Courses in GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES (DIVISION 377)

A. Introductory Courses and Courses for Non-concentrators

G.S. 100-115 are short (half-term) courses. They consist of detailed examinations of restricted geologic topics. The department lists the specific courses from this series in the Time Schedule for the terms they are offered (fall and winter terms only). Each course, when offered, meets twice weekly for half of the term (first half or second half), and the specific dates for each course are printed in the Time Schedule. These courses are designed primarily for students with no prior geologic training and they are open to all interested persons. G.S. 100-115 are offered on the graded pattern (optional pass/fail).

100. Coral Reefs. (1). (NS).

Coral Reefs will be an in-depth tour of the biological and physical processes active in modern reef systems to provide a detailed understanding of the ecology of the individual organisms and the complex nature of their interactions within the reef community. Evolution of the reef community will be examined, ranging from the crude framework structures formed over one billion years ago by primitive algae to the luxuriant and diversified reefs of the modern-day oceans, to define the evolutionary strategies of reef building organisms. By tracking these evolutionary strategies through geologic time, the implications of man's intervention with the Earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere on the character of future reef communities will be considered. Cost:1 WL:4 (Lohmann)

101. Waves and Beaches. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 276. (1). (NS).

This short course approaches the subject of "waves and beaches" by combining relevant topics in both oceanography and geology, although no previous background in these subjects is required. We shall attempt to understand this dynamic place where land and sea interact by emphasizing the processes responsible for the major types of coastlines and the geologic/oceanographic phenomena associated with them. Some of the topics which will be considered include: fundamentals of wave and tide theory; the impact of waves and tides upon beaches; coastal geology; coastal processes on a short- and long-term time scale; estuaries; and, the impact of plate tectonics upon coasts. Instruction will be by lecture. Grades will be based on one exam which shall be given at the end of the course. Cost:1 WL:1 (Wilkinson)

106. Fossils, Primates, and Human Evolution. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 125. (1). (NS).

Anatomical and behavioral characteristics of living primates are reviewed, and the fossil record is used to document the course of human evolution through the past 60 million years. No special background is required. Students seeking a more detailed course with laboratory exercises may follow this with Geology 438 (Evolution of the Primates). Course consists of 12 lectures, and a one-hour final examination. Cost:1 WL:4 (Gingerich)

107. Volcanoes and Earthquakes. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 205, 270, or 271. (1). (NS).

The course is a study of the earth in action and includes the following topics: geography of earthquakes and volcanoes; catastrophic events in historic times; size and frequency of occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; the products of volcanism; volcanic rocks; volcanic activity through geologic time; volcanic exhalations and the evolution of the earth's atmosphere and oceans; relationship of earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics and the internal dynamics of the earth; volcanism and geothermal energy; manmade earthquakes; and earthquake prediction and control. Instruction by lecture, evaluation on basis of final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Pollack)

108. Minerals in the Modern World. (1). (NS).

Our society uses large quantities of metals for industrial, scientific, and recreational pursuits. Many people, however, are unaware of how these materials become available, or how small the supply of some metals may be. This course concerns the geologic, economic, and political aspects of metallic industrial and strategic minerals. Emphasis will be placed on the types of ore deposits in which these minerals occur, and the geologic processes responsible for forming the deposits. The geographic distribution and estimated remaining reserves of important metals will be reviewed, as well as economic and political constraints on methods of mining and distribution. The capacity of the U.S. for self-sufficiency with regard to strategic metals, such as chromium, manganese, and cobalt, will also be discussed. Lecture format. A course pack (strongly recommended) is available from Dollar Bill Copying. Grade will be determined solely by a final exam. Cost:1 (Kesler)

110. The History of the Oceans. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 222. (1). (NS).

The history of past oceanic inhabitants, events, and environments is recorded in the sediments which have accumulated on the ocean bottom throughout geological time. Fossils of marine plants and animals are a major part of the historical record; they give evidence of past oceanic living conditions and the evolution of life forms in the sea. Sediment particles eroded from land and carried to the oceans by rivers and winds provide insights into past climates on continents. Changes in ocean currents and in seawater chemistry have left their mark on the sediment record; the possible causes of these changes are explored. Plate tectonics and seafloor spreading have rearranged the shapes of ocean basins and repositioned continents over time. These processes are reflected in the record in marine sediments still present on the ocean floor and also in those now uplifted to form part of the continents. These topics are presented in lectures held twice weekly for a half term. A single exam at the end of the course will determine the course grade. Cost:1 WL:4 (Meyers)

