Courses in Biological Anthropology (DIVISION 318)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology and must be dispensed with before we can make sense out of the very real aspects of human biological variation. This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These will be contrasted with the biological traits that show regional clustering but which have no adaptive value and cannot therefore be hierarchically arranged. (2) If the common concept of race has an inadequate biological base, how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that they owe more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept. All the material covered by the course will be dealt with in lecture. Supplementary readings will be suggested from time to time, along with specific sections in the assigned texts. Texts: A.R.Frisancho, Human Adaptation; C.L.Brace, The Stages Of Human Evolution. Lecture outlines (syllabus) and C.L.Brace, Race Is A Four Letter Word will be available at Kinko's copying. Cost:2 WL:3/4 (Brace)

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The application of genetic theory and data to the interpretation of the course of human evolution. The data include variation both among human populations and among humans and their close primate relatives. Reconciliation of the genetic data with various views of the fossil record will also be considered. Lectures and course pack. Grade based on midterm and final exam. Cost:1 WL:3/4 (Livingstone)


Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS). (This course fulfills the Race or Ethnicity Requirement).

This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered may include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, sexual orientation, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence and contradictions of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text, articles, and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two exams (short essays) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Robertson)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS).

What place does language have in everyday life? How does language make human beings different from other animals and how does it make our societies different? How is language used to reinforce relationships of power, especially along racial, class, and gender, lines? How do languages change, and how does change reflect the structure of society? These are a few of the questions that will be raised in this course, which is about the nature of language and the ways in which it reflects and contributes to social life. Topics covered include: (1) Human and animal communication and the origins of language; (2) The ways in which languages differ, the ways in which they change, and the reasons for differences and change; (3) The relationships between speech, social class, race, and gender; (4) The politics of language use in society, including language policy toward issues perceived to be "problems," both in the United States (for example the "English First movement" and bilingual education) and in other countries. The course has no prerequisites except curiosity about the interrelationships between language and society. There will be a required text and a course pack. Cost:1 WL:1 (Burling)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

319. Latin American Society and Culture. (4). (SS).

The two aims of this course are (1) to impress upon students the immense diversity summed up in the term "Latin America," a region which spans two continents, nearly half a billion people, and a multitude of countries, societies, and cultures; and (2) to explore the aspects of shared histories which in some ways make of it a unity. Topics covered will include: the history and geography of conquest, from the Spanish invasions to U.S. interventions; colonial and modern race ideologies and the meaning of being an "Indian"; gender relations; religion, including folk Catholicism and revitalization movements; dependency, proletarianization, class consciousness, and the question of "cultures of resistance." We will pay special attention to the regions of the Andes, Brazil, Mexico, and Central America. Class meetings will be devoted to lectures and discussion sessions, with occasional films and slides. Grades will be based on class participation, a short midterm and a final exam or research paper. Cost:3 WL:1 (Frye)

323. Pacific Islands Anthropology. (3). (SS).

This course part lecture and part seminar is an introduction to the traditional societies and cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia, and, to a lesser extent, insular Melanesia. We shall review the evidence for the peopling of the Pacific Basin, the theories of migration, and the (somewhat limited) evidence of prehistory and studies of "race." Also the main features of traditional social organization, politics, interethnic relations, religion, law, etc., the colonial histories of the different island groups, their contemporary status, demographics, international relations, and trade will also be outlined. Students will be expected to read together four classic ethnographic monographs, familiarize themselves with the main points in the above topics (for which quizzes will be devised), and perhaps working with other students master the ethnographic literature for one island group and provide oral and written reports on it. Cost:3 WL:1 (Carroll)

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the basic economic, social and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)

405. Peoples and Cultures of India. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

Following a survey of the peoples and cultures of South Asia which will include the Indian sub-continent and Sri Lanka the course will focus on five culturally salient phenomena: person, family, caste, labor and ethnicity. A course pack in addition to several monographs will constitute the required reading for the course. A paper, a midterm and a final examination will be required of all students. The course will be structured on a lecture-seminar format. Cost:3 WL:3 (Daniel)


327. Introduction to Ethnology. Anthro. 101; recommended for concentrators in anthropology. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Controversies in Anthropology.
How to understand what other people think and do? What's it like to be them? What is it that we are? Anthropologists serving government, passion for knowledge or exotic curiosity debate intellectual ways and concrete means to explore these questions and the priorities that ought guide this exploration. Should we first aim to understand what is universal or what makes people relatively different? Do we focus on the structure of ideas or behavioral statistics. Is culture essentially real, like buildings and markets, or mostly imagined, like gods and goblins? What are the causes of culture? Where do ethnic categories fall? Biweekly readings will pair opposing authors on issues that define anthropology. Students ranging from humanities to natural sciences should find something to contribute to the debates. There will be a midterm essay, and students will do a field project among people they know little about. Cost:1-2 WL:3 (Atran)

