Courses in ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (DIVISION 361)

For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course. NOTE: If you must miss a class due to religious observances, contact the instructor or leave a message for the instructor with the department. (764-6330)

WRITING COURSES:

After taking or placing out of Introductory Composition, students may elect either English 224 or 225 for further practice in the fundamentals of expository and argumentative prose. English 325 offers the opportunity for work in argumentative and expository prose at a more advanced level.

Several sections of English 223, the beginning course in creative writing, are available each term; the work is multi-generic, and two of the following will be covered in each section: fiction, poetry, and drama. A more advanced course for creative writers is English 323 (Fiction or Poetry), which is available by either permission of instructor or completing the prerequisite, English 223. More experienced writers may apply for admission to specialized sections of English 227 (Playwriting), English 423 (Fiction), English 427 (Playwriting), and English 429 (Poetry). Admission to these advanced courses is by permission of the instructor, who will require writing samples.

INDEPENDENT STUDY:

Independent study in English must be elected under one of the following numbers: 226 (Directed Writing, 1-3 hours), 299 (Directed Reading, 1-3 hours), 426 (Directed Writing, 1-4 hours), 499 (Directed Reading, 1-4 hours). There is a limit to the total hours that may be taken under any one number (3 in 226; 6 in 299, 426, and 499). All elections require permission of the professor, on an election authorization (override) form to be turned in at CRISP and also on a departmental approval form. GSTA's are not normally authorized to supervise independent study.

PROFESSIONAL SEMESTER:

The English Department's Professional Semester is an experimental, integrated, team-taught program, designed for students who are committed to teaching English in the secondary schools or who wish to explore that possibility. This program, which will carry 12 hours of credit, along with English 305 to be taken concurrently for 3 hours of credit, will normally constitute the student's entire course load for one term, and will meet the following requirements in the Teaching Certificate Program (students who have already accumulated some of these credits are welcome to negotiate):

English 490-001. Reading, Writing and Criticism in the Teaching of English. (7 credits). (This is the equivalent of English 325 plus English 417. Concurrent election of English 491/Education D491 and English 305 is required.)

English 491/Education D491. Teaching English-Methods and Practicum. (5 credits). (This is the equivalent of Education D440 and Education 307. Concurrent election of English 490 and English 305 is required.)

The Professional Semester is not taught as a collection of separate courses, but rather as a coherent program with flexible scheduling arrangements and opportunities for large and small group projects and discussions, guest consultants and lecturers, and student planning of many segments or aspects of the program. As a hypothetical example, one might focus on the question of audience, taking up criticism on how literature reaches its audience and including poetry, a Shakespeare play, a modern novel, a film, to explore how the different genres affect an audience. In the same unit students might also examine the communications potential of language in a number of contexts and write brief papers addressed to various audiences. Discussion and observation of different local secondary schools will be arranged under Education D491 on a concentrated basis for a portion of the semester.

The Professional Semester can accommodate up to 25 students and musst be elected with a practicum, whose hours are to be arranged. Students should keep MW 4-5 open for tutoring under Ed D491. Registration requires overrides, available in the English Department Office in 7607 Haven Hall or from the instructor for the program.

Students interested in participating in this program can get more information from the instructor. The professor can also put you in touch with students who have participated in the program and who will be happy to tell you what it was like. A brochure with a general description of the teaching certificate program in English is available in the English Department Office.

124. College Writing: Writing and Literature. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

By connecting the two terms of its title, Writing and Literature aims to help prepare the student to produce the range and quality of expository prose expected in college courses. Works of literature will be considered for their effective use of language and argument. They will serve as reference points for thinking and writing strategies. Characteristically, sections of English 124 will involve the writing of a minimum of six essays, with considerable attention given to the preparation of drafts and to revision. The literary works which will serve as points of reference will vary from section to section and from term to term. Course descriptions for individual sections are available in 224 Angell Hall.

125. College Writing. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

Like English 124 (Writing and Literature), English 125 (College Writing) prepares students for the various kinds of academic writing required of them as undergraduates at the University of Michigan. In addition to informal exercises or impromptu essays, students can expect to write about five formal papers exemplifying the various modes of discourse which comprise our academic community. Course descriptions for individual sections descriptions are available in 224 Angell Hall.

217. Literature Seminar. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (HU).

This exciting range of courses will give the student the opportunity to focus early in the College career on a sharply defined topic or body of literary works, and to do so in a seminar format, with much emphasis on discussion and writing. Whatever the topic of the seminar, students will be introduced to large questions of how one interprets and values the works one investigates, of the relation between those works and the cultural order of which they are a part, and of the function(s) of criticism at the present time. Literature Seminars will be limited to approximately 20 students, and will serve to fulfill the College's Humanities Distribution requirement.

Descriptions for unlisted sections will be available in 224 Angell Hall.

Section 001 Sports: An American Metaphor. Americans, maybe more than any other people, demonstrate a fascination with competitive sports - spectator and participatory; professional and allegedly amateur; individual and team that borders on the obsessive, but is at least within the realm of the fanatical. The source of the word "fan" is no accident. For myriad reasons, from amusement and challenge through health and discipline to source of achievement and camaraderie, sport has vigorously engaged the human community at least since the time of the ancient Greeks. What is it about this arena of inherently minor human endeavor that makes it a source of so much gratification, even if only vicarious, for so many? Why does sport speak so especially to Americans, who by their own admission ascribe far more importance to it than it merits? Has sport indeed become a multi-faceted national metaphor for our ways and times? A common body of readings and screenings will be the basis for discussion, a short paper and a longer critical (i.e., analytical) essay. Availability of texts may be capricious, but the menu (from which we obviously won't be ordering everything) will include American novels, plays, stories, and films (which we will see on tape or disc) in which some sport is central to meaning, action, character, and frame of reference. I will post the reading and viewing list outside my office (2627 Haven Hall) before the end of the Fall Term. Possible inclusions: The Natural (novel & film), Rabbit Run, Bang the Drum Slowly, End Zone, The Harder They Fall, Bull Durham, Shoeless Joe, That Championship Season, The Great White Hope, Raging Bull, Golden Boy, Downhill Racer, The Boys of Summer, Personal Best. (Bauland)

Section 002 Fictions of Identity Crisis. This course asks two fundamental questions: How are identities made? How are identities transformed, mediated, or negotiated? We will explore these questions through an examination of novels, stories, and films which focus on identity crisis on moments or situations when identity is unknown or multiple. While we will be discussing identity within familiar categories such as gender, race, and class, we will also be looking at other categories such as professions (e.g., the detective, the artist), cultural positions (e.g., the bohemian, the radical), and medical/legal definitions (e.g., the madman, the criminal). Finally, we will wrap up the class by exploring the boundary between man and machine and examining what it means to be human. Readings will be chosen from the following: Braddon, Lady Audley's Secret; Stevenson, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; Doyle, "Man With a Twisted Lip" and "The Adventure of the Cardboard Box;" Larsen, Passing; Woolf, Orlando; Morrison, The Bluest Eye; Rushdie, Midnight's Children; Le Guin, The Left Hand of Darkness; and selected stories of Erdrich and Atwood. Films will include: Vertigo, Imitation of Life, Paris is Burning, and Bladerunner. There will be two 5-7 page papers and a final exam, as well as occasional informal in-class writing assignments. (Booth)

Sectoion 003 Twenty-Something. Are we, as Time magazine claims, the "lost generation"? What are the differences between those who are in their early twenties today and those who were in their twenties ten years ago? Fifteen years ago? Twenty years ago? How has being "twenty-something" been represented within various cultural texts: in "popular" and "canonical" literature, film and television, or even magazine and newspaper articles? Through exploring the exciting and often contradictory ways these texts respond to and produce cultural fantasies and anxieties about post-Vietnam, post-adolescence, we will consider how these ever-changing images have influenced our perceptions of history in general as well as our own personal histories. Some of the texts we will be considering are: The Joy Luck Club, Generation X, Waiting To Exhale, Twenty Under Thirty, Rubyfruit Jungle, Bright Lights/Big City, House on Mango Street, and Black Ice. A tentative list of films includes: Singles, My Own Private Idaho, Wayne's World, Slacker, She's Gotta Have It, and New Jack City. These will be supplemented by course pack materials. In addition to two formal essays (4-6 pages), each student will prepare an in-class presentation, and submit weekly journal entries. Conferences with the instructor, class attendance and attendance at all films are required. (Bailey)

220. Intensive Writing. Open to junior and senior transfer students only. Students must take the ECB Writing Assessment before registering for this course. (2). (Introductory Composition). May be repeated for a total of four credits.

Intensive Composition is a course designed especially to meet the needs of entering transfer students. Enrollment in English 220 is limited to senior, junior, and sophomore transfer students. It is a two-credit course, meeting three hours each week for an EIGHT-WEEK (half-term) PERIOD. English 220 will be offered only during the first half of the Winter 1994 Term. The work in English 220 is intensive and the classes are small. This course meets the Introductory Composition requirement and students move from this course to the ECB-required junior-senior writing courses throughout the University. The course is repeatable once, for a total of four hours' credit.

Students enrolled in this course will write much and often a minimum of 500 words each week. This course differs from English 125 in the pace of the assigned work, and in the assumed level of transfer students' experience as writers. Students are advised against taking this course as an overload. If you have any questions, please contact the Composition Program, 224 Angell Hall, 764-0418.

223. Creative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (HU). May not be repeated for credit.

All sections of 223 teach the writing of two of the following three genres: fiction (including personal narrative), drama, and poetry. Different sections will emphasize the individual genres to varying degrees. Classwork involves the discussion of the process of writing and the work of a few published authors. Students will do exercises meant to develop a sensitivity to language and a facility with evocative detail, voice, form, and so forth. Most classroom time, however, is devoted to reading and discussion of student writing. A final portfolio of revised finished work of 35-50 manuscript pages may be required. Course descriptions for individual sections are available in 224 Angell Hall.

224. The Uses of Language. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (HU).

The aim of this new second-year writing course is to help students improve the critical thinking and writing skills introduced in English 124 or 125. Each section of 224 will focus on the ways a particular value system affects individuals, and will read, talk, and write, about that system. For example, students might consider the values that prompt ethical choices, or shape identity, or promote spirituality. Students will explore the way that language is used as a vehicle for urging specific beliefs in order to uncover rhetorical strategies at the heart of such modes of discourse. Classes will be conducted in workshop format and revision will form an integral part of the analytic process.

Section 001 Seeing the Forest and the Trees. If writing is thinking, and thinking about what we value helps us to know who we are, then this composition course is a course about self-discovery. We will conduct this exploration of the relationship between who we are and what we think as we discuss and analyze the ethical dilemmas through which other writers have imagined the discovery of personal values. We will read short fiction by James and Melville, and the novels Before and After, by Rosellen Brown, The Book of Daniel, by E.L. Doctorow, and The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, by Muriel Spark, and see the movie Crimes and Misdemeanors, by Woody Allen. Our aim will be to discover what we, individually, think and feel about the ethical choices these writers present and work out our own ethical positions through our writing. Class requirements include four papers (5-7 pages), brief weekly written responses to the readings, regular attendance, and active participation in the class discussions. (Wolk)

Section 002 Writing Our Own Lives. In effect, in this writing class, we will be asking questions that reveal how we go about "writing our own futures." How did we write the narrative of our pasts, for example? We will grapple with problems of human conflict and value systems which affect the decisions we make both at personal and public levels. Although the reading list is still to be determined, we will select texts from both fiction and non-fiction writers who illuminate these struggles. With that in mind, we will analyze John Irving's The Cider House Rules, short stories by Margaret Atwood, Gloria Naylor, William Carlos Williams, and John Edgar Wideman. The class format will be discussion and more discussion. We will always be concerned with how we think and how we write, consistently looking for the surprises of the unknown emotional sources of our decision-making. Each student will write approximately 50 pages of his or her own texts (essays and responses to texts) during the term. (Back)

225. Argumentative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (HU).

This course furthers the aims of English 124 and 125 in helping to analyze the various claims of a given issue and to develop ways of exploring and defending positions, ideas and beliefs in writing. Careful attention will be paid to process of reasoning, the testing of assumptions and claims, the questioning of beliefs, and the discovery of ideas and evidence through analysis and rigorous articulation in written discourse. The course will also focus on considerations of style, formal strategy techniques, and revision as integral to precision in making points and developing argumentative ideas both for purposes of individual reflection as well as for the purpose of persuading an audience.

Course descriptions for individual sections can be found in the Composition Program, 224 Angell Hall.

