The Philosophy Department offers a series of 150-level courses that serve as introductions to specific areas of philosophical thought. Each probes a group of philosophical issues related to certain other fields or areas of human concern, and each is designed to show how questions in these fields or areas can lead naturally to larger philosophical matters. Philosophy 152, "Philosophy of Human Nature," and Philosophy 154, "Law and Philosophy," will be offered Winter Term, 1993. Each will be taught by a faculty member and will be limited to 50 students.

Philosophy 181, 202, 231, 232, and 297 are general introductions designed to acquaint the student with a representative sample of philosophical problems concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self, morality, religion, and society. They deal with such questions as: If a person's actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is he capable of free actions for which he can be held morally responsible? What is a person just a very complex machine, a combination of a mind or soul and a body, or what? How can such common sense beliefs as that other human beings are conscious, or that there exists an external physical world, be justified? What are scientific theories, and what kinds of considerations bear on whether they should be accepted? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Are value judgments (e.g., moral or aesthetic judgments) "objective" or "subjective"? What are the basic differences between the major kinds of social, political and economic organizations, and what reasons are there for preferring any one of them to the others? How should one live one's life? What is the "meaning" of life, and what does this question mean?

The 200-level philosophy introduction and 181 vary in their instructional format. Philosophy 202 (three hours) approaches issues through a mixture of twentieth century writers (e.g., Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer) and seminal figures in Western intellectual history (Plato,Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant). It is taught by graduate student teaching assistants in sections of approximately 25 students. Philosophy 231 (three hours) and 232 (four hours) can be expected to cover similar issues and texts, but in a different format; a faculty member delivers two lectures each week, and students are divided into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections which meet one (231) or two (232) hours per week. Philosophy 181 has yet a different format. It is smaller, limited to 50 students, and is taught in a combination lecture/discussion format three times a week. Finally, Philosophy 297, Honors Introduction, is taught by a member of the faculty to small groups of 25-30 students.

The Department offers three elementary introductory courses in logic: 180, 201 and 203. 180 and 201 both cover some informal logic, while 203 introduces students to symbolic logic. 180 is taught by faculty in a section of 40-50, while 201 and 203 are taught in sections of 20-25 by advanced graduate student teaching assistants.

Some 300-level courses do not have prerequisites and can serve as introductions to particular branches of philosophy. Three such courses will be offered Winter Term, 1993: Philosophy 355, "Contemporary Moral Problems," Philosophy 370, "Philosophical Aspects of Literature," and Philosophy 375, "Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud."

152. Philosophy of Human Nature. Students are strongly advised not to take more than two Philosophy Introductions. (3). (HU).

An introduction to some of the main questions of philosophy through a study of different conceptions of human nature advanced by great thinkers over the centuries. Those whose ideas we will consider will include some or all of Plato, Aristotle, Mencius, Seneca, Augustine, Descartes, Hume, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, Sartre, de Beauvoir, Skinner, and E. O. Wilson. We will be concerned with what these thinkers believe we human beings are like, with a view to getting some perspective on the fundamental questions of metaphysics: What is there? epistemology: What can we know? and ethics: What kind of life should I lead? The course will be kept small enough so that it will be possible for us to have genuine discussion. The requirements will include: three 3-5 page papers, final exam, and class participation. (Darwall)

154. Law and Philosophy. Students are strongly advised not to take more than two Philosophy Introductions. (3). (HU).

This course introduces students to philosophy through the study of legal cases, issues, and theories. Questions we will explore include the following: should legal interpretation depend upon underlying theories of justice? Is law just the continuation of politics (or economics) by other means? Must we ascribe free will to individuals to justly hold them responsible for crime? What kinds of punishment (if any) are justified, and why? When are individuals justified in disobeying the law? Does the modern system of law enhance or undermine human freedom? Do we have alternatives to the law? We will explore answers to these and other questions through philosophical and legal writings by Dworkin, Hart, Hegel, Kant, Foucault, Bentham, members of the schools of legal realism, law and economics, and critical legal studies, supreme court justices, and others. There will be three short papers (6-10 pages) and a final examination. Classes will be conducted as interactive lecture/discussions. No prerequisites. Cost:3 WL:4 (Anderson)

180. Introductory Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This is a course designed to improve critical reasoning skills and provide an introduction to formal logic. We will study some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning, some of the elements of formal (symbolic) logic, and some philosophy of language. There will be lectures, discussions, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and reading and writing exercises.

