The Department of Classical Studies believes that the literature, monuments, and social institutions of the ancient world, together with the reflections of the Greek and Roman thinkers about their own cultures, are of unique value in themselves, well worth our contemplation and understanding; and that as we attempt to learn about and appreciate classical civilization, we necessarily learn as well a variety of contemporary methodologies and disciplines.

The department offers three groups of courses for distribution, those in Classical Civilization (introductory courses that require no knowledge of Greek or Latin), courses in Classical Archaeology, and upper level language courses in Greek and Latin authors or genres. While only a few courses are repeated in yearly or biennial rotation, most courses are offered less regularly. This system guarantees that the instructor approaches the subject each time with fresh impetus. We believe in a healthy change and variation in our course offerings. The undergraduate advisor of the Department of Classical Studies will consider and, if appropriate, authorize other classical civilization, literature, and archaeology courses for distribution credit upon request by students during the first drop/add period each term.

Classical Civilization offerings include the general surveys of Greek and Roman civilizations (CC 101 and 102), which provide (through readings, lectures, and discussions) a broad understanding of the literatures, thought, and social development of ancient Greece and Rome, and thus provide the student with knowledge of and appreciation for our cultural origins, as well as an acquaintance with modern methods for understanding an ancient culture. These courses are taught each year. CC 101 is offered in the Fall and CC 102 is offered in the Winter. Other courses provide understanding of particular aspects of the ancient world, approached from a variety of disciplines and studies literary, philosophical, historical, sociological, and so on. Some students (particularly those who have already developed special interests in such disciplines) may wish to explore one of these topics without having had a broader introduction.

Classical Archaeology offerings include the broad surveys of the archaeology and monuments of Greece (Cl.Arch 221 offered in the Fall) and Rome (Cl.Arch 222 offered in the Winter) and a general introduction to archaeological field methods (Cl.Arch 323). Other courses use the material remains of specific cultures both to introduce students to the diversity of the ancient world and to demonstrate how, through a variety of multi-disciplinary approaches, the archaeological record can be used to reconstruct the life-ways of past societies.


222/Hist. of Art 222. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).

This course will examine aspects of Roman civilization as revealed by archaeological evidence from the earliest beginnings of the city of Rome to the age of Constantine. The art and architecture of the Romans will constitute a major component of the course, with the city of Rome and the well-preserved towns of Ostia, Pompeii, and Herculaneum providing many examples. This Italian evidence will be supplemented by regional examples from around the Roman world. Mosaics, sculpture, wall paintings, and various classes of artefacts will be examined in detail. In addition, archaeological evidence will be used to shed light on how people lived in antiquity. There are no prerequisites for the course. The format is three illustrated lectures and one discussion section from the list of sections timetabled for the class. The grade is based on discussion and quizzes in sections and on a midterm and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Conlin)

365/Class. Civ. 365. Alexander the Great: The Making of a Legend. (3). (HU).

See Classical Civilization 365. (Cherry)

425/Hist. of Art 426. Art and Archaeology of Early Italy through the Fifth Century B.C. Hist. of Art 222. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys the story of human culture in the central Mediterranean (including the Italian peninsula, Sardinia, Sicily, and Malta) through the time of Phoenician and Greek colonization, and before the rise of Rome. The indigenous cultures of the Tyrrhenian region constitute a distinct unity that provides a background to the well-known Etruscans. Discussion of recent advances in Italian pre- and proto-history will complement that of methodological questions surrounding the identification of ethnicity, culture-contact and cultural transformation in literary and material sources. For undergraduate students a prior course in archaeology is recommended, but students without previous experience in archaeology may enroll with the permission of the instructor. Requirements include midterm and final examinations, as well as a research essay. Class meetings will follow an open lecture-discussion format. Reserve copies of required texts will be available in the library. Cost:2 WL:1 (McConnell)