227. Introductory Playwriting. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Introductory Playwriting.
A crash course immersion into the world of professional playwriting. Original student work is read aloud each week, then critiqued in workshop fashion by the class. Modeled after the Playwrights Units at such distinguished Off-Broadway Theaters as Circle Repertory Company and Ensemble Studio Theater, student playwrights are expected to write two revised one-act plays over the course of the term, see one play a week, read at least one play a week, meet weekly with an assigned partner, have weekly conferences with the instructor, and keep a journal. Midterm and end of the year performances are open to the public. Instructor is a New York-based playwright and screenwriter with Regional theater and Off-Broadway credits and the expectations of the workshop are of a similarly professional nature. To enroll, put name on waitlist at CRISP, come to the first day of class with dramatic-writing sample and compelling idea for an original play (class size limited to 15 writers). WL:1 Cost:2 (Roth)

230. Introduction to Short Story and Novel. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Honors.
Purpose and design of course: To read a substantial number of short stories (and two novels) by well-established writers of the past and of the present in order to develop strategies of interpretation beyond mere "plot" and "characterization." Our method will be comparative; in other words, during class periods we will read stories that in some way have apparent similarities and our task will be to expose their differences. At about midway in the term we will carefully read and analyze two novels, probably Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises and Nathanael West's Day of the Locust. Among the writers covered: Tolstoy, Chekhov, Dostoevski, Hawthorne, Melville, Jewett, Cather, Lawrence, Hemingway, Faulkner, Fitzgerald, O'Conner, Ellison, Atwood, Oates, Lessing, Gordimer, Mason, and others. Prerequisites: None. What is wanted here is an interest in reading with a willingness to explore one's own capacity for critical and creative thinking. Procedures: There will be no midterm. In its place there will be frequent in-class writing exercises based upon materials read for that week. Toward the end of the term there will be a longer out-of-class paper based upon materials read during this course. In addition, students will keep a special notebook in which they log their reactions to each story assigned. There will also be a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Eby)

Section 002. Stories which are familiar to us seem somehow to have always existed. Yet, in creating their tales authors have had to make numerous decisions about factors such as plot, setting, characters, and tone, each of which affects the meaning conveyed to the reader. By understanding the implications of each of these factors in the overall shape of a novel or short story, we as readers can gain deeper insights into the circumstances in which it was created and the important nuances of meaning it conveys. Through class discussions we will also discover the surprising diversity of interpretations which different readers can find in the same work. In short, while providing a broad background in major literary conventions and traditions to improve our perceptiveness as readers, this course will also explore how our own experiences inevitably shape those perceptions. To these ends in this class we will sample a variety of short stories from many different traditions to sharpen our abilities. Then, we will concentrate on one British novel each from the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries to look at enduring patterns as well as sharp changes in this particular tradition. Finally, we will consider a contemporary novel for what it reveals about the state of fiction in the present moment. Required Texts: Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen; Wuthering Heights, Emily Brontë; To The Lighthouse, Virginia Woolf; Dogeaters, Jessica Hagedorn. Stories by Flannery O'Connor, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Julio Cortazar, Edgar Allen Poe, Kate Chopin, Katherine Mansfield, Tillie Olsen, Alice Munro, and Grace Paley. Required Work: Regular and active class participation, ongoing reading journal, two 4-6 page papers and a final exam. (Kim)

Section 003. This course is designed for non-majors, or for students who have had relatively little exposure to the study of literature at the college level. As such, it will emphasize the process of literary analysis and interpretation, and at the most basic level will focus on active reading of and engagement with provocative and interesting works of fiction. In addition to learning to think about and discuss literary texts, we will work on translating those ideas into cogent, critical arguments in prose. The longer works we will be reading include: Brontë's Wuthering Heights, Dickens' Great Expectations, Drabble's The Waterfall, Faulkner's Sound and The Fury, Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist, and Morrison's Sula. Along the way, we'll do a sampling of shorter works by Chopin, Conrad, Dostoevsky, Douglass, Gilman, Hawthorne, Hemingway, Mann, Melville, Toomer, O'Connor, Twain, West. Course Requirements include weekly journals, two formal essays, a short oral presentation, a final exam and a strong commitment to active class participation. (Rado)

Section 004. As an introduction to the practice of literary analysis, we will read from various periods and cultures in order to investigate a range of styles, voices, and genres. The emphasis will be on close, engaged reading as a way of generating provocative and fresh insights into literature. Along the way you will work on shaping your own writing in response to these novels and short stories. Thematically our readings will cover extensive territory, yet a persistent concern will be how the craft of fiction of storytelling in particular makes sense of the past. The works selected for study are particularly self conscious about making use of the past: authors can "rewrite" a previous piece of fiction, tell interlocking tales, or use history in ways that reshape the present. Readings and authors will likely include the following: Jane Eyre (Charlotte Brontë); Wide Sargasso Sea (Jean Rhys), Tracks (Louise Erdrich); The Country of the Pointed Firs (Sarah Orne Jewett), Beloved (Toni Morrison); Donald Duk (Frank Chin), The French Lieutenant's Woman (John Fowles); plus selected short stories by various authors (Guy de Maupassant, Edith Wharton, etc.). Required Work: lively class participation, three papers (4-5 pages) and a final exam. (Cho)

Section 005 Communities and Relationships in the Short Story and Novel. In this course we will look closely at narratives that discuss relationships among people, images, and objects. The selected stories and novels will offer a wide variety of reading of European and American authors from different historical, ethnic, and geographical backgrounds ranging from eighteenth century to contemporary fiction. How do we categorize relationships in terms of family roles such as father-son, or mother-daughter interactions? How do we understand such roles as teacher-student or employer-employee? In particular, we will explore questions such as what kinds of expectations we have of specific relationships, what roles we ascribe to each figure or object, and how these representations change from author to author. Readings may include selections from Grimm's Fairy Tales, Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, The Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka, stories by Edgar Allan Poe, To The Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf, All I am Asking For Is My Body by Milton Muryama, selections from Love Medicine by Louise Erdrich, The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan, and Dawn by Octavia Butler. Students will be expected to participate actively in class discussions, give oral presentations, keep a journal, write 2 essays (5-7 pages), and take a final exam. (Dave)

Section 006 Fictions and Fables. What do Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn, Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon and Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" have in common with Aesop's Fables? Each represents one writer's attempt to create a story that teaches a lesson about some aspect of human nature. In the past such stories were called parables, myths, and fables. In this course, we will look closely at a wide variety of more recent novels and short stories which combine elements of fiction with elements of fable, and we will talk about what distinguishes the fable from other types of writing. We will also try to understand why and how writers use specific settings, relationships and character types in their efforts to depict a larger truth. In our discussions we will employ traditional categories of literary analysis such as structure, language, style, theme, and plot. Our reading list will include five of the following novels: Middle Passage, Charles Johnson; Reckless Eyeballing, Ishmael Reed; Raise High the Roofbeam Carpenters, J.D. Salinger; Song of Solomon, Toni Morrison; Altered States, Paddy Chayefsky; Being There, Jerzy Kozinski; Tuck Everlasting, Natalie Babbitt; A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens; Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain; Night, Elie Wiesel. We will also read a number of short stories, including works by the following authors: William Faulkner, Edgar Allan Poe, Flannery O'Connor, Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens), Philip Roth, Ethan Canin, Ralph Lombriglia, Kay Boyle, Raymond Carver, and others. Required work: active participation in class discussions, regular attendance, midterm and final papers, one oral presentation, reading journal. (Mance)

Section 007 Fiction of the Fe/male Imagination. We will work on conceptual and writing strategies in a wide variety of novels and short stories by women as well as think broadly about questions of "genre" and "gender"; I have selected texts which range in style, philosophy, era, cultural influence, reader-friendliness, popular appeal, and creative vision. The syllabus the final version of which we will decide together - will draw from among the following novels: Samuel Richardson's Pamela, Ann Radcliffe's Mysteries of Udolpho, Charlotte Brontë's Villette, George Eliot's Daniel Deronda, Willa Cather's My Antonia, Gertrude Stein's Melanctha, Nella Larson's Passing, Marguerite Duras' The Ravishing of Loi Stein, Angela Carter's Nights at the Circus, Gail Godwin's Violet Clay, Maryse Conde's Heremakhonon, and Amy Tan's The Kitchen God's Wife. In addition, we will read short stories by these authors among others: Grace Paley, Leslea Newman, Jamaica Kincaid, and Kathy Acker. We will think thematically about race, gender, class, and sexuality; the body, violence, science, and culture; politics, knowledge, and belief; and imaginary places, imagined readers, and monsters. Three short essays (5pp.) midterm and final, written class questions, and active participation are required work. If time permits, we will acquire some research skills, for example, learning about researching literary criticism for essay writing. There are no prerequisites for this course except some writing skill plus an interest in thinking critically about fiction for its pleasures and disgust, confusion and rationality, complications and simplicity, form and meaning. (Epstein)

239. What is Literature? Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
We do many things with books: throw them, sell them, ban them, read them, print them, store them, write them, and more. Doing so we act simply and mysteriously. How do readers turn pulp and ink into "literature"? and how is it that literature moves us to joy, despair, boredom, or the delight of heightened attention? As we discover the possibilities of "interpretation," we will consider how prose and poetry attract us, what a character is and what a story does. Our class will explore books in relation to ourselves and the social world. We will look to the ways in which common elements of our lives can be read as "texts" and review the many ways in which famous books have been read. Throughout, I will introduce practical guides for the student A Handbook to Literature and A Research Guide for Undergraduate Students, for example as well as pose difficult questions. What makes a book good? How do we construct literary history? Why study literature at all? Classes will be run primarily as discussions. There will be two exams and several short writing assignments. Our goal will be to expand and better the vital ways we talk and write about books. WL:1 Cost:3 (Leon)

Section 002. How do you decide, when you open a book, whether what you are reading counts as "literature" or not? Just what is going on when you read literature, and how different is it from what is going on when you read a menu or watch television? This class is designed to explore and challenge common assumptions about literature, language, and culture; to disclose the active role of narrative in shaping self and society; and to open up a critical perspective on the workings of our own culture. We will explore these topics through a variety of readings, including both fiction and cultural theory. Format: discussion. This section of "What is Literature?" originated as part of the group of "critical thinking" courses developed in LS&A over the past few years; we will explore the meaning of that term and try to put it into practice. It will even be all right for students to question the accuracy of the teacher's views at least, I will do my best to remain calm. Students' responsibilities: punctual completion of reading assignments, class participation, an oral presentation, three short papers, one examination. (Howard)

Section 003. This course is an introduction to literary studies, rather than an introduction to literature. Our primary task will be to develop interpretive strategies for reading a wide variety of cultural texts (including both the "literary" and the "popular.") The reading for the course will include fiction, literary and cultural theory, and criticism. We will try out numerous critical approaches, and interpretive models, on texts as various as Bram Stoker's Dracula, Herman Melville's short stories, Stephen King's Misery, and Manuel Puig's Kiss of the Spiderwoman. We will ask questions about the social and political meanings of authorship as these meanings change over history; about the social functions of literature in changing historical situations; about the relationships (both theoretical and practical) between so-called "high" culture and popular culture; about the importance of social relations and social positioning in thinking about the way texts are read and received. The course will be organized around questions and approaches, rather than around literary periods or styles or genres. Requirements: Attendance, vigorous class participation, frequent short writing assignments, evaluation of peers' writing, a midterm, two 4-5 page papers, and one 6-8 page paper. (Robinson)

Section 006. In asking the question "What is literature?" we will explore boundaries and characteristics of different kinds of writing and possible relationships between writers, texts, and readers, rather than attempting to arrive at a specific definition of literature. In that process of exploration we will examine a wide variety of texts, representing different genres (fiction, drama, film, poetry, essay) and a wide range of cultures and historical periods. There will be frequent writing of short pieces and a final examination. Cost:3 (Howes)

Section 008. As we work at the question what is literature?, we're going to move around a lot. We're going to ask what it means to be an author, to create a story, what that does for/to her/him, and we're going to figure that out and figure out some answers to the main question by being authors ourselves a little. We're going to ask about our own responses as readers, both as we confront the text alone, and as we attempt to discuss it in ways our backgrounds and educational settings have taught us to discuss it, and we may seek new ways of getting at it. We'll read texts closely and attempt to understand their components and structures, the effect of the social and economic context in which they are written and read, their less accessible meanings, and what's at stake for us, if anything, in the content. We'll be interested in the social purposes of literature and in questions of authors' responsibilities. We'll want to understand what official stories are through seeing the Argentine film The Official Story, and we'll be looking at reporters trying to get the story as they interview My Lai veterans or other Vietnam veterans holed up in Washington State mountains. We'll watch a range of humanists and philosophers argue over what Simon Wiesenthal should have done or not done for the dying Nazi in his Holocaust story The Sunflower. Other texts will include Coetzee's Waiting For The Barbarians, Thomas' The White Hotel, Wiesel's Legends of Our Time, Marshall's Praisesong For The Widow, plays by El Teatro Campesino, and Gutierrez Alea's film Memories of Underdevelopment, some stories and poems by the homeless and prisoners, and some theoretical essays that will help us grapple with all this. Class participation will be important, and you'll write 20-25 pages worth of essays, the nature of which we'll determine together. Creative and group projects will be encouraged. No exams. WL:1 Cost:3 (Alexander)

Section 009. In this course, we will ask questions that provoke us to think about what literature is, and what our purposes are in reading and discussing novels, poems, and other forms of writing, We will consider some problems of making literary judgments and assigning value to what we read, and examine some of the ways that categories such as "traditions," ""popular," and "canonical" are interpreted in our era. We will explore these questions through reading of novels, stories, poems, and other kinds of writing. Class proceeds by small -group and large-group discussion and the occasional short lecture. Attendance is mandatory. The texts are likely to include: Atwood, Cat's Eye; Oates, Because It Is Bitter, and Because It Is My Heart; Phillips, Machine Dreams; Speigelmann, Maus; Mansfield, Stories; Lawrence, Stories; and The Norton Introduction to Poetry. Course requirements include frequent 1-2 page response papers, two 5-7 page essays, possibly some quizzes, certainly a midterm and a final exam. (Heininger)