181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course will be an introduction to several of the main branches of philosophy, including theory of knowledge, philosophy of religion, philosophy of mind, and value theory. Topics will include: the relationship between appearance and reality, the forms and limits of knowledge, arguments for theism and atheism, freedom of the will, the relationship between mind and matter, standards of right and wrong, and the nature of distributive justice. There will be two examinations covering lectures and readings and one paper (5-10 pages in length). (Hill)

Section 002. An introduction to some of the main problems of philosophy, such as: Does God exist? Do we have free will? What can we know? What has value and what kind of life should I lead? We will study selections from some of the great classical writers and from more contemporary thinkers. In wrestling with such issues of intellectual substance in a rational way, we will hope to acquire skills of critical thinking, reading, and writing. The course will be kept small enough so that there can be genuine discussion. The course requirements will be: three (3-5 page) papers, final exam, and class participation.

201. Introduction to Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This course aims to give the student a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument. Students will be expected to master some technical detail, but the emphasis in this course is on non-technical, informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. Sections usually have about twenty-five students each. Each section meets three hours per week and is generally conducted with some informality and considerable student participation. Discussion and questions are encouraged, particular problems are analyzed, and students are required to demonstrate mastery of assigned material. Course requirements for grading vary from instructor to instructor. Normally there are weekly assignments frequently in written form and short, periodic quizzes.

202. Introduction to Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with philosophical thinking on the great questions that have moved mankind throughout history, and to discuss possible solutions to them. The course is taught in independent sections of approximately twenty-five students. Each section is taught by a teaching assistant who selects the topics and readings. Some sections examine the systems of such major historical figures as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche, while others employ primarily the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and others. The subject matter generally includes ethics, free will and responsibility, philosophy of mind, epistemology and skepticism, and perhaps arguments for the existence of God. The text is either a book of readings or a set of larger selections from separate editions of well known philosophical works. During the term each student is usually required to submit a total of at least fifteen pages of critical discussion through a series of short papers varying in length from three to five pages. Several short quizzes may also be given as well as a final examination.

203. Introduction to Symbolic Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203 or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

Common sense classifies arguments as good or bad according to a variety of formal and informal criteria. Roughly speaking, we count an argument good if it makes plausible assumptions which exhibit its conclusion as likely to be true. Though the common sense classification is familiar and useful, sometimes we want something more precise and more amenable to systematic investigation. Thus we idealize from the intuitive notion of a "good" argument and call an argument VALID if it is impossible for its assumptions to be true without its conclusion being true as well. Logic can now be defined as the study of validity. As it turns out, this study is best pursued by constructing artificial languages designed to replicate in purer form the logically relevant features of natural languages like English. Symbolic logic, the subject of this course, is the study of validity by preference to these formal languages. Students meet in sections of about 25 students each. Each section meets three hours per week and has a lecture/discussion format, with considerable student participation. Course requirements and grading vary from instructor to instructor, but normally there are weekly homework assignments and periodic quizzes.

231. Introduction to Philosophy: Problems and Principles. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

This is a first course in philosophy assuming no background in the subject; it is open to students from all areas of the University at any stage in their studies. The course has two main goals. First, to give you a sense of what philosophers think about and why. This will be done through consideration of several historically important issues: the existence of God, skepticism about the external world, knowledge of the future, personal identity, and freedom vs. determinism. The second goal is to develop the philosophical skill, and more generally the critical and argumentative skills, of those enrolled. Philosophy 231 and 232 share a common lecture for two meetings per week. Philosophy 231 carries three hours of credit, has one discussion meeting per week, and requires two short papers. Philosophy 232 carries four hours of credit, has two discussion meetings per week, and requires three short papers. The course has two texts: Anthony Weston, A Rulebook for Arguments, (Hackett Publishing Company) and Joel Feinberg's anthology Reason and Responsibility (Dickenson Publishing Co.) Cost:2 WL:1 (Yablo)

232. Problems of Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 231. (Yablo)

296. Honors Introduction to Logic. Honors students or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203 or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

This course serves as an introduction to the basic concepts of deductive logic. Students will acquire a variety of standard logical skills, among them the ability to: (1) identify arguments, and isolate premises and conclusions; (2) distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning; (3) express statements in propositional and first-order logical form; and (4) to identify valid inferences using formal procedures. We also consider some practical applications of logic in engineering and in computer science. The course will finish by addressing issues having to do with the limits of logic. This will include discussions of the significance of the completeness theorem for the first order predicate calculus and of Godel's incompleteness result for arithmetic. (Joyce)

297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course introduces students to some of the main problems of philosophy through classical and contemporary readings. Topics include: skepticism, freedom of the will, the existence of God, the rationality of science and religion, the relation between mind and body. (Rosen)