111. Climate and Mankind. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 201 or 275. (1). (NS).

The intent of GS 111 is to give a heightened awareness to students of the nature and fragility of the Earth's climate, and how changes in climate have affected past civilizations and may affect our future. Course topics will include: a description of the climate systems of the Earth: the atmosphere, oceans and polar ice caps; the information we gather to understand the history of those systems; how changes in climate have affected past civilizations, and what we think will happen to the planet when the long expected "Greenhouse Effect Global Warming" finally arrives. Cost:1 WL:3 (Moore)

113. Planets and Moons. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 204 or 278. (1). (NS).

"Planets and Moons" is a survey of the geology of the "solid" bodies of the solar system as revealed by both the manned exploration of our own moon and unmanned, "robotic," exploration of the inner planets and moons of the outer planets. The course will not only provide a qualitative description of planetary surfaces as revealed by photographic reconnaissance, but will also provide physical explanations of what we see in terms of external cratering processing and internal dynamic processes. Exploration of the planets reveals that impact cratering is the single most pervasive process in the solar system. Particular emphasis will be placed on why the various bodies have such different morphologies, especially why they are so different from the Earth. Nevertheless, planetary exploration does provide the framework to understand our own Earth better, especially the first billion years of terrestrial evolution. Instruction by lecture; evaluation by means of final exam. Cost:2 (Gurnis)

117. Introduction to Geology. Credit is not granted for G.S. 117 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 121, 122, or 218). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 118 or 119. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 117 for 4 credits. (5). (NS).

A basic single-term course in introductory geology concentrating on the evolution of the Earth in physical and chemical terms with particular reference to modern plate tectonic theory, and to the interaction of the external biosphere-atmosphere-hydrosphere with the Earth's interior. The laboratory provides a practical study of minerals, rocks and geologic maps. One hour each week is scheduled for review and discussion of topics covered in class. Lectures, laboratory and discussion. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mukasa and Pollack)

118. Introductory Geology Laboratory. Credit is not granted for Geol. 118 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 117, 119, 121, 122, or 218). (2). (Excl).

The laboratory provides hands-on experience with minerals, rocks and maps. Participants will learn to identify common minerals and rocks, use topographic and geologic maps, and draw and interpret geologic cross sections. Examples will be drawn from areas of recent glaciation, volcanism and earthquakes to show how these features are depicted in maps. Cost:1 WL:4

119. Introductory Geology Lectures. Credit is not granted for G.S. 119 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 118, 121, 122, or 218). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 117. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 119 for 3 credits. (4). (NS).

This course consists of lectures shared with Geology 117 but does not include the laboratory section. A separate discussion section is also scheduled to insure continuity with class material and student-teacher contact. Students interested in ONE-TERM laboratory introductory science course should elect Geology 117. Lectures and discussion. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mukasa and Pollack)

120. Geology of National Parks and Monuments. Credit is not granted for G.S. 120 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology. (4). (NS).

Geology of National Parks and Monuments approaches Earth history by examining the geology of places rather than by taking a process approach. It is designed for all interested undergraduates at The University of Michigan. The course format consists of three lectures each week and one two-hour demonstration-laboratory period, for four hours credit. Lecture material deals with the geologic history of selected National Parks and Monuments, which are chosen (largely by enrolled students) and scheduled so that those in which the oldest rocks are exposed (thus relating to the earliest portions of Earth history) are covered first. In so doing, we cover Earth history in a temporal progression, but do so by discussing different geographic areas. The demonstration-laboratory portion of the course will give you first-hand experience with rocks, minerals, and fossils; and an opportunity to discuss these in small groups. Cost:1 WL:1 (Wilkinson)

123/AOSS 123. Life and the Global Environment. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 277. (2). (NS).