Section 010. This course will provide an introduction to literary studies, focusing on questions of interpretive theory, literary influence and revision, canon formation, the construction of genres and historical periods, and the relationship between literature and culture. Texts will probably include Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, and the film Dreamchild, which creatively rereads Alice, Brontë's Jane Eyre, Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea, Conrad's Heart of Darkness, and James' Turn of the Screw. In addition we will read critical and theoretical works that situate these texts in relation to different interpretive strategies and issues. Requirements will include a number of informal writings, three 5-page essays, and a final exam. (Vrettos)

Section 011. This course will explore "literature" as an idea and a practice in the past and up to the present. We will survey the history of what has been supposed to be literary in order to be conscious that conceptions of literature change over time. We will read a group of texts closely, for their aesthetic value and interest as well as their human and moral significance. We will contemplate particular texts, genres, and literary ideas from a variety of theoretical perspectives. Finally, we will try to become more aware of the boundaries of the literary, considering such questions as: How does "literature" spill over into autobiography, popular arts, folklore, newspaper writing, anthropological narrative, historical discourse, etc.? How do we live in a world of "textuality" as well as outside of it? Readings may include: a play each by Sophocles and Shakespeare, nineteenth-century texts by Hawthorne, Melville, Douglass, and Dickinson, twentieth-century texts by Faulkner, Morrison, and Garcia Marquez, and a sampling of literary criticism and theory. Requirements will include class participation and/or group projects, two five-page papers, and a final. (McIntosh)

Section 012. Honors. This class is designed to stimulate your thought about issues that should prove central to all your subsequent engagements with literature, inside and outside the classroom. It is my hope that nothing will go unquestioned in this course, including the nature of literary study and the changing meanings of "literature" itself. We will study character and plot in novels, short stories and poetry, for example, but we will also work to uncover what we mean when we use terms like "character" and "plot" and to understand the criteria by which we place texts into different categories. We will spend some time talking about the social and historical forces that shape a culture's ideas of what constitutes literature; we will also examine how these forces affect a culture's estimation of a text's value. Our discussions, often theoretical in nature, will always revolve around particular texts. We will read essays and selected fiction from a Course Pack; we will likely read texts by Woolf, Joyce, Stein, Douglass, Hawthorne, and Hurston, among others. Course requirements will include a class presentation, two short papers (2 pp.), two slightly longer papers (5 pp.) and a final essay (8 pp.). Participation in discussions is required; attendance is mandatory. WL:1 Cost:2 (Whittier-Ferguson)

240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
A month of development of poetic forms in English followed by concentration on contemporary American poetry with emphasis on the work of three poets Alice Fulton, Laurence Goldstein, and Richard Tillinghast - who are faculty members at the University of Michigan. All three will read and discuss their poetry in this class. Daily writing to begin each class but the first and last. Two papers of 5-6 pages each. No midterm; no final. (Fader)

Section 002. In this course, we will read widely in English poetry, analyzing both its formal characteristics and its characteristic and uncharacteristic themes. The first part of the course emphasizes formal aspects of English poetry, and the second part focuses on thematic issues. We will also work throughout the course on developing your skills in writing literary essays. Requirements include participating in class, taking two exams, and writing short essays. (Krook)

Section 003. Why read poems? This course will explore answers to that question by sampling poetry from various countries and times and by talking with poets. Through class discussion and frequent writing activities, students will define for themselves the value of poetry and the critical methods best suited to understanding and appreciating it. Readings will be taken from The Norton Anthology of Poetry, a course pack, and some recent publications by members of the English Department. Throughout the course, we will attend poetry readings and invite poets to come in and discuss their work with us. Students should be ready to participate actively. Requirements: daily writing exercises, reports on poetry readings, two critical papers, exams. (Tinkle)

Section 004. The purpose of this course will be to generate, refine, and implement strategies for understanding and explicating a wide range of poems. Using The Norton Anthology of Poetry and various supplemental materials, we will discuss not only the means by which poets communicate their lyric visions of the world but also the ways in which readers produce convincing, heterogeneous, and often conflicting accounts of the same poem. Topics to be addressed will include the characteristic features and types of poems, the rhetorical function of poetry and the role that critical methodologies and cultural assumptions play in the interpretation of poems. Class will be run predominantly as a discussion group and students will be expected to participate regularly. Requirements will include occasional informal assignments, 3 analytical essays, a midterm, and a final examination. Cost:1 (Flint)

Section 005. A course in how to and ways to understand, feel, enjoy, evaluate, and interpret poems. Poetry typically differs from ordinary language and from prose in certain fairly conventional and (for poetry) advantageous ways, and we shall try to understand how and why it does so. As we look at and hear poems, we shall consider such things as sound, diction, rhythm, figures of speech, the line, form, and genre, authorship, audience, and context. Our readings will come from various cultures, old and new; most readings will be British and American, most of these recent or contemporary. We'll pay some attention to the histories of poetry. We'll try to get a feel for the contemporary poetry scene. By end of term, everyone should be able to read almost any poem in English with confidence, knowing what kind of poem it is, how it works, when it might have been composed, what it might mean, and whether it's any good. Main text: a computer-generated Introduction to Poetry book, including an anthology. Students may also be asked to buy one book by a contemporary poet. Everyone will write three essays on increasingly challenging topics. There will be a test on "technical terms," another test on the course readings, and a final exam asking for the interpretation and evaluation of some new poetry. (Smith)

Section 006. We'll read a wide variety of poems drawn from the last four centuries; our aim will be both understanding and enjoyment. At first we'll develop a battery of questions likely to be fruitful in close reading. Later we'll apply those questions to poems short and long, simple and complex, as we seek to discover in each case the best avenue to interpretation. From time to time we'll try to view matters from the poet's perspective by composing verse in various forms. For the last 2-3 weeks we'll focus on the works of a single major poet. Written work; journals, frequent short papers, one longer paper, a midterm, a final exam. WL:1 Cost:2 (English)

Section 007. Through reading and discussion we shall explore the questions we may ask of poems in a variety of forms from different periods. Poetry is a source of pleasure, and to understand and appreciate a poem fully as to understand any complex game we need to acquire knowledge and skill: fluency. We will read aloud, memorize, analyze, discuss. There will be frequent short writings, and a few longer papers, a computer conference and, probably, a midterm and a final. Regular attendance and active participation in class meetings are required. (Cloyd)

Section 008. The aim of this course is to learn to read poetry by doing it together. We shall give close attention to a series of poems drawn from different periods. Our focus will be on what makes each poem work as a poem: its formal and metric structure, its imagery, the tension between its rhythms and those of ordinary speech, its tones of voice and imagined speakers, its ironies, ambiguities, allusions, and surprises. Our central questions will be what kind of meaning each poem has and how that meaning is made. During the course you will be exposed to many different forms of poetry and many different authors. At the end we will spend a few weeks on the work of a single poet, to be chosen by me after consultation with the class. This is a discussion class and accordingly your attendance and participation are strictly required. There will be three short papers, a midterm, a final, and a series of short exercises. The text is The Norton Anthology of English Poetry. Cost:2 (White)

Section 009. In this course we shall study closely a variety of poems written in English from about 1600 to the present, with an occasional glimpse at poems in translation. The task of the course is a pleasurable and progressive understanding of how poems work, that is, what techniques poets use to articulate their visions of experience. We shall pay close attention to the language, forms, figures, and themes of verse, and to literary-historical conditions that influence poetic craft. The textbook Western Wind, by John Frederick Nims, will be our chief reading, in addition to a general anthology. The course will conclude with a discussion of one poet's career, perhaps Robert Frost or Elizabeth Bishop. Because this is a discussion class, regular attendance and participation are required. Other requirements include a series of short papers, supplemented by exercises, a midterm and a final examination. Cost:2 WL:1 (Goldstein)

Section 010. Work in class will be devoted to discussion of particular poems selected from The Norton Anthology of Poetry. The aim of the discussion will be to increase your understanding and appreciation of poetry. The first course objective will be to develop some common questions or assumptions about poetry. The second objective will be to find ways of answering such questions or testing such assumptions, and we will spend the greater part of the course reading poems in an effort to accomplish this. In the final weeks of the course we will read a number of poems by one poet. There will be a midterm, a short paper or two, in-class exercises, and a final. Cost:1 (Lenaghan)

Section 011. The aim of this course is to introduce you to the art of poetry so that you can read and discuss any poem with understanding and delight. Our basic strategy in the course will be to explore poetic expression in as many ways as possible: through silent reading and reading aloud, through close analysis and more impressionistic response, through class discussion and individual study, and through various forms of writing (both spontaneously exploratory and more carefully argued). During the term, we will move from a general survey of poetic techniques and forms to a more detailed study of the work of a selection of authors from the Renaissance to the present. For the former, we will use Western Wind by John Frederick Nims. For the latter, we use The Norton Anthology of Poetry. To record your day-to-day interactions with texts, I will ask you to keep a poetic journal. More formal writing will include four (ungraded) exercises in poetic analysis and four (graded) papers (3-5 pages) on individual authors and poems. WL:1 Cost:2 (Cureton)

Section 012. In this course we read and study poems rather carefully so that we can read poetry with more enjoyment and knowledge. This activity is prerequisite to concentrating in English. The course can also be a good one for students not intending an English concentration but who want to know more about poetry. We go by as much reading of poems in class and as much discussion as we can. We invite familiarity with the main manifestations of English and American verse through the close reading of a given few. That way we can hope to get some sense of the range of lyric poetry as well as some skill at seeing how different kinds of poems are put together and how they work; and this not for its own sake but so that we can know more clearly, enjoy more deeply. Toward the close of the course we will study the work of one major poet perhaps Yeats or Frost or Dickinson. There will be a number of written exercises, two relatively short papers, one hour exam and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (McNamara)

270. Introduction to American Literature. (3). (HU).
Section 001 American Dreams, American Nightmares.
We hear the phrase "American Dream" so often that most of us assume we can define it. This course will test that assumption in fact, we will test the assumption that there is an American Dream. Instead, we will examine a variety of American dreams, aspirations, desires, and their results often nightmarish, horrible, unforeseen conclusions. Throughout the course we will study novels, short stories, plays, and films that depict the promise of America, and the perils of that promise. Among authors we will read: Scott Fitzgerald, Flannery O'Connor, Toni Morrison, and Dashiell Hammett. (Harrison)

274/CAAS 274. Introduction to Afro-American Literature. (3). (HU).

The aim of this course is to familiarize students with some of the basic scholarly questions which arise in the study of African-American literature: Exactly what makes a text "Black"? The race of the author? Her or his discussion of certain subjects? The expectation of a reading audience with preconceived notions of what Black people ought to write about? Also, why study African-American literature at all? Should Black authors be read as an act of charity to Other voices, or can these voices in fact have a profound influence on our critical understanding of American literature and culture as a whole? Readings will be drawn from eighteenth-, nineteenth- and twentieth-century Black American prose and poetry, as well as from contemporary scholarship on African-American culture and literary history. Requirements: a midterm, a final, participation in a group presentation, and one short paper. (Gunning)

285. Introduction to Twentieth-Century Literature. (3). (HU).

Although the scope suggested by the title of this course is impossibly broad, we will limit it, first, by reading only fiction; and, second, by focusing on two motifs: the depiction of women and the questioning of the concept of Progress. Works to be read include Chopin's The Awakening, Wharton's The Age of Innocence, Conrad's Heart of Darkness, Mann's Death in Venice, Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, Woolf's To the Lighthouse, Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover, Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God, Jong's Fear of Flying, Huxley's Brave New World and Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale. Course grades will be based on three hourly exams, at least one, perhaps two five-page papers, and an occasional in-class pop writing assignment. Cost:2 (Beauchamp)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

305. Introduction to Modern English. Recommended for students preparing to teach English. (3). (HU).

Though a requirement for students seeking certification as secondary school English teachers, English 305 appeals to a broader audience interested in the structure of English and its varieties. Topics to be discussed include: regional and social dialect variation in the United States. English as a rule-governed language shaped by its history, and the history of ideas about good (and "bad" English). English 305 is designed for native-speakers of English (with no prior study of the language or of linguistics) who are curious about the language community of which they are a part. A midterm and final examination allow students to demonstrate the ability to make well founded generalization based on the material studied. Short papers invite explorations of domains of langauge. (Bailey)

308. History of the English Language. (3). (HU).

Our language has changed dramatically in the twelve hundred years of its recorded history. We would not recognize speech (Old English) of the first Germanic peoples who migrated to post-Roman Britain in the fifth century; Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (Middle English) might seem to be written in a foreign language; even Shakespeare's (early Modern) English requires special efforts. Our main task will be to understand something of sounds, words and structure of English at each of these earlier periods, but especially we will work to understand why and how a language changes (or doesn't). For example, a large core of modern words (hand, cold, over, good, love as well as other Four Letter Words) have changed little since Old English times. Some very common words have undergone regular changes in pronunciation only (earlier ban, stan, and ham have become bone, stone, and you guessed it, home). Some words have been lost entirely (fathe - father's sister, slaeting hunting rights, feohfang bribe taking) even though the things they signify are still very much around us. What are we to make of the facts that very basic terms like husband and sister and the pronouns they, them, their were actually borrowed from Vikings? Why do we have two sets of words relating to barnyard animals calf, cow, pig (English) vs. veal, beef, pork (French). Are you interested to learn that the words shrew, harlot, witch, and frump once referred both to males and females, and in the first two cases to males alone? Or that tart and hussy are shortenings of sweetheart and housewife? Course work will consist of frequent short assignments, group tasks, in class workshops, a midterm and final. The major prerequisite is that you come prepared to have fun. This course satisfies the requirement for a course in language for English concentrators in the Teaching Certification Program. WL:1 (Toon)