Section 002. This course will introduce students to philosophy through an examination of some major philosophical issues and problems, with some attention given also to the history of philosophical work on those problems. Examples of the problems to be dealt with are: free will, determinism, and moral responsibility; the possibility of objectivity in ethical discourse; the nature of our knowledge of the physical world; the nature of the mind and its relation to the body. Readings will be derived primarily from modern works, but some historical texts will also be included. (White)

345. Language and Mind. One philosophy course. (3). (Excl).

This course will have two modules. The first will be a survey of the main themes of 20th century philosophy of language. We will consider the ideas of Frege, Russell, the positivists, Tarski, Quine, Davidson, Putnam, and Kripke. The second module will be concerned with recent work in philosophy of mind. We will be mainly concerned with theories of the nature of consciousness and the nature of mental representation, and we will focus on the work of Block, Paul Churchland, Dennett, Dretske, Fodor, and Putnam. There will be two examinations and one paper (5-10 pages in length). Texts: A.P. Martinich, ed., The Philosophy of Language, 2nd edition (Oxford, 1990); W.G. Lycan, ed., Mind and Cognition, (Blackwell, 1990). (Hill)

355. Contemporary Moral Problems. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 455. (4). (HU).

The course will explore the moral dimensions of the problem of racism, the ethical limitations of the market, and justifications for civil liberties and civil disobedience. Rival conceptions of individualism and community, freedom and social justice will be assessed through an examination of such issues as affirmative action, world hunger, property rights, pornography, the legal enforcement of morals, and surrogate motherhood. Several weeks will be devoted to a critical study of racism as a moral issue and as a social phenomenon. Emphasis will be placed on the relations between moral and political theories and social analysis. There will be three papers and a final examination. There will be more, and more difficult assignments that in previous versions of this course. Meets the LS&A race or ethnicity course requirement. Cost:3 WL:4 (Anderson)

363/RC Hums. 363. Philosophical Bases of Communism, Fascism, and Democracy. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

See RC Humanities 363. (C.Cohen)

369. Philosophy of Law. One philosophy introduction. (3). (Excl).

Law is both an important institution of modern life, shaping how we plan and act, and also a focus of intense and vigorous philosophical debate. The philosophy of law lies at the intersection of moral, political, and social philosophy. It is the effort to apply philosophical methods and insights to some of the issues that are raised by the importance of law and legal systems. This course will examine questions about the nature and value of law. What, if anything, distinguishes law from the orders of a gangster? What is the connection between law, properly so called, and morality? Is there an obligation to obey the law? We will also examine questions raised by the processes of modern legal systems. What is the proper role of the judiciary, and how can judges justify their decisions? What distinguishes common law from statutory and constitutional law? In the process of investigating these questions, we will need to explore certain basic features of our own legal system, but I do not assume that students have any special familiarity with law or legal concepts. Cost:2 WL:4 (Wellman)

370. Philosophical Aspects of Literature. (3). (HU).

This course will consist primarily in an examination of the philosophical content of selected works of literature. We will consider what these works have to say, in one way or another (or what we can learn from them) about questions of morality, freedom, human nature, knowledge, reality, and so forth. To a lesser extent we will examine philosophical problems concerning the nature, function, and value of literature itself, including questions about the manner in which literary works express or communicate philosophical ideas, compared to the ways in which philosophical essays do. The readings will include (tentatively) literary works by Beckett, Camus, Dostoevsky, George Eliot, Kafka, Sartre and others. We will also study various philosophical writings which treat the philosophical issues we find in the literary works. Two short papers will be required, and there will be several quizzes and a final examination. (Walton)

372. Philosophical Topics in the Study of Gender. One course in philosophy or women's studies, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The topic of the course this term will be the social construction of gender and gendered bodies. We will begin by discussing whether there is a tenable distinction between sex and gender, and what it means to say that a category is socially constructed. We will then turn to consider the force of cultural representations of the female body in science, medicine, popular culture, and the law. Topics may include: childbirth, surrogate motherhood, and abortion; rape and pornography; sexuality, femininity, and slimness; aging and disability. Requirements: one class presentation, two short papers, final exam or term paper. Cost:2 WL:1 (Haslanger)

375. Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce you to the thought of the four listed authors, but I hope that it will do more than this. It will be an attempt to develop in detail a coherent conception of philosophy quite different from and in some ways opposed to those which are now most current. The intention is to show that Hegel initiated a tradition that is founded on a new set of assumptions, and that addresses new questions which require new answers. The readings will be mainly from Hegel's Phenomonology of the Spirit, Marx's early manuscripts and Capital (Commodity Fetishism), Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals and Zerathrustra, and Freud's Civilization and it's Discontents. Some additional authors, esp. Max Weber (The Protestant Ethic ) will also be dealt with, though more briefly. Special attention will be given to the issue of Work. 2 papers, and a final exam. (Bergmann)