433/Hist. of Art 433. Greek Sculpture. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course follows the development of Greek sculpture, both in the round and relief, from the renaissance in the late 8th century B.C. through the various phases of experimentation in the 7th and 6th centuries to the high points in the 5th and 4th centuries. Standing male and female figures are the principal types followed, with increasing attention given to architectural sculpture culminating in the majestic programs decorating the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and the Parthenon in Athens. Stylistic analysis, formal development, interpretation as social and artistic documents. There will be a midterm hour exam and a final; students will also be expected to write a paper of intermediate length (10-15 pages). (Pedley)

442/Hist. of Art 442. Late Antique and Early Christian Art and Architecture. Hist. of Art 101, 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See History of Art 442. (Thomas)


Elementary Courses

101. Elementary Greek. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 502. (4). (LR).

In combination with Greek 102, this is the first half of a year-long introduction to ancient Greek and is designed to prepare students for the reading of Greek texts. Greek 101 concentrates on fifth-century B.C. Attic Greek which was the language of the "golden age" of Athens. The Greek language of that time and place represents a cultural and linguistic central point from which students can pursue their own interests within a wide range of Greek literature which extends from the Homeric epics to the Byzantine era and which includes the archaic, classical, and hellenistic periods as well as the koine Greek of the New Testament. The purpose of the course is to develop the fundamentals of the language so that these fundamentals can then be applied to whatever area of ancient Greek students wish to pursue. Cost:2 WL:1 (Dobrov)

102. Elementary Greek. Greek 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 310, or 503. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 503. (4). (LR).

Greek 102 is the second term of the elementary ancient Greek sequence and requires that the student has already completed Greek 101. Students who wish to begin Greek in the Winter Term should elect Greek 101. In Greek 102 students will supplement their study of syntax and grammar by reading Attic prose selections. There will be a series of quizzes and hourly exams in addition to a final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Rappe)

302. Second-Year Greek. Greek 102 or equivalent. The language requirement is satisfied with the successful completion of Greek 301 and 302. (4). (LR).
Section 001.
This course is the second half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. The primary goal of the student in Greek 302 is to learn how to read Homer; hence emphasis is placed on Homeric vocabulary and grammar. The class will translate and discuss readings from the Odyssey. Midterm and final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Cameron)

Intermediate Courses

402. Greek Drama. Greek 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

Reading of Euripides' Alcestis and Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannos. Emphasis on grammar and style; introduction to Greek meter; attention to literary, interpretive, and historical issues. Short paper, hour exam, final. Cost:1 (Scodel)

Advanced Courses

483. Aristotle's Politics. Greek 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

In this course we will trace a number of topics recurring throughout the history of Ancient Greek political theory. Taking Aristotle's Politics as our central text, we will make brief forays into the Nicomachean Ethics and into some of Aristotle's zoological tracts, occasionally travel backwards in time to Plato's Republic and Laws, and make some final excursions to the Garden of Epicurus and to the Stoa. We will study the function of ancient political discourse by looking at its paradoxical relationship to society: ancient political theory tended to be waylaid at once by its extreme conservatism as well as by its utopian aspirations. Topics that we will explore include: Feminist Thought, Theories of Slavery, Class Bias and xenophobia, Critiques of Democracy, Free Speech and Censorship, the Public and the Private, the Origins of the State and/or the Law. Class Requirements: midterm, final, and paper. Participants are expected to translate as well as to lead discussions on areas of interest to them. Open to Undergraduates and to Graduate students with knowledge of Ancient Greek. (Rappe)


102. Elementary Modern Greek, II. Elementary Modern Greek 101 or permission of instructor. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 502. (4). (LR).

The course follows the same paidagogical scheme as MGr101, with class room dialogues, non-competitive group games and improvised scenarios. Instruction in more advanced grammar and syntax is effected through both formal methods and drills. By the end of the term students are exposed to approximately four-fifths of modern Greek grammar and syntax and are expected to be linguistically competent in a variety of everyday contexts. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, a one hour midterm exam and a final. Cost:1 WL:1 (Michelaki)

202. Second Year Modern Greek, II. Modern Greek 201 or permission of instructor. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 504. (4). (LR).