315/Women's Studies 315. Women and Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

Section 001 Afro-American Women Novelists and Literary Tradition.
"Tradition...cannot be inherited, and if you want it you must obtain it by great labour." T.S. Eliot
"Traditions are not born. They are made...[T]hey are not, like objects of nature, here to stay, but survive as created social events." Hortense Spillers
During the course of the term, we will examine the "great labour" that characterizes contemporary formulations of an Afro-American women's literary tradition. Armed with an awareness of its recent establishment by scholars and imaginative writers, we will explore both the social and institutional conditions that made its emergence possible and the sometimes competing notions of the ideological, aesthetic, and discursive properties which constitute Black women's literary tradition. In considering such matters in the course of reading some of the most highly praised novels authored by Afro-American women in the last half century, our goals will be (1) to devise strategies of reading that facilitate our understanding of writers like Zora Neale Hurston, Paule Marshall, Alice Walker, Toni Morrison, and Gloria Naylor; and (2) to understand the benefits and the limitations of conceiving of these writers as links in a textual chain. Course requirements: three 5-7 page essays; a take-home final examination; occasional quizzes; class attendance; and active discussion section participation. This course fulfills the English Department's New Traditions American Literature requirements. Cost:4 WL:1 (Awkward)

Section 002 Seduction and Sympathy in the Early American Novel. Most people picture Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville when they try to think of early American novelists. But actually, most novels written between the Revolutionary and Civil wars were written by women. And most of the novels, written by men or women, featured female protagonists. In this course we will be looking at some of these novels by women, most of which deal with issues of seduction and betrayal, love and liberation (often in hyperbolic language), and we will talk about why the "woman's story" was so popular in this period of American culture. What stories do women tell about themselves, and what do men have to say about it? Why is the woman's body, whether "pure" or "tainted," such a focus for readers and writers alike? How does sentimentality reconcile readers to the contradictions of their time? Some of the novels we will be reading are Hannah Foster's The Coquette, Catherine Sedgwick's Hope Leslie, Maria Cummins' The Lamplighter, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. There will be two formal papers, a midterm and a final exam. Satisfies American Literature and New Traditions requirements. (Barnes)

Section 003 The Search for Autonomy. In this course, which possibly could be subtitled "a sense of humor certainly doesn't hurt," participants will engage in a dialectic regarding what constitutes the woman's life in a society determined to be ideologically democratic and egalitarian. Beginning with early-19th Century theorists and observers and continuing up into our time, the readings will examine the literary style and attitudes of women writers from multi-ethnic backgrounds and explore through prose, poetry, film, and fiction their unsentimental treatment of tough moral issues. Both "art" and the represented "life" will be our concern. Discussion based, close reading and consistent attendance are imperative to facilitate the exchange of ideas and will be expected. Texts include several novels, a play, and a course pack of shorter works (Churchill, Didion, Freeman, Gilligan, Gordimer, Kingston, Marshall, Munro, Porter, Slessinger, Walker and others). Brief in-class writings; two papers; final exam to be determined. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. Cost:4 WL:1 (DePree)

316. Intellectual Problems in Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 The Psychology of Literary Experience.
For Winter Term, 1994, this course is jointly offered with Pscyhology 501.005. (Rosenwald)

317. Literature and Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Evil in Literature and Film.
This course will consider some literary backgrounds for twentieth century concepts of evil and some twentieth century examples of the presentation of evil in literature and film adaptations. Works studied will be drawn from this list: Dante, Inferno; Milton, Paradise Lost; Shakespeare, King Lear; Blake, Marriage of Heaven and Hell; Hawthorne, "Rappaccini's Daughter"; Shelley, Frankenstein; Stoker, Dracula; Conrad, Heart of Darkness; Golding, Lord of the Flies; Burgess, Clockwork Orange; Kaxantzakis, Last Temptation of Christ; Silko, Ceremony; Forster, Passage to India. Films will be chosen from this list: Kozintsev's King Lear (Russian), Olivier's King Lear, Kurosawa's Ran (Japanese), Rappaccini's Daughter, one or more versions of Frankenstein and Dracula, Apocalypse Now, Hearts of Darkness, Lord of the Flies, (1963) Clockwork Orange, Last Temptation of Christ, Passage to India. There will be frequent writing of short pieces and a final exam. The usual mode of instruction will be discussion. (Howes)

Section 002 Literature in Time of Plague. If you had lived in London exactly four hundred years ago in 1593 and 1594 you would have found yourself in the midst of a horrific plague. Your parents, siblings, and friends would all have been vulnerable, as would you. By the end of 1594 some 12,000 of your fellow Londoners would have died. Imagine a similar catastrophe striking Ann Arbor (a city comparable in size to Shakespeare's London). How did people cope? Did they write sonnets at such a time, or romantic tales, or comedies? Yes indeed they did. We'll try to understand what the necessary mind-set might have been for such London residents as Marlowe, Shakespeare, Jonson, and their fellows, and we'll consider the way plague and other uncontrollable catastrophes might have impinged on their lives and thus on their writing during that time. We'll take as our arena the whole decade of the 1590s, and we'll use as our springboard a select variety of Elizabethan texts, some familiar, some unfamiliar, from that period. There will be some lectures, but mostly this will be a discussion course. This course fulfills the Pre-1600 requirement. WL:1 (Ingram)

Section 003 Global English. Contemporary literature in English is a global enterprise, shaped by the language itself (and language policies that support it) and by historical and literary traditions. Fiction, poetry, and drama now being written deal with the culture (and counter-culture) of English. Colonial and Post-Colonial literatures illuminate the international enterprise. Just as nineteenth-century America was a "post-colonial" society, attempting to wrest control of literature from its British origins so today, in the Caribbean, Africa and Asia, modern writers are attempting to find a distinctive voice for their own experience. Reading in English 317 includes examples from the major forms of literary expression over the past century, selected to highlight the theme of the course. Engaging in themselves, these works invite us to challenge our ideas about "ownership" of our language and literature. Requirements: Attendance at lectures, three essays, a midterm, and final. A course pack and three novels provide the readings. Satisfies New Traditions Requirement. Cost:3 (R. Bailey)

Section 004 Literature and Homicide. This course is interested in the ways in which narrative prose deals with provoking social facts. Homicide is certainly such a fact, and this course examines some of the very different ways in which imaginative writers have treated it. We will be reading Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment, Faulkner's Light in August, Wright's Native Son, several murder mysteries, and, to conclude the course, Truman Capote's In Cold Blood and Mailer's The Executioner's Song. The course will proceed mostly by lecture, but strenuous efforts will be made to allow for some discussion. The course is designed to accommodate students from other departments who, though they have no extensive background in literature, have a lively interest in the way that our real and imaginary experiences of socially important phenomena are organized, and to what effect. Cost:3 WL:1 (Faller)

Section 005 Colonialism and Asian/Pacific American Literature. This course, mainly in literatures and cultures of Hawaii, in a sense offers a particularized, local case study in a global phenomenon: colonialism. It is not, strictly speaking, about "postcolonialism," because for many who are the subject of the literature to be studied, a "colonial" era and history have not yet ended. But in part the course is also about the emergence of a polyethnic literature that involves the creation of culture radiating and pressing against, appropriating and sometimes transforming the colonizer. While texts in this course will include selected works by and about Asian Americans of the Untied States mainland and the Philippines, the literatures mainly to be studied will be of Hawaii, including works in "local" Asian American and native Hawaiian traditions. These literatures are fictional, nonfictional, dramatic, polyethnic, and multiracial in scope and variety, and they go back to 1778 in written form and centuries prior to that in oral traditions. The examination of colonialism in the course is based upon what writers and their literary histories reveal, illuminate, and critique, concerning the history of the colonization of Hawaii in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and the paradigms of multiculturalism that have arisen in this history and literature. Questions will be asked and addressed regarding developments in aesthetics, artistic forms, and language in the literature of cultural interactions and changes in that locale and the developments of a "Hawaiian Renaissance," a "Local" polyethnic culture, and current ideas and actions regarding Hawaiian sovereignty. In readings, lectures, and discussions, relations will also be studied between this history and the colonization of the Philippines and the use of Asian immigrants in empire building in North America, as viewed in Asian American literature. Required, graded work consists of two papers of 5 pages each and one of 10 pages, plus a term-long series of quizzes; no exams. Fulfills New Traditions and American Literature requirements for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Sumida)

Section 006 Literature and Culture of Ireland. This course proposes an introductory study of the literature of Ireland from earliest times to the present. This means that we select for reading from among ancient sage, medieval and modern poetry, modern prose fiction and modern drama. We shall draw from both Gaelic literature (in translation) and Anglo-Irish literature. The course has no prerequisite and does not presume prior acquaintance with the subject, nor with Irish history, though students with some knowledge of Ireland and its history should find the course particularly rewarding. The course will be conducted by lecture, with discussion when possible. There will be brief quizzes and one hour exam. Two papers will be written, and a final examination. This course fulfills the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (McNamara)

Section 007 Cultures and Places: Going to Miami. This class is designed as a multi-disciplinary, practical introduction to the cultural study of places. Miami's population includes the largest proportion of foreign-born residents of any U.S. city. Miami, the "City of the Future," has become a commercial capital of Latin America and the Caribbean. A place of entrepreneurial growth, Miami remains a tropical resort and a retirement home the fulfillment, in some ways, of the modern American ideal. Miami is also an uncertain political haven, a place of racial, ethnic, and criminal violence, and a post-modern encroachment upon the ocean and the Everglades. The diverse texts we will consider this term prompt us to think about immigration, race, ethnicity, the "American Dream," and modernity with regard to U.S., Caribbean, and Latin American realities. Our class will be structured around group work, short lectures, and the discussion of common readings and individual experiences. No special background required. This course fulfills the "New Traditions" requirement for English concentrators. Grading will be based on class participation and short written assignments. There may be occasional quizzes. No tests. WL:1 Cost:3 (Leon)

Section 008 Literature of the Caribbean World. For Winter Term, 1994, this section will be offered jointly with CAAS 406.001. (Goodison)

318. Literary Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Science Fiction.
Science Fiction will examine both the history and the diversity of science fiction prose by reading some of the best examples written since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Generally, we will approach each primary text in three ways: through a consideration of its backgrounds (scientific, mythic, and so forth), through specific questions the text raises (moral questions, questions of plausibility, and so forth), and through the traditional discipline of criticism (What is science fiction? What is the relationship of character to theme? and so forth). The written work will revolve around weekly, short papers, two preliminary quizzes, and an objective final exam. Books include: Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, Oxford (1818); Edgar Allan Poe (d. 1849), The Portable Poe, Vintage selections; Nathaniel Hawthorne (d. 1864), Selected Short Stories of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Fawcett, selections; H.G. Wells, The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds, Fawcett (l895 & 1898); Eugene Zamiatin, We, Avon (1920); Karel Capek, War and the Newts, Northwestern U Pr. (1937); Olaf Stapeldon, Star Maker, Dover (1937); Ray Bradbury, The Martian Chronicles, Bantam (1946-1950); Arthur C. Clarke, Childhood's End, Ballantine (1953); Walter Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz, Bantam (1959)); Robert A. Heinlein, The Moon is a Harsh Mistress, Berkley (1966); Ursula K. Leguin, The Left Hand of Darkness, Ace (1969); Stanislaw Lem, The Futurological Congress, Harcourt Brace (1971); William Gibson, Neuromancer, Ace (1984) Cost:4 (Rabkin)

319. Literature and Social Change. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001.
From current debates concerning t.v. and film sex and violence, one might think that such controversies are new and peculiar to contemporary America. As we shall see through this course, concern over sex and violence in popular media goes at least as far back as the 18th century in England. This course explores the craze for gothic fiction in England during the late 18th and early 19th centuries by considering how and why gothic focuses on questions of sexual transgression, violence, inexplicable evil, and criminality. What are the aesthetic, psychological, sexual, political, and economic factors which brought gothic center stage during this time, and how did writers and readers of the period understand the meaning and significance of gothic mania? Includes texts by Austen, Beckford, Walpole, Radcliffe, Lewis, Godwin, Maturin, and Hogg. Several short critical papers, briefs, and reading journal. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement. WL:1 Cost:4 (Ross)

Section 002 U.S. Writers on the Left: from the 1930s to the 1960s. In the early 1930s, a new generation of radical writers set out to revolutionize the U.S. literary landscape by directly confronting the issues of racism, class oppression, sexism, war and exploitation in their fiction, poetry, drama, reportage and criticism. In works such as Jews Without Money and Uncle Tom's Children. authors such as the ghetto-born Jewish-American Michael Gold and the Mississippi-bom African-American Richard Wright expanded the boundaries of content and form of art in ways that left an indelible mark on our culture and national consciousness. Pioneering socialist-feminist writers such as Tillie Olsen and Meridel Le Sueur published chapters of works that would later achieve acclaim as Yonnondio and The Girl. Already established writers responded to major political events of the 1930s, exemplified by Ernest Hemingway's treatment of the Spanish Civil War in his novel For Whom the Bell Tolls. Yet by the post-World War II era, many of these writers and their associates were under direct attack by the state and federal governments, the news media, the churches, and demagogic politicians. Some were sent to prison, others went into exile, and still more repudiated their pasts or simply disappeared. This course will meet twice a week to explore many of the complex issues in literary radicalism from the tradition of cultural radicalism leading up to the stock market crash of 1929 until the end of McCarthyism in the 1950s and the appearance of a New Left in the early 1960s. Designed to meet the "American Literature" and "New Traditions" requirements in the English Department, issues of gender, race, ethnicity and class are central categories for analysis and discussion, along with more traditional literary concepts. The final grade will be based on five components: (1) class commitment; (2) a short writing assignment; (3) a midterm exam; (4) a final exam; and (5) a final essay. (Wald)