Since life emerged on Earth more than 3 billion years ago it has profoundly affected the properties of its environment, including the compositions of atmosphere and ocean and the climate. The environment, in turn, has constrained the evolution of life. While the interaction of life and the global environment has been important throughout Earth history, the changes brought about by human beings, particularly in the last century, are much more rapid than any the planet has experienced before. Humans are affecting global climate, the composition of air and water, and global ecology in ways that are unprecedented and probably harmful. This course views the global change of the present from the perspective of planetary history. Grades are based on multiple choice examinations and homework exercises. Instruction is by lectures, films, and assigned reading. The text is The Global Environment by P. ReVelle and C. ReVelle, publ. by Jones and Bartlett, 1992. Cost:2 WL:4 (Walker)

135. History of the Earth. High school chemistry, physics and mathematics recommended. Those with credit for GS 115 may only elect GS 135 for 2 credits. (3). (NS).

This course provides a broad and fundamental introduction to the Earth and explains the formation of rocks and the major geological features, as well as the changes that have occurred over the 4.5 billion years of Earth history. The course is intended for students considering a Geological Sciences concentration, as well as for students interested in studying Earth sciences as part of their general educational background. Topics include minerals and the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, fossils and the evolution of life, the interior of the Earth, the measurement of time, continental drift, and the effect of the Earth's atmosphere, climate, oceans and rivers on shaping the surface of the Earth. The history of the planet will be followed from Earth's accretion from dust, through the origin of life, the building of the current continents and ocean basins, and the origin of humankind. Lectures three times a week for the full term. Textbook required. Evaluation will be based on three exams. Cost:2 WL:3/4 (Foote, Halliday)

201/Geography 201. Introductory Geography: Water, Climate, and Mankind. Those with credit for GS 111 may only elect GS 201 for 3 credits. (4). (NS).

This course is a basic introduction to physical geography which emphasizes many topics including maps, seasons, the atmosphere, greenhouse gasses, radiation and heat balance, the dangers of global warming, circulation, moisture and precipitation, air masses, and water supply. Students also study climate classification, and geologic and historical climate changes, and landforms and their formation. Students in this lecture-lab course are evaluated by hourly and final examinations with satisfactory completion of the lab work a prerequisite to the final course evaluation. Cost:2 WL:3 (Stearns)

204/AOSS 204/Astronomy 204. The Planets: Their Geology and Climates. High school mathematics through plane geometry and trigonometry. Those with credit for GS 113 may only elect GS 204 for 2 credits. (3). (NS).

This course will present current perspectives on the evolution of the solar system in both an historical context and in light of the extraordinary scientific advances resulting from recent space exploration. The principal focus will be on the structure, composition and evolutionary history of the surfaces and atmospheres of the planets and their satellites. Special emphasis will be given to comparative aspects of geology, meteorology and climatology as developed on the various bodies of the solar system. Concepts of space exploration techniques will also be presented. The course is intended for non-science concentrators and other students with typical high school science and math backgrounds. Cost:1-2 WL:4 (Atreya)

205. How the Earth Works: the Dynamic Planet. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 117, 119, or 270. No credit granted to those who have completed both GS 105 and 107. Those with credit for one of GS 105 and 107 may only elect GS 205 for 1 credit. (2). (NS).

The dynamic Earth has given us oceans, continents and an atmosphere. Its continuing activity is manifested today by the destructive powers of such natural phenomena as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and mountain building. The unifying concept of plate tectonics contains the clue to the shape and changes in the physical environment of the Earth from its initial formation to today. Our goal is to present a fully integrated approach to the evolving Earth's unique features in our solar system and explain its physical and chemical principles using conceptual and factual material. Extensive use is made of videos, slides and classroom demonstrations. Two lectures/week; evaluation based on midterm and final exam. No special background required. Course reading: Earth's Dynamic Systems by W.K. Hamblin and a course pack. This course can be taken singly or concurrently with its companion course (GS 206); together they constitute a balanced introduction to modern earth sciences. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lange and Satake)

206. How the Earth Works: the Water Cycle and Environment. Those with credit for GS 109 may only elect GS 206 for 1 credit. (2). (NS).