383. Knowledge and Reality. One course in philosophy. (3). (Excl).

An in depth examination of problems in metaphysics and the topics include: What is knowledge? What is rational opinion? Can we know that material things exist? Can we know abut other minds? Is the world we experience entirely independent of us, or is it in some sense our "construction"? Prerequisite: one philosophy introduction or permission of the instructor. (Rosen)

385. Continental Philosophy Since 1900. One course in philosophy. (3). (Excl).

This course is a survey of 20th century French and German Philosophy. We will analyze and interpret some of the major texts and schools of thought which have developed since 1900, and we will critically evaluate and discuss the significance of the views of these philosophers. We will begin with the development of phenomenology (Edmund Husserl, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty). Sartre's existentialism will be briefly discussed. Then we will consider Structuralism (Claude Levi-Strauss, Roland Barthes, Jacques Lacan), Critical Theory or "the Frankfort School" (Max Horkheimer, Jurgen Habermas, Herbert Marcuse), the thought of Michel Foucault (as represented by his The Order of Things), and Hermeneutics (Hans-Georg Gadamer). We will be concerned with the implications of theviews of these thinkers for the critique of objective (and scientific) thought, for the investigations of subjectivity, for work in the social sciences, and the methods and goals of intellectual activity. Students will be required to write several papers. (Meiland)

389. History of Philosophy: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

This course examines the development of modern philosophy in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Considerable attention is devoted to each of Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume and Kant. The primary emphasis is placed upon philosophical rather than historical or interpretative issues. These philosophical issues are drawn from epistemology and metaphysics, to the exclusion of ethics and political philosophy. The following topics are discussed: skepticism about the existence of the material world, theories of perception and of the nature of material objects, the problem of induction, the nature and limits of a priori knowledge, innate knowledge, empiricist theories of meaning, analytic and synthetic truth, necessary and contingent truth, God, substance, causation, the self, the relationship between mind and body, and personal identity. Students are evaluated on the basis of three papers and a final examination. There are three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. WL:1 (Loeb)

405. Philosophy of Plato. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of the philosophical views of Plato. A third of the semester will be devoted to the dialogues of the early, Socratic period (LACHES, CHARMIDES, EUTHYPHR0) a third to the dialogues of the middle period (PHAEDO, REPUBLIC), and a third to the Dialogues of the later, critical period (PARMENIDES, THEAETETUS, SOPHIST). The course will be concerned with Plato's epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical views. There will be two ten page papers. (White)

420. Philosophy of Science. A course in logic or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Philosophy of science is concerned with such questions as: (1) In what sense, or in what ways, are scientific theories tested or confirmed? (2) Do these methods of testing or confirming confer upon scientific theories a special claim to be believed or to be objective? (3) How are we to interpret certain central notions in science: explanation, law, probability, cause, and so on? (4) Does the history or sociology of science raise questions about the epistemic claims of science? We will discuss these questions, and others, taking as our focus a survey of the development of philosophy of science from logical positivism to the present. Among the figures we will read are a number of the most influential 20th century philosophers, including: Popper, Hempel, Kuhn, Putnam, Carnap, Ayer, Quine, Lakatos, and Van Fraassen. Midterm and final examination. Term paper. WL:1 (Railton)

422. Philosophy of Physics. One Philosophy Introduction or Logic Introduction or 12 credits of science. (3). (Excl).

The course will be directed toward exploring the philosophical issues that arise at the foundations of statistical mechanics. Beginning with an outline of the development of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, the course will continue with expositions of philosophical work on interpretations of probability and of statistical explanation. We will then discuss attempts at justifying the posits of both equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, the role of cosmology in these accounts, the nature of the reduction of thermodynamics to statistical mechanics, and the so-called issue of "the direction of time." Main text will be L. Sklar, The Physics of Chance. There will be a term paper and a final exam. (Sklar)

439. Aesthetics. One Philosophy Introduction or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the arts painting, music, literature, photography, theater, film, etc. from a philosophical perspective, concentrating on problems concerning art and the emotions, and on questions about the cognitive importance of the arts. What emotional effects does art of various kinds have on appreciators? How do emotions evoked by works of art relate to the emotions of "everyday life"? In what ways do paintings, novels, music, theater, convey information, promote understanding, help us in acquiring concepts, alter our perspectives or attitudes, transform our "conceptual scheme"? In what ways do they distort or mislead? Does the aesthetic value of works of art consist in their capacity to move us emotionally? In their capacity to teach, or change attitudes? Or are these effects incidental to their role as works of art? Two short papers will be required, and there will be several quizes and a final examination. (Walton)

455. Contemporary Moral Problems. Not open to graduate students in philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 355. (4). (Excl).