Section 003. Theatre and Social Change. Reading will involve some "non-political" modern drama to put issues of social change in perspective; Boal, Brecht, Kidd, and others for a background and ideas; and plays by progressive groups of the last 25 years-guerrilla theater, Chicano theater, Baraka's revolutionary plays, African and Nicaraguan theatre for development, AIDS theatre, women's theatre, and contemporary community-based theatre. PRODUCTION. Students will join one of several groups: 1) guerrilla theatre; 2) forum theatre, to take a participatory play to local institutions of one kind or another; 3) community-based theater, helping local people in a prison or shelter, etc., create a play. This production will be the main thrust of the course. Students with theatre experience are welcomed, but such experience is not required. Required is an interest in arts and social change, a willingness to try acting in nontraditional contexts, and the desire to shape a performance around a cause. Grading will be based upon three short papers and the production. See instructor for permission to enter course: 1631 Haven Hall, Thursday 9-11 plus posted extra hours during preregistration. Cost: 2 WL: Enrollment is permission of instructor; no waitlist. (Alexander)

320/CAAS 338. Literature in Afro-American Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

See CAAS 338. (Zafar)

323. Creative Writing. Junior standing and written permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Poetry.
In this section, our creative mission is the production of illustrated chapbooks of original poetry and performance of orignal poetry. To that end, we will grapple once a week with the decisions we've made in the writing of our poems. In workshop we will look for the missed direction, we will be alert to missed opportunity and we will, if we are lucky, sift through our piles of drafts and revisions and find gems. Only those serious about poems need apply. Be prepared to submit a group of poems (about 5) and to read aloud one original poem on the first night of class. Permission of Instructor is required for this section. (Moss)

Section 002 Media and Other Arts. A course in mixed media composition, especially combinations of poetry, drama, and fiction with graphic arts, painting, music, dance, and photography. Prerequisite: experience with one or more of these art forms and interest in exploring their relations with other forms of art. Permission of instructor to be obtained before CRISP registration by conference hours (posted on door of 2617 Haven Hall). Requirements are explained in detail during the pre-election interview. They include maintaining a journal of varied writing and other forms of composition and completing a series of weekly composition projects, individual and collaborative. Cost:2 WL:3 (Wright)

Section 003 Fiction. This course will focus on fiction. We will consider fundamental aspects of the writer's craft, such as plot, point of view, dialogue, conflict, escalation of tension, resolution, and the structure of a traditional short story. Students will be expected to produce 50 pages of finished fiction, and they will present their work to the group in a workshop setting. We will read and discuss stories by Paul Bowles, Raymond Carver, Anton Chekhov, John Gardner, James Joyce, and Susan Minot. Cost: WL:1. Permission of instructor required. (Lyons)

Section 004. Although there will be some outside reading, this class will be run as a fiction workshop. Students will be required to complete a substantial body of new work (50 pages), and to come prepared to discuss their classmates' stories. Discussion will focus on the craft of fiction-writing: plot, character, dialogue, suspense, revision, etc. Students will also be required to attend a minimum of two readings sponsored by Borders Books and the English Department. Permission of instructor required. (Henkin)

Section 005 Poetry. This course is designed to help aspiring poets to develop their own voices. it will introduce them to new ways of seeing and shaping into poetry the everyday wonders which influence our lives. It will also suggest new ways of using literary and local language as part of the poetic craft. Jamaican poet Lorna Goodison who has taught and read widely in the USA, Canada, Europe and the Caribbean brings with her over 25 years experience of writing and teaching poetry. Permission of Instructor or English 223. (Goodison)

325. Essay Writing: The Art of Exposition. (4). (Excl).

This is an upper level composition course for students interested in improving their writing, with particular attention paid to the development of individual style expressed in the details of voice, tone, nuance, and rhythm. All classes will proceed on the assumption that these basic principles inform good writing: that writing is thinking; that writing well requires attention to issues of audience; that revision is a necessary part of the writing process; and that all writing reflects the writer's view of the world. Class discussion will include a consideration of student writing. To focus discussion and to provide subject matter for writing assignments, readings by professional writers will be assigned in most sections. Writing assignments will vary according to instructor, but the general requirement is 40 pages of prose (300 words to a page). Course descriptions for individual sections not listed below can be found in the Composition Program, 224 Angell Hall.

Section 001 Connection. Connecting one insight with another begins the process of making meaning and thus is the essence of composing both what we read and what we write. This course in composition will place the concept of connection with all its many implications at its center. In our reading, we will examine the connections between personal conflicts and public controversies as we read the fiction of Toni Morrison, Paul Auster, Gabriel Garcia-Marquez, Janet Kauffman, Don Delillo, and others who make such connections their subject. In our writing we will explore ways to make connections between our private voice and its public expression, recognizing that the real source of ideas is the self and its connections, both imagined and real, to the culture. Class requirements include four 5-7 page papers, brief weekly responses to our readings, regular attendance, and active participation in class discussion. (Wolk)

Section 003 The Mask. In this writing class, we will be responding to some of the strategies enacted by our favorite, most effective writers. I hope we will come to see "the mask" as less manipulative and negative a feature in our lives and our writing and more as a creative and artful agency of freedom. But whatever the outcome, we want to make the process of analysis of the concept of the mask an educational and fun journey. Each student will be responding to that journey by writing exploratory essays; the nature of the subject of those essays will be determined by the student. Although the reading list is still to be determined, I will select both fiction and non-fiction texts. Selections will include Face by Cecile Pineda, A Prayer for Owen Meany by John Irving, and The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. There will also be selections of poetry from Yeats and Leslie Marmon Silko and short works by Margaret Atwood and Isabelle Allende. We will begin the term and set the stage for our discussions of the mask by reading Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Minister's Black Veil." The format of the class will be discussion and more discussion, and we will be working through our own essay writing consistently in class. Each student will write approximately 50 pages of his or her own text (essays and responses) during the term. (Back)

Section 004. In this course we'll be considering some of the finer aspects of essay writing, and concentrate on developing an awareness of style through attention to the nuances of voice and tone. We'll do this in three interrelated ways. First, by looking at accomplished writers' essays, we'll be able to see how they handle the basic principles of good writing: control of material, understanding of audience, and a feel for the rhythms of language. Second, through extensive workshopping and revision, we'll explore the idea of writing as a thinking process. These two generative activities reading and writing will be interwoven into a speculative frame by which we will be able to identify patterns and paradigms of writing. Pending approval of class members, this course will be run on the portfolio system. Under Portfolio Assessment, you will not be graded on individual essays, but will instead receive extensive comments from the instructor, with suggestions for rewriting. There will be a mid-term progress report which includes a letter grade for those who can't stand the suspense, and a final evaluation. You will be expected to hand in approximately 35-40 pages of final drafts, as agreed upon in a contract with the instructor. For example, you may want to write four ten-page essays, or three thirteen-page essays, or five eight-page essays, or some combination of these. There will also be shorter in-class and out-of-class writing exercises. You'll be expected to keep track of all rough drafts and generating exercises, and to hand in a portfolio of all your work at midterm and at the end of the term. Required texts include The Essay Old and New by Corbett and Finkle and various handouts. (Cariello)

Section 005 Language, Style, and Identity. The goal of this course is to help you write with greater awareness and power. In this course we will explore the ways that language and prose style is shaped by our identities. We will ask how factors such as culture, ethnicity, and gender may or may not shape the expression of our selves. We will also discover ways that the audience we write to becomes a creative force and how different audiences will lead us to different discoveries. We will appreciate the material properties of language, its rhythm and sound. The readings in this course will reflect a variety of prose techniques and will help us to be more aware of technique. As Ralph Ellison wrote in 1964 "perhaps the writer's greatest freedom, as artist, lies precisely in his possession of technique; for it is through technique that he comes to possess and express the meaning of his life" (Shadow and Act). The authors we will study include among others, Gloria Anzaldua, Martin Luther King, Jr., James Baldwin, Patricia Williams, George Orwell, Adrienne Rich, N. Scott Momaday, Annie Dillard, and Joan Didion. Required Work: You will keep a journal for short in-class and out-of-class exercises. The chief requirement will consist of 35-40 revised pages of prose. You may break this requirement down into essays of different lengths. For example, you may want to write seven five-page essays or four ten-page essays or three twelve-page essays. At regular intervals during the term you will be expected to turn in your work-in-progress and to hand in a portfolio of all of your writing at midterm and at the end of the term. (Carlton)

Section 006. This class is designed for advanced essay writers. In this section, we will read and talk and write about choices the ones we make in our lives, in our thinking, and in our writing, and especially, in our writing "voices." Together we will work: to improve our "ears" for hearing other writers' voices; to examine their choices, both in their styles and in their thinking; to help in the development of our own voices in style, tone, pitch; to help in the development of our choices as critical thinkers; and to examine how to use our writing voices most effectively. The class is a workshop, in which students critically and humanely read and discuss each others' work, enabling students to get a great deal of feedback and help in all stages of their work, and to see for themselves what is and what is not yet effective in their writing. We will work in small groups and in whole class workshop. In addition, we will read professional essays and discuss them critically, we will read about writing and the process of writing, and we will write regularly in a writer's notebook. The workshop method of classroom discussion requires each student's whole-hearted, active participation. Writing requirements will include: Four formal papers of 3-5 pages along with several stages of pre-writing, drafts, and revisions, including drafts presented to your small group; a revision of your workshop paper and (optional) a revision of one of your graded papers; critiques of your classmates' essays in small groups or full-class workshop, responses to the readings, free-writings, and impromptus. Reading/Viewing Requirements will include: Professional essays and short stories from an anthology and/or course pack, small group and workshop papers by your classmates, a night viewing of a film and a night meeting for speakers. Additional requirements include active participation and faithful attendance and two or more conferences. Required texts: The Elements of Style, Strunk and White, and a collection of essays to be announced. (Povolo)

329. Practical English. (4). (Excl).

In a workshop, students will cultivate written and spoken forms that have wide practical use in groups: letters, memos, reports, essays, prospectuses, speeches, public drafts, working papers, and more. Much of the work will be collaborative. Although students will compose and revise individually, they will usually create specific assignments, edit, and evaluate in groups. This workshop thus reproduces a crucial feature of social and proessional life: acts of writing and speaking typically occur in continuing chains of composition, evaluation, and revision leading to collective results - ideas, documents, plans of action. Clearly, success in this course requires everyone's commitment to group effort. Students will be expected to focus considerable time and energy on writing, editing, reading, and working together. Appropriate readings to be chosen by the workshop. No exams. Individual grades will be based on a minimum of two speeches, a minimum of twenty-five pages of finished prose, and class participation. Required text Hodges' Harbrace College Handbook. Cost:1 (Rabkin)

340. Reading and Writing Poetry. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Experiments in Postmodern Poetic Form.
Welcome to the Cafe Frontera, a literary cafe where you are invited to engage in experiments with language, with what Lou Robinson calls the nuances of postmodern expression: "writing that breaks formal limits, dismantles conventional notions of genre, merges poetic line with prose sentence, shakes up hierarchical relations within syntax, and dissolves the boundaries between self and other, narrator and author, writer and reader." This is a class in theory and practice, so we will read the poems and essays of contemporary writers and respond with our own dramatic monologues, polyphonic voice constructions, translations, prose poems and journal entries. We will create analogues as we assume the voices that surround us: detective poems; sermons; operas; situation comedies. Each poet will write, assemble, and revise a chapbook of poems during the term. These poems will be circulated individually and discussed in workshop. On the final evening, one of your poems will step off the page. It might be a performance piece, an art collaboration or a yet-undiscovered form that will actively extend the borders of both text and context. (Alcosser)

351. Literature in English after 1660. (4). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course surveys English literature from 1660 until roughly 1920. I assume your interest but not necessarily expertise in studying literature; both English majors and non-major will therefore find this course helpful. It is designed to give you an overview of the genres and themes from the literature of this period, as well as to sketch the relation between concurrent literary and historical developments. There are two lectures and a discussion section each week. Requiremetns include regularly attending section meetings, writing three essays, and taking a final exam. Textbooks are at Shaman Drum, and a small course pack is at Dollar Bill copying. (Krook)

367. Shakespeare's Principal Plays. (4). (HU).
Section 001.
The family, its formation, tenderness, strains, collapse and re- formation, is perhaps Shakespeare's favorite form, social and symbolic, for the construction of meaning and evocation of feeling. We will especially observe his ceaseless exploration of the dynamics of the family in our reading of a selection of history plays, comedies, tragedies, and romances, from the whole span of his career. Other foci for discussion will include his dramaturgy, and his matchless way with words. Plays to be read will include: Richard II, I & II Henry IV, Henry V, Twelfth Night, As You Like It, Othello, King Lear, Hamlet, Antony and Cleopatra, Measure for Measure, A Winter's Tale, and Tempest. Course requirements will include lively engagement in discussion, three essays (4-6 pp. each), and two examinations. Satisfies pre-1830 requirement for english concentrators. (Williams)

Section 008. This is a course that will concentrate on the Shakespearean tragedy by focusing on "the grand style" of Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, and King Lear. But in doing so, we will study the origins of this tragic mode in the earlier tragedies and its later manifestations in Antony and Cleopatra, and Coriolanus. There will be a midterm, final, and a series of short written assignments. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:3 (Brater)

English 370, 371, & 372

Each of these courses will range over the materials of the periods indicated below in one or more of a variety of ways. Some may be multi-generic surveys; some may focus on the development during the period(s) of specific genres; some may be topical, others formal in their principle of organization. All sections will emphasize the development of student skill in writing essays analyzing the materials and evaluating the approaches in question.

370. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Poetic Form and Style.
As is the case with, say, contemporary fashion or popular music, early poetry conveyed much of its meaning not just in what it "meant" but in how it did so. In this course, we shall read a number of canonical poets (Chaucer, Langland, Shakespeare, Donne, Milton), as well as Anonymous, as well as some lesser and a few truly dreadful poets. Their themes are the usual ones politics, religion, love, sex, death, the meaning of life, the nature of beauty and many of their works, although historically remote and often therefore a bit difficult to approach, remain profound today. Among the questions we shall ask are: What made Anonymous anonymous? How do we and how did others before us judge literary merit? How did the early canon get formed, and why? What forms and styles appealed to what audiences? What did "publication" mean? Also, what was the interplay between conventionality and creativity? A lot of our class time will be spent on what used to be called poetry appreciation (with some time for prose styles, too), but this will not be done in an aesthetic vacuum. Insofar as possible, we shall try to connect questions of style and form with questions of cultural history. Everyone will need to learn to read Middle English at the outset. Everyone will be asked to engage in detailed, sustained poetic analysis as well as to write on broader issues. Please don't enroll in this course if you know you don't like poetry. Required texts: The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Volume I, and a course pack. Satisfies pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. (Smith)

Section 002 Some Elizabethan Texts. The texts we commonly think of as "Elizabethan" are the ones that have done the best job of surviving into our own day. The term "Elizabethan" thus suggests to us primarily Shakespeare's plays, along with a handful of works by other writers like Spenser and Sidney. But such an estimate is too narrow, too skewed by the marketplace, too filtered by old-fashioned criticism, too affected by the shifting of taste. The Elizabethans themselves (like us in our own time) took pleasure in a wide range of textual encounters, from street ballads to epic poems, prose romances to stage melodramas, texts new and old, good and bad, long and short, easy and hard. In this course we will try to recover some sense of the variety of writings produced and consumed by the age. We'll read some standard texts and some unfamiliar ones; our approach will be broadly cultural and historical as well as literary. We'll do a prescribed amount of writing and will pay close attention to it. We'll also do a lot of talking in class and will pay attention to that as well, making it as intelligent and responsible as we can. And we'll have a final exam. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement. (Ingram)

Section 003 The Monstrous Other in Early English Literature. In this course we will investigate a variety of medieval literary figures that might in one way or another be deemed "monstrous." Discussion will involve concepts such as the Self and the Other, masculine and feminine, human and inhuman, as well as general issues in political and religious history. A tentative list of works to be considered includes: Beowulf, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and a selection of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and the Book of Margery Kempe. In general, we will be asking ourselves what values have influenced the construction and reception of figures such as Beowulf and Grendel, Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Wife and Bath and Pardoner, and Margery Kempe herself. There will be two papers, a midterm, and a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement. WL:1 Cost:2 (Tanke)

371. Studies in Literature, 1600-1830. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Metaphysical and Neoclassical in 17th-Century. Poetry to the Restoration.
Leaving out Milton and those poets who wrote chiefly with Spenser as their model, we'll concentrate on the two main 17th-century traditions: in the "first generation," Donne* and Jonson*; in the second, Herbert*, Herrick*, and Carew; then Suckling, Lovelace, Crashaw, Vaughan, Traherne, and Marvell*. (Starred names will receive principal emphasis.) One continuing theme will be the confluence of the two traditions in poets such as Carew and Marvell; another, the relation of the poetry to contemporary developments in science, religion, and politics. The writing will include frequent short papers, at least one longer paper, two hour exams, and a final. I'll also ask you to keep journals recording your responses to the reading. This course will satisfy the pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:2 (English)

Section 002 Public Narratives and Public Matters. This is primarily a novel-reading course. We will investigate how early English novelists discovered the sources for their plots, narrative strategies, and characters by their insights into the shared cultural lives of their readers. The good novelists added to their readers' concerns for the issues of the times illuminating drama, variety, wit, moral perception, and more. When we see the way that the eighteenth-century novel could speak in a popular voice for (and against) women, the poor and outcast, the politically unconnected, and "others," including slaves, criminals and supposed "savages," to a larger audience than any previous discourse, we will understand why the relevancy of these works extends beyond their century to our own. Three papers (two requiring research), midterm, final, and surprises (pleasant ones). Pre-1800 requirement. (Artis)

Section 003. This is essentially a survey of eighteenth-century English literature in which we will examine some of the principal movements in that literature. In any time, but especially in the eighteenth century, there are close connections between literature and the other arts: we'll see how patterns in gardening, architecture, music, prose and poetry in this period relate to and echo one another. Authors studied will include Dryden, Addison and Steele, Pope, Gay, Swift, and Samuel Johnson. Frequent short writing, two longer essays, and a final exam. This course meets the Pre-1830 program requirement for English concentrators. (Cloyd)

Section 004 Squeaking Boy and Roaring Girl: Acting the Self. Like most public theatrical practices, cross-dressing as an act of display and disguise changed in the period 1600-1830 from the public, ribald, outlaw practice adopted by actors and libertines to a more private literary act. While squeaking boys and roaring girls were defined by the sounds they made - enacted necessarily in a theater in autobiographical essays, novels and poetry, women and men appeared in "costume" on "the stage of the world" in the form of print. The class will consider the period by tracing the intricate idiosyncrasies of "acting the self" as it was represented by cross-dressed players and "multiply dressed " characters in plays that will include: Antony and Cleopatra, Epicoene, The Roaring Girl, The Younger Brother, A Bold Stroke for a Wife, The Way of the World, The Beggar's Opera, The Rivals. Texts in which we will consider the theatrical creation of the "I" taking place in English letters often "I's in Drag" include: selections from "The Tatler" and "The Spectator," Moll Flanders, The Female Quixote, selections from Tristram Shandy and Clarissa, Blake's poetry, The Mysteries of Udolpho, The Cenci, Mansfield Park. Throughout the course we will consider cultural clues about the creation of the self in the shifts in theatrical acting styles, portraiture, legislation governing the dress and behavior of men and women (sumptuary laws). Requirements include short papers, longer essays, sprightly class participation, and a midterm. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. (Skantze)

372. Studies in Literature, 1830-Present. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 The Monologue in Fiction, Poetry, and Drama.
We will explore a variety of "monologues" from Victorian and Modern works, thinking as we go why a writer would choose to work with such a technique, discussing its advantages and limitations. Readings will concentrate on fiction, but will also include poetry and drama, perhaps an autobiography. A tentative reading list will cover the dramatic monologues of Tennyson and Browning; the "interior' monologues of James Joyce (with selections from Ulysses), of William Faulkner (As I Lay Dying or The Sound and the Fury) and of Louise Erdrich (Love Medicine); the first-person narratives of Henry James (The Aspern Papers) and Ford Madox Ford (The Good Soldier); the "dramatic soliloquies" of Virginia Woolf (The Waves); a play by Samuel Beckett (Krapp's Last Tape); the story-telling of Isak Dinesen (Seven Gothic Tales); and the autobiography of Robert Graves (Good-bye to All That). We might make a case for a single speaker in T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land, explore the uses of the first-person in poetry, and the third-person limited point-of-view in fiction (James' The Ambassadors). Requirements: two papers, midterm, final, assorted informal "exercises." WL:1 (Zwiep)

Section 002. This course will explore Modernism the style/movement that dominated the "high" art of the first decades of this century. While we will read a few poems (Eliot, Yeats) and glance briefly at some of the art and music, the focus of the course will fall primarily on the fiction. Works to be read include Conrad's Heart of Darkness, Mann's Death in Venice, Joyce's Portrait of the Artist, Kafka's The Metamorphosis, Woolf's To the Lighthouse, Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover, Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, and Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God. Course grades will depend on two essay exams, two five-page papers, and frequent pop in-class writing assignments. Cost:2 (Beauchamp)

Section 003 Madness, Deviance and Sexuality. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, "madness" has been explained from a variety of different perspectives: psychological, sociological, medical, and legal, to name a few. Yet one idea seems to remain constant in discourses on madness: whether literally or metaphorically, dysfunctions of the mind are linked inextricably with dysfunctions of the sexual body and of the body politic. In this course, we will explore how literary representations of the interrelationships between madness, deviance and sexuality respond to widespread cultural anxieties about difference and, in turn, how literary texts shape how we think about madness and sanity; deviance and normality; the body and the mind; social disorder and order. This is a theoretically oriented class, so we will be reading a good deal of very challenging non-fictional material to address: the ways in which definitions of "madness" have been harnessed to definitions of "deviance" in order to police the sexual and social body; the criminalization of madness; the gendering of madness and the sexual politics of mental illness; the institutionalization of "normal" and "deviant" sexualities. Several films will be shown (probably Dead Ringers, The Silence of the Lambs, Basic Instinct) in addition to these texts: Bram Stoker, Dracula; Sigmund Freud, Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria; M.E. Braddon, Lady Audley's Secret; Charlotte Perkins Gilman, "The Yellow Wallpaper"; Henry James, The Turn of the Screw; D.M. Thomas, The White Hotel; James Baldwin, Giovanni's Room (all at Shaman Drum). Primarily discussion. Requirements: Two 1-2 page papers, two 5-6 page papers, one group presentation, final exam. (Robinson)

Section 004 Expansionism in British & American Literatures. By the beginning of the Second World War, the images by which and in which the island of Britain saw itself involve as much Shakespeare and Milton as they do India, Egypt, and the Arabian Peninsula. The USA, likewise, needed to define itself as much by narratives about internal "western frontiers" as by the geo-politics of its extensions into Hawaii; the Philippines; into half of the then-United States of Mexico; into Southeast Asia and into the Caribbean. The processes involved produced titles that range from Walt Whitman's "Passage to India" to E.M. Forster's A Passage to India; from the Anglo-American France of Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises to the African American France, also, of Claude McKay's Banjo. Other texts will help explore the kinds of "maximalist" pressures that economic interests, military conquests, territorial annexations, and otherwise benign cultural/immigrant exchanges have placed on images of "core" identities in British and American literatures, post 1830. (Johnson)

393. Honors Survey: Eighteenth-Century English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

The period from 1660 to 1770 saw profound changes in British politics, philosophy, religion, science, social customs, and the arts, including literature. The lectures in this course, frequently illustrated with slides and music, will attempt to dramatize and explain some of those developments, and thus to equip students to read eighteenth-century literature with pleasure and understanding. Most of the ideas we associate with the modern world, including democracy and individual liberty, had their origins in these years. Far from being an "Age of Reason," the period was an age of passionate extremes, and its literature includes slashing satire, sparkling stage comedy, wicked obscenity, and profound meditations on human nature. Our readings will include poetry, drama, translation, criticism, and prose fiction. Authors include John Dryden, John Wilmot (Earl of Rochester), William Wycherley, Aphra Behn, Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Anne Finch (Countess of Winchilesa), John Gay, Daniel Defoe, Henry Fielding, Samuel Johnson, and Laurence Sterne. In addition to substantial reading, each student will write a short critical essay, a midterm hour test, a substantial term paper, and a final examination. Class participation will be weighted heavily in determining final marks. (Winn)

394. Honors Survey: History of Literary Theory. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This will be an introductory survey of major developments in literary theory during the past two centuries, with particular emphasis on the sweeping changes that have taken place in the past twenty-five years. Major areas of study will include Romanticism, Modernism, New Criticism, Structuralism and Post-structuralism, Marxism, and Feminist and African American Theory. Throughout the course we will be using various branches of literary theory to help us answer basic questions about what and why we read, questions like: What is a literary text? Who or what is an author? In what ways are texts embedded in society and politics? What is the proper relationship between literature and criticism/interpretation? Is there a difference between literature and propaganda? Are male readers/writers different from female readers/writers? On what principles was our literary canon established, and should it be revised? Should criticism have a social agenda? Mix of lecture/discussion, but with a strong emphasis on student participation. 2 papers and a final exam. WL:1 (Freedman)

401/GNE 481/Rel. 481. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (4). (HU).