331. Family, Work and Power. One course in anthropology. (3). (SS).

Ethnographic analysis provides a set of intellectual and practical tools to define and answer questions about the implications of economic and social change in readings and actual situations. You will learn to identify and debate the patterns of loyalty, authority and conflict established by specific relations in families and work places in industrial, peasant and kin-based societies. Students consolidate their introductory course in general or cultural anthropology with concrete and useful analytic and investigative skills that also prepare them for more specific advanced courses. Readings follow the unifying themes of residence, production, ownership, exchange and historical change through authors with different backgrounds and approaches, in order to stimulate debate over alternative interpretations. Small fieldwork exercises build understanding of the potential and limits of authors' research techniques. Evaluation is based on three short essays and three fieldwork reports. Cost:3 WL:2 (Clark)

447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of HOMO SAPIENS. It reviews the theories of Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss and others who have attempted to comprehend that origin and development. The course will trace the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? Is racism, like modernity and its other social problems, a characteristic of civilization? These are some of the questions with which students will wrestle. The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:2 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Introduction to Feminist Anthropology.
This course will survey the major perspectives in feminist anthropology from the 1970's to the present. We will read both theoretical works and ethnographic case studies. Case studies will be drawn from a wide variety of cultures around the world, and also from the U.S. Within the U.S., a range of groups and classes will be examined. One of our concerns will be the way in which anthropology has both contributed to and drawn inspiration from a wider body of feminist theory. This is primarily a lecture course. Grading will be based on a midterm exam and a final exam. Some anthropology background is desirable but not required. Students with no background may be required to do some additional work. Cost:3 WL:1 (Ortner)

427(353)/CAAS 427/Women's Studies 427. African Women. One course in African Studies, anthropology, or women's studies; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 427.

431. American Kinship. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course is essentially a 'research seminar' in which advanced students get supervised experience in formulating and executing projects concerning the Anthropology of Relationships. Emphasized herein is an 'ethnographic approach'. We shall also read together a number of classic monographs in this area and discuss them jointly. Cost:3 WL:1 (Carroll)

450/ABS 496/Relig. 404. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404.

453/CAAS 454. African-American Culture. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to examine the African American as one example of how humans live. It will place distinctive Black behavior within its social context and its history. Because the focus of the course will be distinctive Black behavioral styles our attention will be directed toward the poor urban African American. But that attention requires a discussion of American society and the history of human development. This lecture-seminar course will have one major library project and one project for each student and presentations of their findings. The course will suggest some solutions to some African American dilemmas the underclass, urban gangs, addictions, unemployment, and single-parent families. Those suggestions will require a serious examination of contemporary American society and the nature of modern man (humans). How did we become this and how can we change? (Williams)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Fieldwork, Research Methods, and Cultural Anthropology as a Profession.
Mainly for graduate students. This course, conducted as a seminar, examines the expectations of cultural anthropology (academic and applied) as a profession, including the relation between theory and practice in several contexts: Choosing a research area and problem; Grant application strategies; Different kinds of field work (e.g., ethnography, survey research, rapid assessment, team research, longitudinal research); Units of analysis (traditional, transnational, people in motion); Research design, sampling surveys, data coding and entry, scale construction; Data analysis (including statistical) and interpretation. Also considered are forms of anthropological writing, including the evolution of ethnography, professional articles and books, and publications aimed at wider audiences. Course requirements include various written and oral assignments, including a paper or grant proposal based on each student's career/research interests. Cost:2 WL:1 (Kottak)

Section 002 Brazil: Anthropological Perspectives. The course, which is conducted as a seminar, explores the ethnographic, ethnological, and sociocultural research on the western hemisphere's second largest nation. The books and articles to be read examine Brazilian national culture, regional variation, and the contributions of Native Americans, Afro-Brazilians, Luso(Portuguese)-Brazilians, and recent immigrants. Topics covered include: race, class, gender, sexuality, kinship, community, society, state, religion, social change, development, ecology, work, play and the role of the media. Students will read case studies illustrating Brazilian national culture and the various regions. Course requirements for undergraduates include two exams and regular assignments based on the reading including oral reports and commentaries to the seminar. Course requirements for graduate students are the same as for undergraduates - plus a research paper or grant proposal. Cost:3-4 WL:1 (Kottak)