Intended primarily for graduate students outside the philosophy department. Course content is the same as in Philosophy 355. Philosophy 455 requires longer and more substantial papers than those expected in Philosophy 355. Cost:3 WL:4 (Anderson)

461. Continental Rationalism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

A detailed critical introduction to some main themes in the philosophical writings of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz. These themes include: the roles of "reason"and "sense" in the conduct of inquiry; causation, causal explanation, and the order of nature; the God of the ontological argument; bodies and their motions; thinking things and their ideas; freedom and contingency; and passion management as a distinctive new approach to the problems of ethics. Written work will be three papers of about ten pages each, due at intervals during the term. Class discussion will be strongly encouraged. Cost:2 (Hills)

465. Contemporary Continental Philosophy. Phil. 412 and two other courses in philosophy; or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

The main writers we will study in this course are Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus, the authors of the Frankfurt School (esp. Adorno and Habermas) as well as Foucault and Barthes. The emphasis will not be on sampling small bits of the output of these thinkers, but on forming as far as this is possible a coherent picture of how the works of these writers fit together, and of the intellectual enterprise in which they engaged. This means that some of the background in Hegel and Marx and Freud will be explored, and it also means that contemporary Feminist and Marxist writers will figure in this course. As preparation it is very useful to have had one more elementary course in European philosophy and in addition one general Introductory course to philosophy. If you do not have these prerequisites you must obtain permission of the instructor to register for this course. There will be one short and one longer paper as well as the usual examination. (Bergmann)

469/Chinese 469. Later Chinese Thought (A.D. 220-1849). Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

See Chinese 469. (Munro)

475/Chinese 475/Hist. of Art 487/RC Hums. 475/Asian Studies 475. The Arts and Letters of China. May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy. (4). (HU).

See Chinese 475. (Y. Feuerwerker)

477. Theory of Knowledge. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a broad survey of the modern theory of knowledge for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It begins by introducing the traditional view that knowledge is justified true belief. The concept of justification is then examined at some length, with particular attention being paid to the "infinite regress" problem and the attendant debate between foundationalists and coherentists about the nature of justification. In discussing coherentism we will examine some of the recent contributions that Bayesian statisticians and philosophers have made to epistemology. The next segment of the course focuses on an argument, due to E. Gettier, which purports to show that the traditional analysis of knowledge is deeply flawed. Various attempts at circumventing Gettier's problem will be considered, and the important distinction between internalist and externalist conceptions of justification will be discussed in the process. The course ends with short discussions of global skepticism, and (time permitting) W. Quine's contention that epistemology should be "naturalized." Cost:2 WL:1 (Joyce)

480. Philosophy of Religion. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

The course this term will focus on the question of whether belief in God is JUSTIFIED,RATIONAL,IN VIOLATION OF OUR INTELLECTUAL DUTIES, etc. We will begin with a consideration of some nineteenth and twentieth century treatments of this topic (e.g., William Clifford and William James) and spend most of the time on comparatively recent arguments (e.g., Alvin Plantinga, Nicholas Wolterstorff, Kai Nielsen, Antony Flew, etc.). There will be a midterm exam, a final exam, and a term paper. Cost:1 WL:4 (Mavrodes)

481. Metaphysics. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

The course this term will cover a series of classic problems concerning objects and their properties. For example, concerning objects we will consider whether they have natures of essences, whether they persist through change, and what reasons there may be for accepting (or more often for not accepting) certain kinds of objects into ontology. Concerning properties, we will discuss the problem of universals, the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic properties, and supervenience. Some of the readings will presuppose a background in elementary formal logic. Requirements: several short written homework assignments; a midterm exam; one medium length paper; and a choice between a term paper or final exam. The method of instruction will be lecture and discussion. Cost:2 WL:1 (Haslanger)

505/Chinese 505. Modern Chinese Thought. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is a seminar (limited to fifteen students) on modern Chinese thought from the period after the Opium War to the present. The unifying theme will be the conflict and fate of traditional and modern values in Chinese society. Class meetings will concentrate on discussion of topics raised by assigned readings and will involve maximum student participation.Active participation in discussions is expected of all students. Open to upperclassmen and graduate students. Permission of instructor is required. One substantial seminar paper is required. (Munro)

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