The Bible is a book, a text: it is also a collection of texts of the most astonishing variety and range. Our emphasis this term will be on that second characteristic. We will not try to read all the works there collected, but will select examples from the historical books (Torah) the Prophets, and the Writings from the Gospels, Letters, and the Apocalypse. Our first task will be to try to understand these works both in terms of form and content, and then in terms of the circumstances which gave rise to and shaped them. We will also study how the Bible came to have the form as a whole that it does now, and consider its transmission, both as text, and, more widely, as cultural influence. Students will be encouraged to study especially the literary influence of the Bible in authors of interest to them. Exactly which books of the Bible are read will be determined in part by class need: we shall surely touch on Genesis, Exodus, Job, the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastics, Isaiah, Hosea, one gospel, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistle to the Romans, and the Apocalypse. There will be, in all likelihood, three essays of moderate length, a midterm, and a final. Class attendance and lively participation in discussion will be essential. This course fulfills the Pre-1600 Requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:2 (Williams)

412/Film-Video 412. Major Directors. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Chaplin, Keaton, and Company.
This course will explore the brief tradition of silent comedy developed by Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton, and Harold Lloyd, among others, which had a lasting impact on Hollywood comedy in general. We will pay attention to how the early short films, dedicated to sight gags and belly laughs, could evolve into the rich narrative art of the Chaplin and Keaton features. Challenges offered to the silent tradition by such verbal comics as Jack Benny and the Marx Brothers will be set against the sound films of Chaplin and Lloyd. Films shown will include The Gold Rush, The General, Sherlock Jr., Safety Last, Modern Times, The Milky Way, Duck Soup, The Great Dictator, and To Be Or Not To Be. There will be some theoretical reading on comedy. WL:1 (Paul)

413/Film-Video 413. Film Genres and Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Avant-Garde and Experimental Film.
This course traces the history of one of the most imaginative and fertile forms of filmmaking from its origins in the earliest cinema to the present. Considerable emphasis is placed on the achievements of various marginalized cinemas (Feminist, African and Afro-American, New American Cinema, non-traditional animation, and Independent/ Experimental cinema) which during the past 70 years have challenged the notion that cinema could not be made, for personal expression and political statement, by the individual. Filmmakers include: Borden, Rainer, Friedrich, Thornton, Trinh Minh-Ha, Riggs, Davis, Dash, Bros. Quay, Svankmyer, Burnett, Greenaway, Dali/Bunuel, Deren, Brakhage, Anger, Conner, et al. Requirements: Midterm, final, two short papers, one final paper, some outside events. (Rayher)

Section 002 Evil in Cinema. The cinema has been one of the main avenues for our century's exploration of evil, creating diabolique, grotesque, painful and violent images that have become part of the visual iconography of our time but also creating dramas of psychological and philosophic complexity that have sought to get to the very roots of human suffering. This class explores the ways film has explored evil both as a universal manifestation but also as the product of a particular social context, both as a moral issue and also as an inherent part of the external world. This class examines the way contemporary concepts of evil have themselves been influenced by the most popular visual art form of our century. We shall examine the exploration of evil in such films as The Bad Seed, The Birds, The Exorcist, Pixote, Apocalypse Now, Mephisto Videodrome, The Rapture, The Good Father, Shoah, and Henry, Portrait of a Serial Killer. Instruction will be through a method of lecture and discussion. Students will write both midterm and final papers as well as examinations. Cost:2 WL:l (Konigsberg)

417. Senior Seminar. Senior concentrator in English. May not be repeated for credit. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 Contemporary Nature Writers/Writing.
We will use an anthology and a series of texts by individual writers to sample the best of contemporary nature writing. The readings will allow us to raise questions about the genre (how do you write about nature? what kinds of narrative structure give shape to such writing? what sorts of explorations of self and natural world, and the relations between them, does this writing make possible?) and to explore the range of opportunities it offers. Texts will include Edward Abbey's Desert Solitaire, Annie Dillard's Pilgrim at Tinker Creek, Barry Lopez's Crossing Open Ground, Terry Tempest Williams' Refuge, a book of poems by Mary Oliver, and works by Wendell Berry and Gary Snyder. Students should be prepared to participate actively in class, to keep an ongoing journal, and to do a final paper on one of the writers we read. WL:1 Cost:3 (Knott)

Section 002 Early Women Writers. In order to explore the social, political, and aesthetic dimensions of early women's writing, this course will examine literature written by English women from the twelfth through the seventeenth century. We will read a wide variety of texts the romance lais of Marie de France, the autobiography of Margery Kempe, the mystical revelations of Julian of Norwich, the poetry of Queen Elizabeth I and Lady Mary Wroth, and the memoirs of Lady Anne Halkett. We will also delve into excerpts from works by other English and European writers (for example, Heloise and Christine de Pizan). Finally, as time allows, we will investigate the historical conditions of early women writers, searching for what constricted and enabled their writing, and for how they conceptualized the role of a woman writer. Class time will be primarily devoted to discussions of primary literature and to consideration of theories about women writers. Course requirements: active participation in class discussions, several short papers (1-2 pp.) responding to questions raised by readings, one or two short oral reports, and a research paper (15 pp.). Satisfies New Traditions and pre-1600 requirements. Cost:2 (Tinkle)

Section 003 Romantic and Cyborgs: A Short History of Literary Criticism, 1790-1994. In "Poems of Our Climate" Wallace Stevens remarks that "the imperfect is our paradise. /Note that, in this bitterness, delight, /Since the imperfect is so hot in us, /Lies in flawed words and stubborn sounds." This insistence on the cracks and fissures marring every act of creation is a far cry from Percy Bysshe Shelley's discovery that "a poem is the very image of life expressed in its eternal truth." Why did the codes of literary theory change so abruptly in 120 years? And why have they changed so dramatically in the 50 years since Stevens? In this course we will explore the paradigm shifts that have dominated the last two centuries of literary theory. We will begin by looking at eighteenth - century theories of transport and sublimity, and move through the essays of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Arnold, Poe and Ruskin before diving into recent theories of linguistic economy, poetic excess, and the crisis of subjectivity that governs twentieth century politics and poetics. Alternate Honors students strongly advised to register. (Yaeger)

Section 004 Comparative Literature: Literature in USA & in Africa. This course will tackle our concern in at least two general ways. First, how to construct/define USA and Africa in the light of the texts and authors to be chosen for analysis. Which USA do we get out of Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby; out of the Native American Southwest of Leslie Silko or the Chicano geography of Nash Candelaria's Memories of the Alhambra? How far back do we go? How does Puritan New England relate to William Faulkner's South, or to the South of African American culture, or else to Asian America of contemporary California? Africa's complexity, from Cape Town to Cairo, or from Islamic Senegal to Coptic Ethiopia raises similar questions of boundaries and identities, of how literatures make or invent or destroy cultures. We will read Puritan sermons and Sahelian epics, Nigerian drama and Mid-Western satire, etc. as we explore the implications and the consequences of looking at the USA and Africa via literary con/texts. (Johnson)

Section 005 An Idea of Limits: Expectations of Race, Gender & Culture in Contemporary American Poetry and Related Locations. This seminar will pursue popular images of race, class, gender and culture through a study of current events, historical presentations of these images, and media depictions in advertising, film, and television. Then, we will examine responses to these images in poems by persons affected or limited we may prove - by images. Of particular interest will be the images of childhood as portrayed by media, and the crucial boundaries of race, class, gender & culture that are established so early in life. This course fulfills New Traditions and American Literature requirements for English concentrators. WL:1 (Moss)

Section 007 Confessional Poetry. This course explores literature as confession first through prose texts that clarify the issues involved in confession, then within our focus: autobiographical American poetry, 1959-1990. A confession implies a real, worldly self who has the authority to tell its own absolute and often shocking truth. But poetic form and the nature of writing contradict these notions of self and truth. To make confession the business of poetry is, as Robert Lowell writes, to "mak[e] what can't be done / the one thing you can do." But by submitting to this double bind, the poets in this course investigate a central desire of writing: the desire to make something pure out of an impure medium. Requirements for the course: 2 papers, a midterm, a final, an autobiographical talk, and participation in discussion. Authors we'll read will probably include: Frederick Douglass, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Paul de Man, Roland Barthes, Robert Lowell, John Berryman, Sharon Olds, and Louise Gluck. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement. (Terada)

423. The Writing of Fiction. Open to seniors and graduate students; written permission of the instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Fiction.
Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and, finally, to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Students who want to enroll in the course should get on the Waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to class the first evening. A list of those admitted will be posted shortly thereafter. Cost:1 WL:1 (Ezekiel)

Section 002 Fiction. This section of English 423 will be devoted almost entirely to the consideration of student work. There will be no textbook, and there will be very little in the way of exercises and assignments. The class will be run as a workshop, meeting for three hours once a week to discuss the work of our classmates. Each student accepted into the class will be required to submit fifty pages for consideration by the class over the course of the term. Learning to write also means learning to read, and each student will be required to provide written critiques of each story to the author. Students will also be expected to actively participate in class discussions. Each student will be responsible for the copying of his or her work. Permission of instructor. (Hynes)

425. Advanced Essay Writing. Open only to seniors and graduate students. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Effective Prose.
The subject of this class is the prose style of its participants. Its first purpose is to help experienced readers and writers understand why prose works and why it doesn't. Such understanding supports the second purpose of the class, which is to enable its participants to be writers who please thiemselves by becoming editors who meet their own needs. WL:1 Cost:1 (Fader)

427. Playwriting. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Advanced Playwriting.
The challenge is a simple one: To write a full-length play in twelve weeks. Adaptations are acceptable. Treatments and outlines encouraged but not required. Enrollment limited to those who have successfully completed English 227 or those who have learned the fundamentals of playwriting in other creative writing courses. Please submit a representative one-act play in advance of class as a writing sample. A half dozen published plays will be required reading. Partner meetings and bi-weekly conferences with the instructor are also required. (Roth)

428. Senior Writing Tutorial. English 223, 323, and 423/429 or equivalent (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course is a combination writing workshop/thesis tutorial for undergraduate students who are in their last year at Michigan, have taken the 200-,300-, and 400-level writing workshops, and have been accepted into the Creative Writing Program. Students will complete a major manuscript of fiction or poetry. Supervised reading and writing assignments will also form a part of the curriculum. Regular tutorial meetings between students and faculty will take place: workshops in fiction and/or poetry might be arranged. The course is designed to afford students and faculty the greatest flexibility and latitude in devising the most beneficial working arrangements, given the particular needs of students taking the course that term. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ezekiel)

429. The Writing of Poetry. Written permission of instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

This poetry-writing workshop will focus primarily on the writing of class members. There will also be a healthy amount of reading in contemporary poetry and written response (largely informal analysis) to the poems in our texts. Students will be encouraged to experiment with new forms and to create one or two of their own. While an important contribution to the class will be spoken and written commentary on student poems to be workshopped each week, discussion of contemporary poetry is also a high priority and will continue outside of the classroom via electronic mail conferencing (no previous experience with e-mail is necessary). Essential for this course is a willingness to take and give criticism in a thoughtful, honest and respectful manner. Not essential is any experience in creative writing courses, though that would be helpful. Permission of the instructor is required. Leave a sample manuscript of from 4 to 6 typed pages in Professor Rosser's mailbox in the English Department office during the week before the first day of class, or bring a manuscript to the first class. A class list will be posted on the door of 2625 Haven Hall following the first class. (Rosser)

431. The English Novel from Dickens to Conrad. (4). (Excl).

This course will address the ways in which literary texts of the nineteenth century envisioned human relationships to space whether through domestic interiors, isolated rural landscapes, crowded exhibition halls, or urban slums and how these spaces were often translated into metaphors of mind in Victorian literature, psychology and popular culture. Although the bulk of the reading for this course will consist of nineteenth- century novels, we will be focusing on the relationship between literature and other disciplines, and participating in the study of cultural history. For example, we will study popular cultural movements such as spiritualism in order to think about how Victorians conceptualized the persistence of consciousness after death and between "worlds," as well as crowd psychology and hypnotism, in order to understand how the boundaries of subjectivity could become fluid. Literary texts will probably include Charles Dickens' Bleak House, Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, Thomas Hardy's Tess of the D'Urbervilles, Henry James' Portrait of a Lady, Bram Stoker's Dracula, and Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. We will also read essays by nineteenth century psychologists, sociologists, and art historians. Participation in class discussion is strongly encouraged, and there will be two papers and a final exam. (Vrettos)

432. The American Novel. (4). (Excl).

For decades twentieth-century critics have attempted to define what is unique about the American novel. From what social concerns and cultural anxieties, historical events and romantic assumptions did the American novel spring? How do whaling ships and drawing-rooms, Puritans and frontier life, Wall Street and Gettysburg go together? It may be that what is most distinctly "American" about the novels (and the criticism) is the very attempt to find something unique and definitive in American experience that is, the urge to develop a myth of "American character." And what is "American" literature now, now that there are many more voices, styles, cultures comprising the "character" we call American? In an attempt to construct and critique this notion of American exceptionalism, we will be reading a range of novels from the early nineteenth century to the present, including The Scarlet Letter, Moby Dick, Autobiography of Frederick Douglass, The Awakening, Little Women, The Portrait of a Lady, The House of Mirth, Go Down, Moses, Beloved. There will be two formal papers, a midterm and a final exam. This course combines lecture and discussion sections. Satisfies American Literature requirement. (Barnes)

433. The Modern Novel. (4). (Excl).

This course will examine developments in English fiction from the turn of the century to 1941. We will explore the ways in which the twentieth-century novel, rather than being driven by plot, attempts to trace, in Joyce's words, "the curve of an emotion" or to incorporate, as Lawrence desires, philosophy and fiction in the novel. Virginia Woolf tells us that "human nature changed" in the first decade of the 1900s. Certainly the way novelists constructed human nature changed dramatically. We will also discuss issues that might be broadly grouped under the heading "gender": how do men and women in our century respond to or initiate the radical redefinitions of sex roles that occur during our century? Or are those "radical redefinitions" more rhetorical than substantive? How do anxieties and confusions manifest themselves in the texts we're discussing? We will also pay close attention to the variety of ways each author positions her / himself in relation to a past: how does the "modern" stand in relation to "history"? Readings will include a substantial course pack; Bennett, The Old Wive's Tale; Stein, Three Lives; Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man; Lawrence, Women in Love; Woolf, To the Lighthouse and Between the Acts. Course requirements are three essays (two five-page papers and a final, more substantial essay that's seven to nine pages long). There will be a final exam. This course has discussion sections. Cost:2 WL:1 (Whittier-Ferguson).