Section 003 Narratives of the Borderland Self. Narratives of the Self have a long tradition in the West, stemming in part from the notion that the soul can be purified through speaking or writing a confession. During the last decade, the forms of self-narration have been radically altered by women and men of hyphenated American identities who are using the first person voice, not as a form of confession, but as a means to explore new borderland subjectivities rooted in the disjunctures of ethnicity, color, gender, class, and immigration. In this course we will cast our net widely at works written by authors who examine why and how they feel split at the root within American culture. We will read memoirs, personal essays, autobiographical criticism, novels, and ethnographies by a range of writers, including Adrienne Rich, Gloria Anzaldúa, Michelle Cliff, Irena Klepfisz, Cherrie Moraga, Renato Rosaldo, Patricia Williams, Rosario Morales, Aurora Levins Morales, Bharati Mukherjee, Richard Rodriguez, Victor Perera, Eva Hoffman, Art Spiegelman, Sandra Cisneros, and Cristina Garcia. The course will be taught as a seminar, and students will be expected to participate actively in class discussions and in a variety of writing exercises. Cost:4 WL:1 (Behar)

459. Inequality in Tribal Societies. Two courses in ethnology. (3). (Excl).

What is the principal locus of the production of inequality in human society? This has been an important concern of humanistic social thought since the Enlightenment. All those who have examined the problem have had recourse to consideration of relatively egalitarian pre-modern societies in which forms of hierarchy associated with the nation state and industrialized world economy are absent. These ethnographic cases provide a critical testing ground for general social theories of inequality because the latter explicitly or implicitly "predict" the social and economic configuration of the most egalitarian societies. Both received wisdom and recent theory have emphasized the production and circulation of accumulatable forms of wealth as the source of inequality. Unequal accumulation and relations of dependence and indebtedness are seen to follow inevitably from the sheer presence of wealth (which should thus be absent in egalitarian societies). The Marxian position holds that all social inequalities are grounded in the dynamics of a particular mode of production and are either directly generated by this or built-up upon core relations of inequality that are so generated. There should then be a one-to-one relation between economic inequality and social inequality (i.e., differential prestige, privilege and moral evaluation). Recent elaboration of this perspective sees social inequality as rooted in the social relations of production entailed by bridewealth systems in which senior males gain control over the labor of wives and junior males by their control of matrimonial goods. The exchange of persons for persons is also replaced by an exchange of persons for goods so that accumulation of wealth becomes a precondition for the reproduction of kin relations. If the evolutionary road to inequality is paved with bridewealth as this perspective suggests then egalitarian societies should lack marriage payments, for these are seen as a central locus for the production of inequality. The course will examine these issues. It is open to advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Format is part lecture, part seminar. Substantial term paper required. Cost:2 WL:2 (Kelly)


474/Ling. 410. Language and Discrimination: Language as Social Statement. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Lippi-Green)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 417. (Shevoroshkin)

577. Language as Social Action. Anthro. 576, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Language is normally understood as a closed, formal system. As such, it is relatively autonomous from culture, social relations, and vectors of power. The purpose of this course is to develop a framework for viewing language as a social, cultural, and political matrix, a form of action through which social relations, cultural forms, ideology, and consciousness are constituted. Topics covered include: Models of language as action; Why language and culture can't be viewed as shared systems of meaning; the sociolinguistic division of labor; the interactional construction of social actors and of reference; meaning and intentionality; cultural inference and presupposition; language and reproduction of ideology;linguistic hegemony; the reproduction of interactional style;linguistic and cultural polyphony; metalanguage, consciousness, and forms of social authority. Class time will be divided between lecture and discussion. It assumes some background in social anthropology or a related discipline and in formal linguistics. Requirements include leading a class discussion, a prospectus for a final paper, and a final paper. (Mannheim)


386. Early New World Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (4). (SS).

This course examines the ancient civilizations of Latin America, with special attention to the Maya, Aztec, Inca, and their neighbors in time and space. The course begins with a discussion of cultural evolution, continues with specific archaeological case studies, and concludes by reflecting on how these archaeological studies can provide a better understanding of the modern world. No special background is assumed. There are three lectures and one discussion section per week. The textbook is Out of the Past, Mayfield Press 1993 by D. Webster, S. Evans, and W. Sanders. Students are evaluated on the basis of three 10-page essays submitted about one month apart throughout the term. Cost:2 WL:1 (Parsons)

482. European Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This is a general survey of the prehistoric archaeology of Europe and the British Isles from the earliest evidence for human occupation to the Roman conquest. Primary emphasis is on Western and Central Europe and on the history and evolution of social and economic systems in this area. Lecture course. Evaluation based on a paper and examinations. Cost:2 WL:3 (Whallon)

488. Prehistory of Mexico. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

Archaeology of Mexico from earliest times to the Spanish conquest; late Pleistocene hunters, early farmers, rise of cities, and Aztec states. (Flannery)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001 Honors Ethnology.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the Winter term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and readers. By midterm, each student should have completed the research and a draft of their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Diamond)

Section 002 Honors Archaeology. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Flannery)

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