This is the final term of the Modern Greek language sequence and students will be able to fulfill their language requirement. The course focuses on expanding vocabulary through reading more complex journalistic prose and literary texts (20th century poetry and prose) and discussion of those texts. Special attention is paid to the historical depth of the language through instruction in etymology. The proficiency gained by the end of Modern Greek 202 should enable students to express themselves in Modern Greek on topics of interest; students ought to be able to read, with dictionary help, all writings in Standard Modern Greek. Class participation, comprehensive tests, one midterm and a final examination will determine the final grade. Cost:1 WL:1 (Gagos)


Elementary Courses

Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential facts of morphology, syntax, semantics, vocabulary, history and culture are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English vocabulary improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.

In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 194, 231, and 232. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with little or no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit the department office in 2016 Angell Hall, 764-0360, or contact Professor Knudsvig in 2012 Angell Hall, 764-8297.

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 193, or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hours examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 193 or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

194. Intensive Elementary Latin II. Latin 193 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 221, 222, 231, 232, or 503. Graduate students should elect 503. (4). (Excl).

This is a continuation of Latin 193, a beginning language course which will have covered, by the end of the Fall Term, the essentials of Latin accidence and syntax, with some experience in reading continuous Latin prose. The second term of this introductory sequence will continue the reading of prose and will then include one of the first six books of Vergil's Aeneid. Students need not have taken Latin 193 to enroll in Latin 194. Initially there will be a systematic review of Latin grammar, and throughout the term attention will be paid to details of grammar to ensure a command of language necessary for increasing ease in reading. Therefore, anyone with a knowledge of elementary Latin could profit from the course. The Aeneid has been chosen as the main text because of its inherent importance for later European poetry and literature, and will be considered in class discussion as such not simply as an exercise in translation. Cost:2 WL:3 (001:Myers; 002:D.O. Ross)

231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from such authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D. as Caesar and Livy and Pliny the Younger. Class discussions center upon the readings. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).
Section 001.
This class will ask you to bring together and apply the knowledge and skills you have acquired in studying Latin to the reading of the greatest work of Latin literature. We will work closely with the text, slowly and methodically learning techniques of translating Vergil's poetry into clear and precise English prose. We will review grammar as necessary. We will also study Vergil's epic in English translation. By term's end we should have both a good understanding and appreciation of what the Aeneid is all about and an ability to confront a Latin passage of the poem with some skill and comprehension. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:1 (Wallin)

Sections 002-005. The goal of this course is simple: to learn to read extensive passages of Vergil's Aeneid, with comprehension and enjoyment. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and time of the Emperor Augustus. Quizzes, hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. Cost:2 WL:1

Intermediate Courses

302. Intermediate Latin II. Latin 194, 222, 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course will provide an introduction to the prose and poetry of the late Roman Republic (First Century B.C.). Class time will be spent primarily in translation and discussion of several of Cicero's speeches and a selection of the poems of Catullus. Emphasis will be placed on a further mastery of Latin grammar and translation skills. There will be several hour exams and a final. Cost:2 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

402. Imperial Prose. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

We will read the Apocolocyntosis of Seneca and selections from the Satyricon of Petronius (perhaps all). The purpose of the course, as always, is to get better at reading Latin and to understand and enjoy these wonderful examples of comic writing. (D.O. Ross)

410. Poetry of the Republic or Later Empire. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

This course brings you Plautus! A survey of the plays by this original playwright in the context of genres of ancient comedy and the development of drama in Roman Italy. At least three plays will be read in Latin with attention to language and meter. Discussion will include the relation of Plautus to New Comedy in Greek drama and to archaeological evidence related to the theater in Italy. Requirements include hourly examinations and a final examination, as well as an extended essay. Class meetings will follow a joint reading and discussion format. Cost:2 WL:1 (McConnell)

Advanced Courses

421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of modern linguistic theories that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

426. Practicum. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

436/MARC 441. Medieval Latin II, 900-1350 A.D. Two years of college Latin or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

A detailed study of an author, period, or genre of later Medieval Latin literature, to be decided upon in consultation with students enrolled. Two years of college Latin or equivalent. Latin 435 (MARC 440) is not a prerequisite. Midterm, final, and paper. (Witke)


Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

102. Classical Civilization II: The Ancient Roman World (in English). (4). (HU).

This course serves as a general introduction to Roman Civilization, that is, the history, literature, social life, institutions, and contributions of ancient Rome. The course will focus on the continuing creation and development of the Roman Identity as the city grew from an Italian town to the center of a world Empire. We will proceed chronologically from the founding of the Republic in the sixth century B.C.E. to the second century C.E. We will read ancient authors (in translation) including historians (Livy, Sallust, and Tacitus), poets (Catullus, Vergil, and Horace), as well as occasional inscriptions and other documentary evidence and authors (Cicero, Petronius). Lectures will follow certain common themes and ideas, with occasional presentation of special topics (e.g., Roman law, the ancient book, Roman Games, slavery). There will be two short papers, a midterm examination, and a final exam. Cost:3 WL:3 (Myers)

365/Class. Arch. 365. Alexander the Great: The Making of a Legend. (3). (HU).

Alexander's world-conquering exploits and early death in 323 B.C. made him a legend not only in his own time, but for posterity. This course employs historical, literary, archaeological, artistic, and other forms of evidence to focus critically on the 'reality' and 'image' of Alexander in antiquity. Its scope, however, extends far beyond Alexander's own world, to examine his legacy and how knowledge about him has been transmitted and distorted, used and abused: what the Romans made of him, the Medieval Alexander tradition, even his relevance in contemporary politics. There are illustrated lectures, supplemented where possible by the occasional use of film and museum resources. Students will read about Alexander in selections from an ancient life, a medieval romance-legend, a modern scholarly study, and a novel about Alexander, supplemented by a short course pack of articles. A midterm, final, and short paper are expected. Cost:2 WL:1 (Cherry)

375. War in Greek and Roman Civilization. (4). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to trace the evolution of different ideologies connected with war in the Greco-Roman world. It will begin with the link between war and the state in early Greece that appears in Herodotus' Histories, and move on to Thucydides' analysis of the effect of war on civil society in his history of the Peloponnesian war. The third section of the course will be devoted to war and Roman imperial ideology, as seen through the work of Rome's most successful imperialist, Julius Caesar. The next part of the course will be concerned with civil war and rebellion in the Roman empire (comparing and contrasting Tacitus' Histories and Josephus' Jewish War ), and it will conclude with an analysis of war as experience and ideal in Ammianus Marcellinus' The Later Roman Empire. Consideration will also be given to the tension between ideas and the actual practise of war. Course requirements will include two take-home writing assignments, a midterm, and a final exam. (Potter)

462. Greek Mythology. (4). (HU).

Greek Mythology is designed to acquaint the student with the major myths and epic cycles of ancient Greece from the creation myths and their Near Eastern prototypes through the Trojan War and the wanderings of Odysseus. The development of various myths will be illustrated through Greek literature and art. We will also discuss the use and treatment of Greek myths in English literature, modern psychoanalytical theory, and comparative anthropology. Required texts will include M. Morford and R. Lenardon Classical Mythology and selections from Homer, Hesiod, and Greek tragedy. An additional course pack will provide readings for discussion sections which will meet once a week to consider a variety of theoretical approaches to mythology, and other critical questions. Course requirements include two hour tests and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Dobrov)

472. Roman Law. Not open to freshmen. (3). (HU).

This course acquaints students with the fundamental concepts of Roman private law, with their origin in the society and government of the High Roman Empire, and with their all-important influence in the development of Western European legal theory and institutions. The course aims primarily to meet the interests of undergraduates with a bent toward law as a profession, but it is open to all students (except freshman). We will use a direct application of the American case-law method to the teaching of Roman law. Our basic text will be a series of actual problems from the Roman jurists, which we will discuss in class; only as the occasion demands will the instructor "fill in the gaps" with short lectures on other relevant legal material. Thus students should develop a feel for legal analysis and for the contribution made through such analysis by the Roman jurists; at the same time, students will learn Roman law in a form that will be directly relevant to future legal studies. Besides the handouts, one general introduction to Roman law (ca. 250 pages) will be required reading. There will be one hour test on material covered in class, in addition to the final examination; one paper (10 pages) will allow the student to analyze in detail a particular legal problem. Cost:2 WL:1 (Frier)

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