This course describes behavior of earth materials in the surficial environment. Water is the main transport agent in the geological cycle; its unique properties and exchange rates among oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater are one focus. Interaction between water reservoirs and physical and chemical weathering of soils, sediments and rocks also are discussed. Impact of humans on the surficial environment is a unifying theme because we can affect hydrologic and geochemical cycles. No special background required. Two lectures per week. Evaluation based on three exams and participation. Readings include The Global Water Cycle: Geochemistry and Environment (Berner and Berner) and handouts. This course, and its companion course (GS 205), may be taken singly or concurrently and together constitute a balanced introduction to modern earth science. Cost:3 WL:2 (Meyers)

222. Introductory Oceanography. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AOSS 203. (3). (NS).

This course introduces students to the scientific study of the oceans. Contents include the shape, structure, and origin of the ocean basins; the sedimentary record of oceanic life and conditions in the past; the composition of seawater and its influence on life and climate; waves and currents; the life of the oceans and how it depends upon the marine environment; the resources of the ocean and their wise use by society. The course format consists of lectures and readings from an assigned textbook. The course grade will be based on three one-hour exams and a two-hour final exam. Cost:2 WL:4 (Owen)

223. Introductory Oceanography, Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in G.S. 222. (1). (NS).

This course is an optional laboratory intended to provide students with opportunities to explore further various oceanography topics presented in the G.S. 222 lectures. Laboratory sessions will include sampling procedures, use of equipment, discussions, and demonstrations of how data are generated. The course grade will be based on written laboratory exercises and a final exam. Cost:1 WL:4

270. Plate Tectonics. No credit granted to those who have completed three of GS 105, 107 and 205. Those with credit for one of GS 105 and 107 may only elect GS 270 for two credits. Those with credit for GS 205, or both GS 105 and 107, may only elect GS 270 for one credit. (3). (NS).

The theory of plate tectonics, called dogma by some and paradigm by others, describes the mobility of continental and oceanic domains of the Earth's crust, as they are in constant motion along plate boundaries with respect to each other. The theory explains earthquakes and volcanoes, the topography of the Earth and the faunal and floral diversity of its living and fossil inhabitants. Lectures about the evidence also explore alternative explanations. The course involves three hours of weekly meeting time, a textbook and selected reading material. No background in Earth science is necessary. Evaluation is based on two exams, a series of student presentations on selected topics and written essays on the same subject. Cost:1 WL:4 (Van der Voo)

273. Contemporary Dinosaurs. Those with credit for GS 103 may only elect GS 273 for 2 credits. (3) (NS).

Paleontologists' understanding of dinosaurs and other fossil reptiles has undergone a revolutionary transformation since the mid-1970's. New data, new methodologies, and new assumptions about the basic biology of extinct reptiles have resulted in a more complex and dynamic picture of dinosaurian behaviour, ecology, and morphology, and new estimates of their evolutionary history and relationships. In this course, we will investigate both these new scientific conceptions of fossil reptiles including dinosaurs, pterosaurs, aquatic reptiles, and other related groups and examine the history and philosophy of paleobiological work. We will also pursue aspects of contemporary evolutionary theory and introduce background information on geological processes needed to understand the field. Course requirements include one brief (5 page) paper and one term paper of about 15 pages, a midterm and final exam, and vigorous class participation. Weekly readings will be assigned from reserve materials, text, and course pack. There are no prerequisites for enrollment. WL:3, students should ask instructor for override, but also are encouraged to sign up for it at CRISP too. (Cox)

277. Humans and the Natural World. Those with credit for GS 123 may only elect GS 277 for 1 credit. (3). (NS).

How humans affect and are affected by the natural environment, including other living creatures, the chemistry of air, water, and land, and the physical environment, particularly climate. Problems of pollution, changes in land use including destruction of natural habitats, population pressure, and climate change. The histories of these assaults on the environment and their underlying causes, with possible solutions. Ethical and political aspects of human interaction with the natural world and the place of humans in nature, particularly from the perspective of biological evolution and Earth history. Two hours of lecture each week in conjunction with GS 123, Life and the Global Environment. The third hour will be a seminar and discussion led by Professor Walker. Textbook and supplementary readings. Short written assignments and a term paper. Exams will include multiple choice and essay questions. Cost:3 WL:3 (Walker)

278. Earthlike Planets. High school science and math recommended. Those with credit for GS 113 may only elect GS 278 for 2 credits. (3). (NS).