434. The Contemporary Novel. (4). (Excl).

Much contemporary (also known as postmodern) fiction involves characters who feel manipulated by vaguely identified conspirators. Their helplessness results from the tyranny of a system, an institution, or another person; they often find themselves automatically adhering to a set of arbitrary rules and traditions. Is this pervading sense of being controlled in every aspect of life a natural condition of the modern world? What does it mean to "be yourself" or to "say something original"? Is it even possible in a commercialized and media-glutted time to be an individual? We will explore the novelists' practical and aesthetic choices in dramatizing these questions. Our readings will begin and end with Samuel Beckett (Molloy and The Unnamable), who raised to perfect pitch the half-strangled cry of the paralyzed self. Other texts will include Thomas Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49, Marilynne Robinson's Housekeeping, Milan Kundera's The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, Margaret Atwood's Surfacing, Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man, and John Le Carre's The Spy Who Came in from the Cold. This course will combine lectures and discussion sections, and require two essays of 5 pages each, a midterm, and a final take home exam of 6-8 pp. (Rosser)

440. Modern Poetry. (3). (Excl).

In this course we shall study the major poetry in English of the period 1900-1940. Our principal subject matter will be work by the most important poets Thomas Hardy, W.B. Yeats, T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, D. H. Lawrence, H.D., W.C. Williams, Marianne Moore, Robert Frost, Hart Crane, Wallace Stevens - but we will also devote some time to special topics like Imagism, the poetry of The Great War, and the Harlem Renaissance, as well as to the social, historical, and literary backgrounds of modern poetry. The objective of the course is a clear understanding of the techniques and themes of modern poetry, which are especially significant because they continue to influence and inform the poetry of our own time. The format is lecture and discussion. Requirements include two papers, a midterm, and a final examination. Satisfies the American Literature requirement for English majors. Cost:2 WL:1 (Goldstein)

444/Theatre 322. History of Theatre II. (3). (HU).

See Theatre 322. (Woods)

446. World Drama: Congreve to Ibsen. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Women in Performance.
This course will take up the varied drama of the centuries following the Renaissance the plays and theatrical history that influenced Modern drama. We will attempt to imagine the staging and production of the plays, looking specifically at how the female characters are represented by the playwrights and then how the same characters might have been interpreted by the actresses and directors. How might the women appear, interact and move across the playing space and how does this consideration affect our "reading" of dramatic literature? As is clear from the range implied by "Congreve to Ibsen," traditional academic method retells the history of the theater through the names of its most famous writers, moving from century to century, country to country according to the cultural surge of literariness. While traveling the vibrant if well-trod path through French, German, English and Norwegian drama, we will also venture to 18th and 19th-century Spain, Latin America, China, Persia in search of forms of drama perhaps lesser known and less easily confined to "literature." Requirements include short papers, one longer paper, active class participation and collaborative mock staging projects. Students interested in performance history, theater history, dramatic literature are welcome. (Skantze)

448. Contemporary Drama. (3). (Excl).

The spine of this course is a careful reading of representative plays, mostly post-World-War-II, from anywhere but the U.S. (American Drama is the province of English 449). We will consider plays as texts for the theater and as dramatic literature, and study their relationships to dramatic movements, theatrical backgrounds, social forces, world events, and trends of thought. English 448 complements English 447 (Modern Drama). The earlier course is not a prerequisite, but a familiarity with the work of its central figures (Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov, Shaw, Brecht, Pirandello) couldn't hurt. Readings for 448, dependent on the capricious availability of texts, will be chosen from among [not all] these playwrights: Beckett, Osborne, Pinter, Stoppard, Giraudoux, Anouilh, Ionesco, Genet, Duerrenmatt, Hochhuth, Weiss, Fugard, Soyinka and a whole bunch of more recently "arrived" English and Irish dramatists. What doesn't make the list of common readings for the class will be fair game for your required supplementary/outside reading. Class procedure: informal lecture and discussion, the quantity of the latter dependent on the class' size and the liveliness of the people in it. Some secondary readings and those "outside" plays in addition to about 20 basic plays that we will all read. Students will write two essays (the second longer than the first), keep a reading log, and take a final exam. (Bauland)

449/Theatre 423. American Theatre and Drama. (3). (HU).

See Theatre and Drama 423. (Cardullo)

455/MARC 455. Medieval English Literature. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Medieval Romance.
In this course we will read a variety of medieval romances ranging in date from the 12th to the 15th centuries. We will consider these romances in the context of the societies and cultures for which they were composed, and see how the ideals and values examined in romance reflect social changes, spiritual values and the aspirations and interests of an audience or readership changing with the spread of literacy. We will begin with the origins of romance, and romances by Chretien de Troyes, Marie de France and Gottfried von Strassburg. After that we will concentrate on Middle English romances, including Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, works by Chaucer (both romance and fabliau) and a selection of more modest Middle English romances. I plan to include several pairs of romances involving Middle English transformations of a French source (Sir Launfal and Lai le Fresne, Yvain and Ywain), and pairs or trios of texts which handle the same or closely related story materials (e.g., Emare, the Man of Law's Tale, Le Bone Florence of Rome). Finally, we will look at several of the major manuscripts in which Middle English romance is found, to see what they can tell us about the composition, circulation, audience and readership of Middle English romance. Students will write one substantial paper, collaborate on group presentations, and, numbers permitting, make individual oral presentations of work in progress towards the paper. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:2 (McSparran)

472. Twentieth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys literature written in the United States from the 1920s to the present. Though there will be no single, unifying theme for the term, the readings will be arranged so as to highlight their relation to the social, cultural, and intellectual issues of the period. Novelists to be considered will include Anzia Yezierska, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Willa Cather, Zora Neale Hurston, Nathaniel West, Dashiell Hammett, Donald Barthelme, Louise Erdrich, and William Gibson; poets will include T.S. Eliot, Langston Hughes, Sylvia Plath, and Frank O'Hara. Written assignments: three essays and a final examination. Satisfies American Literature requirement. (Larson)

473. Topics in American Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

Section 001 Other Destinies: Native American Literature in the Contemporary World. Native American writers have always written from a strong connection and commitment to the community. In this course, we will look at how contemporary issues in Native America are reflected in its literature. Our texts will include works by N. Scott Momaday, Leslie Marmon Silko, Linda Hogan, James Welch, Simon Ortiz, and Joy Harjo as well as political/cultural writings by Ward Churchill, M. Annette Jaimes, and Vine Deloria, Jr. In addition to submitting a couple of short papers on the readings, students will be expected to participate in a group discussion on contemporary issues. Satisfies American Literature and New Traditions requirement. (Henry)

479/CAAS 489. Topics in Afro-American Literature. English 274 and/or 320 strongly recommended. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Early African-American Literature.
In this course we will read novels, poems, polemical texts, biographical, and autobiographical works to try to understand the positions of the authors and their beliefs in the power of writing to effect change in the "real" world. Throughout the term, we will ask questions about the appearance of a substantial and varied body of literature by Black people in colonial and nineteenth-century American. Did Black people write primarily to prove that they, too, were capable of reason? Did they think their exposés about the conditions of slave life and segregation would cause readers to work to change society? What forms of writing did these authors think were most likely to move their readers? How skilled were they in the use of metaphor, the construction of plot, the control of language? In what ways was their writing judged differently from the works of white writers? How do we, as critics, understand the impact of this literature on our idea of American literature and American culture. Three papers (two requiring research), midterm, and final. Satisfies American Literature and New Traditions requirement. (Artis)

482. Studies in Individual Authors. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 William Blake's Illuminated Works.
This course studies the (scriptictorial) arts of William Blake's illuminated works and other literary and artistic inventions in relation to his times and the traditions leading to and from them. Written work will include journal writing with detailed commentary on individual illuminated designs and a longer paper. WL:1 Cost:4 (Wright)

Section 002 Jane Austen in Context. A key hypothesis of this course will be that Jane Austen is a political novelist. Through a careful reading of her six novels along with (a) some of the novels by women of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century with which Austen's novels are in dialogue, (b) other kinds of writings by and about women of this period such as conduct books, treatises on women, feminist and anti-feminist tracts, and (c) selected works in social and cultural history we will explore what this hypothesis might mean. We will discuss how to situate Austen's fiction within the context of English response to the French Revolution, and how feminist scholarship might help us understand her. The center of this course will be working on close readings of the major novels; its guiding principle, however, will be that only by reading the novels in the context of contemporary fictional and non-fictional discourses about women can we begin to understand Austen's literary form. Text will be Northanger Abbey, Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, Emma, and Persuasion; Burney, Evelina; Radcliffe, The Mysteries Of Udolpho; Wollstonecraft, Maria and A Vindication Of The Rights Of Woman; plus a course pack. The class will combine lecture and discussion; students will write one paper, an annotated bibliography, and a take-home final. NOTE: the reading for this course will be heavy; students might read The Mysteries Of Udolpho (Oxford) or Evelina (Oxford) over winter break. Cost:2 (Pinch)

Section 003- Richard Wright. Prerequisites: Engl. 274 or CAAS 338, or permission of instructor. For Winter Term, 1994, this course is offered jointly with CAAS 458.002. (Chrisman)

483. Great Works of Literature. (1). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

Section 001 Primo Levi and the Memory of Auschwitz. Primo Levi was a Jew from Torino who survived a year in Auschwitz. His books, which deal recurrently with this experience, arguably constitute one of the major moral and stylistic projects of this century. In this course we will discuss four of them: Survival at Auschwitz, The Reawakening, The Periodic Table, and The Drowned and The Saved. We will also read selections from his book of shorter pieces, Another's Profession. We will examine in particular his understanding of the role of memory and remembering in constituting social experience, and observe the ways in which he confronts the problem of writing about the unspeakable. WL:1 Cost:2 (Williams)

Section 002 Four Late Comedies and Romances of Shakespeare. When Shakespeare's friends, his fellow actors and others associated with him in theatre, gathered together his plays after his death and published them in the book called the First Folio (1623) they divided them into three groups: Tragedies, Histories, Comedies. Among the Comedies are four plays to which this course will devote special attention: All's Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure, A Winter's Tale, The Tempest. What do these plays have to show us of evil and of good? The course proposes to pursue this question by a study of each of the plays singly and as a group. We approach them as late manifestations of Shakespeare's playwrighting and stagecraft; after a preliminary remarking of what seems most characteristic of and essential to earlier comedies by Shakespeare we mean to inquire into these later plays as to how far and in what ways they represent continuation form the earlier practice and what might be the special features of the later plays. This course will view the plays primarily as works for the theatre and will make every effort to take them in that light. Videotape productions will be assigned for viewing, and these will be supplemented by exercises in class designed to bring out the theatrical challenges and opportunities offered by these texts (viewed as scripts). In this way we hope to gain a possession of these comedies and to deepen our sense of the meaning of Comedy in relation to the problem of evil. One extended paper will be required for course credit. (McNamara)

484. Issues in Criticism. (3). (Excl).
Marxism and Cultural Studies.
This course will meet twice a week to introduce students to some of the classics as well as latest thinking in Marxism and Cultural Studies. We may analyze traditional Marxist writings by Marx, Engels, Gramsci, Lukács and others, as well as contemporary cultural studies theory by Gayatri Spivak, Fredric Jameson, Cornel West, and others. Some of the conceptual issues to be explored are gender, "race," mass culture, post-colonialism, internal colonialism, "resistance literature," Modernism/post-Modernism, and "commitment." Throughout the term we will be applying our theory to a variety of works of fiction, poetry, and film, mostly noncanonical art from the U.S. and Third World. Requirements include attendance and participation, a short diagnostic writing assignment and a longer essay, possible participation in oral presentation, a midterm and final exam. Satisfies New Traditions requirement. (Wald)

486. History of Criticism. (3). (Excl).

This will be an introductory survey of developments in literary theory during the past two centuries, with emphasis on the sweeping changes that have taken place in the past twenty-five years. Major areas of study will include romanticism, modernism, New Criticism, post-structuralism, materialism, feminism, and multi-culturalism. We will be using various kinds of literary theory to help us answer basic questions about what and why we read, questions like: What is literary pleasure? Do authors determine the meaning of their texts, or do readers? In what ways are texts embedded in society and politics? Can pornography be literature? Are male readers/writers different from female readers/writers? On what principles was our literary canon established, and should it be revised? Our focus will be on the usefulness theory might have for readers, whether they be students or literary critics. Mix of lecture/discussion, but with a strong emphasis on student participation. Two, possibly three short papers, and a final project. Strongly suggested for alternate Honors students. WL:1 Cost:5 (Kucich)

495. Honors Survey: The Twentieth Century. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).
Modern Literature.
This is the final required course in the Honors sequence. It is also open to a few seniors no in the Honors program (particularly those in Alternate Honors) with permission of the instructor. The course will focus on Modernism in English Literature, although the precision of the definition will shade into what is frequently call pre-Modernism and post-Modernism. The tentative reading list includes one novel by each of the following: Hardy, Edith Wharton, Virginia Woolf, D.H. Lawrence, Joyce ( Ulysses), and Pynchon (Gravity's Rainbow ). Short stories by Katherine Mansfield. Poems by Eliot, Yeats, Auden, and a contemporary poet (probably Alice Fulton). Several papers and a midterm. No final examination. (Gindin)


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