interprets them exemplified and discussed. Some familiarity with the history and geography of the Near East would be helpful. Student evaluation will be based on mid-term and final examinations, a 10-15 page paper, and classroom participation. Instruction will be through reading, lecture, and discussion. Cost:2 WL:3 (Beckman)

280/Rel. 280. Jesus and the Gospels. (4). (HU).

The course will probe the gospels, including some non-canonical versions (e.g., the Gospel of Thomas), as sources to the life and teaching of Jesus. How reliable are the portraits of Jesus in the gospels, the oldest of which having been written some forty-five years after his execution? Through an acquirement of the different critical methods applied to the gospel texts by New Testament scholars, the students will be enabled to form a defensible answer to this question. Conjointly with the methodological instruction and exercises, there will be an impartation of the necessary knowledge about the religious, historical, and social world of Jesus, so that a correct interpretation of the texts can be obtained. The format of the course will consist of lectures by the instructor and mandatory discussion sessions conducted by a TA. There will be three exams and one paper. Cost:3 WL:4 (Fossum)

283/Rel. 283. The Beginnings of Christianity. (4). (Excl).
A survey of the Jewish apocalyptic context from which the Christian movement emerged.
Confessional biases and prejudices still shape our knowledge of Christian origins and prevent us from understanding early Christianity as one of the many first-century Judaism, nothing else and nothing more. The course first presents that trend in Jewish thought namely, the apocalyptic tradition from which the Christian movement emerged, and then the contribution given by other Judaism of the time to the spread of Christianity as an autonomous branch of Judaism. The goal is primarily to make students familiar with Jewish documents usually neglected as "apocryphal" and to reach a more comprehensive view of Christian origins not searching backwards for parallels but going towards from the unsolved questions of a questioning age. There will be a mid-term written exam and a paper discussed in the final exam. Sessions will be organized more as workshops than as lectures. Participation in classwork will be highly considered in determining grades. (Boccaccini)

496/Rel. 404/Anthro. 450. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (Heirich)


Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (LR). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as two hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for review and practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two or four credits each term for a total of six credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1) A PROGRAMMED COURSE IN MODERN ARABIC PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT, by E.N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2)ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC PART ONE, by P. Abboud et al. Cost:1 WL:3 (Staff, Rammuny)

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (LR). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course may not be taken until six hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on Arabic syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selections based on Arab culture, and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as two hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for oral practice. Students should consult course coordinator in advance for general instructions. Arabic 102 may be taken for two to four credits each term for a total of six credits. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each term (50%) and scheduled comprehensive tests (50%). Textbook: ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, PART TWO, by P. Abboud et al. Cost:1 WL:3 (Staff/Rammuny)

202. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 201 or equivalent. (6). (LR).

This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to use Arabic. The primary goals of this course are to have students develop the ability to: (1) communicate/speak in Arabic with native speakers of Arabic on familiar topics, (2) understand familiar spoken Arabic, (3) read and understand the specific content of an elementary level, and (4) communicate in writing and provide correct responses within the scope of the content of this course. This course is taught in Arabic using a communicative approach emphasizing the use of language. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, texts and quizzes, and a final exam. Required text: Peter Abboud et al., Elementary Standard Arabic, Part l. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, 1975 (Khaldieh)

402. Advanced Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 401 or the equivalent. (6). (Excl).

Arabic 402 is a continuation of Arabic 401. It is recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to use Arabic. This course will help students enhance and develop their ability to: (1) understand authentic spoken MSA on various topics, comprehend and take notes on familiar topics, (2) converse, discuss, narrate and give information with ease and relative fluency with native speakers of Arabic, (3) Read authentic materials -educational, cultural, factual and scientific of varying length, (4) write paragraphs with reasonable coherence and accuracy, and (5) expand cultural awareness. This course is taught in Arabic that emphasizes the use of language. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, tests and quizzes and a final exam. Required text. Course pack (Khaldieh)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

416. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 415. (3). (Excl).

This is a continuation of Arabic 415. In Arabic 415 the basic principles of pronunciation and grammar are emphasized through oral and pattern practice drills. In Arabic 416 the emphasis shifts to practical use of the dialect based on expanded vocabulary and texts containing more cultural and idiomatic content than the texts taught in the previous semester. The course is accompanied by tape recordings of the pronunciation drills, the basic texts, the vocabulary, the conversions and the listening comprehension selections. Regular use of the language laboratory is required to reinforce class work and also to do the assignments which need to be recorded. The course grade is based on classroom performance, assignments, tests and the final examination. Textbook: A COURSE IN LEVANTINE ARABIC, by E. McCarus and R. Rammuny.Cost:1 WL:3 ( Rammuny)

502. Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition. Arabic 501 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The objectives of this course are to develop fluency and accuracy in understanding, speaking and writing modern standard Arabic, and to expand students' awareness of Arab-Islamic life and culture. The course is based on a variety of literary texts and authentic cultural audiovisual materials including slides, videocassettes, and films. There is a special emphasis on active mastery of useful idiomatic and cultural expressions and the use of Arabic for oral and written communication. Occasionally, students are required to select their own topics and give brief presentations. Requirements include daily preparations, a weekly written composition, monthly tests, and a final exam. Course grade is based on classroom preparation and performance (20%), written compositions (20%), monthly tests (30%), and a final paper (30%). The course textbooks are Advanced Standard Arabic by Raji M. Rammuny, and Advanced Arabic Composition. Student's Guide by Raji M. Rammuny. Cost:1 WL:3 (Rammuny)


202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

Continuation of the development of basic communication skills of reading, writing and speaking modern standard Hebrew. Class drills, class discussions in Hebrew, language laboratory drills. (Weizman)

302. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 312. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. In additon to continued study of morphology and syntax, some reading selections in fiction and non-fiction prose will be introduced. Cost:1 WL:5 (Etzion)

305. Hebrew Communicative Skills. Hebrew 302. (2). (Excl).

Continuation of the development of advanced communication skills. The emphasis is on the acquisition of language speaking and listening skills and expansion of vocabulary. (Etzion)

402. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 401. (3). (Excl).

This is a continuation of the Hebrew sequence comprising the second semester of the third year Hebrew class. Participation in Hebrew 401 offered in the previous semester is not required if the student is at the advanced level. The focus will be on developing proficiency in all five language skills. Student participation is an essential part of the course. Readings will include short works of fiction as well as journalistic pieces and a range of Hebrew literary forms from the different genres and time periods. This will be supplemented by other media including music, video, recordings, readings, etc. Students' grades will be determined on the basis of assignments, participation (including in-class presentations) and a final exam. Cost:1 WL:3 (Bernstein)

404. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

A continuation of 403. Emphasis on readings, listening and speaking skills. The social genre of the communications media (newspapers and television) will serve as the basis for discussion of current events. Unedited newspaper selections will be read and news broadscasts and television programs will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. Grades will be based on two exams and a special project. (Etzion)

452. Modern Hebrew Fiction: From the Palmah Generation to Contemporary Israeli Prose. A knowledge of Hebrew is not required. (3). (Excl).

In this course we will explore modern Israeli poetry and prose around the topic of the artist's encounter with nature. We will be reading from the short stories of OZ, Yehoshua, Tammuz, Ravikovitch and from the poetry of Bialik, Tchernichovsky, Zach and Amichai. The class will be run on a seminar basis and the active participation of students will be an essential component. The final grade will be based on class participation, short writing assignments as well as presentations of students and a final research project. An advanced knowledge of Hebrew is required for this course. Cost:1 WL:3 (Bernstein)

548. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Selections from the Hebrew Bible will be read and interpreted in the light of the ancient (Aramaic) Targumim and the medieval commentaries. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a class presentation and a term paper. Prerequisite: ABS 402, or Hebrew 302 or permission of the instructor. (Schramm)


202. Elementary Persian. (4). (LR).

This course is the natural continuation of Elementary Persian 201. The emphasis will be on the use of the language in real-life situations, i.e., conversations and narratives, oral and written, on such topics as language and nationality, family, shopping, emergencies. etc. Oral and written drills, and the use of the language laboratory accompany the dialogs and compositions. By the end of the term the student should have acquired an adequate knowledge of all major points of Persian grammar with an active vocabulary of about 1000 items, should be able to read simple texts and to write short passages on simple topics. Grading will be based on attendance, homework, tests and the final examination. Incoming students may join the class pending examination and approval by the instructor.


202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

This course is the sequel to Turkish 201 and is the second half of Elementary Turkish. We will focus on speaking and writing the language of Modern Turkey. Course topics include the phonological structure of Turkish, basic sentence patterns, and basic vocabulary. The aural-oral approach is emphasized and serves as the basic course format. There are tapes which accompany the text, Turkish for Foreigners. Student evaluation is based on written and oral quizzes, and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:3

402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

Part of the departmental sequence in Modern Turkish. The course is designed for students who have completed Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It provides further study of Turkish grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Comprehension and oral and written expression will be developed through translations and compositions. Readings will be emphasized. Evaluation will be determined on the basis of class quizzes and performance, a midterm and final examination. Books cost $20.00 if not already purchased for fall term. (Stewart-Robinson)

412. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 411. (3). (Excl).

Second half of first year Ottoman intended to sharpen skills in the handling of a variety of styles, topics and scripts through the reading and analysis of specially selected texts. Quizzes and a final examination required. Materials cost: Less than $10.00 worth of xeroxed material. (Stewart-Robinson)

551. Modern Turkish Prose Literature. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Part of sequence in required language courses for majors, M.A. and Ph.D. candidates. The objective is to continue to develop comprehension ease in modern Turkish through the reading of the literary products of modern Turks. Recitation type course includes reading, translation, and discussion of content and style. Quizzes and a final exam are required. Cost: About $5.00 of xeroxed material. (Stewart-Robinson)

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