In a small class room setting, Earthlike Planets introduces the undergraduate to the terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, moon, and Mars. Studies of solid planets will be used as a vehicle to better understand our own world and the methodology and limitations of science in the presence of conflicting hypotheses and ambiguous data. Since western society has made a significant commitment of resources toward the exploration of the planets, we must consider not only the scientific merits of the endeavor but also its historical origins. Grades will be based upon class participation, a midterm exam, and a final project. The final project will provide the basis for a written report and an in-class oral presentation. Cost:2 WL:3 (Gurnis)

B. Primarily for Concentrators

351. Structural Geology. G.S. 117 or 119 or the equivalent; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The description and analysis of geological structures in the earth's crust and an introduction to global tectonics. Three lectures and one laboratory session weekly. The following topics are covered: the description of geological structures; the kinematics and dynamics of folding and faulting; stress, strain, deformation and rheology; introduction to dislocation theory; micro-structural analysis; principles of plate tectonics; selected orogenic systems of the world. This is a core course for concentrators, but is open to all who want to have a basic knowledge of geology. Evaluation is based on graded lab assignments, a lab test, a midterm and a final exam. Textbooks: Foundations of Structural Geology, 2nd ed., by R.G. Park (lectures) and Basic Methods of Structural Geology by S. Marshak and G. Mitra (labs). In addition, hand-outs and preprints of a new text are used throughout the course. Cost:2 WL:4 (van der Pluijm)

422. Principles of Geochemistry. G.S. 231, 305, 310 and Chem. 125/130. (3). (Excl).

The course is designed to provide a quantitative introduction to geochemical aspects of the rock cycle. Topics which will be covered include: thermodynamic and kinetic controls on the distribution of the elements, trace element and isotope geochemistry, geochemistry of the oceans and atmosphere, environmental geochemistry, and geochemical cycles. Instruction will consist of lectures and discussion of homework problems. The course is intended primarily for seniors concentrating in the geological sciences, but is also open to graduate students with advisor approval. Evaluation will be based on homework problems, a short term paper, a midterm examination and a final comprehensive examination. WL:4 (Zhang)

438. Evolution of the Primates. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

Anatomical and behavioral characteristics of living primates are reviewed and the fossil record of primates is covered in detail, illustrating how fossils document the history of primates and the tempo and mode of primate evolution. This course inludes three lectures and a laboratory each week, one midterm exam, a research paper, and a final exam. Introductory geology and biology are recommended as background. Cost:3 WL:3, but normally never closes. (Gingerich)

446. Permafrost, Snow, and Ice. Math. 116 and Physics 140/141. (3). (Excl).

The course covers the geothermal environment of permafrost using analytical periodic and step function models of conductive thermal evolution. The impact of coupled heat-mass transfer in the annual thaw or "active" layer and and the overlying snow cover are considered in detail. Arctic/alpine geomorphology, lake/river ice and glaciology are also covered. Students make extensive use of computer models developed by the instructor. Near the end of the term a numerical model of sub-sea permafrost is used to explore the climatic history of the Arctic Shelf. This project is used to illustrate the power and limitations of thermal modeling in the analysis of climate variation. Several "problem oriented" take home examinations employed to evaluate student performance. Readings: Students will be supplied with xeroxed tutorial materials. Cost:1 (Outcalt)

447. Archaeological Geology. G.S. 442 or 448, or equivalent, or permission of instructor; and one 300-level (or higher) course in anthropology or classical archaeology. (3). (Excl).

This course concentrates on selected geologic topics that are especially pertinent to archaeological studies, such as geological raw materials (flint, obsidian, building stone, clay), soils and paleosols, cave sediments, stratigraphy, dating methods, and paleoclimatology. Lectures are in-depth treatments assuming some prior geologic and archaeologic knowledge and are commonly based on case histories of actual archaeological studies. The emphasis is on answering questions of an archaeological nature by means of geologic studies. Course consists of lectures and discussions, and is graded on the basis of one or two hours exams and a term project. Cost:2 WL:4 (Farrand)

449. Marine Geology. G.S. 222/223 or introductory physical geology. (3). (Excl).

This course is an examination of the geology of the ocean basins and the adjacent continental margins. Topics covered include methods of marine data collection, geologic structure of the ocean floor and margins, sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics, the processes of terrigenous, biogenous and chemical sedimentation, and the interpretation of the sedimentary record in terms of past ocean circulation and global climate history. Grades are based on a midterm and final examination and a term project designed to reveal the geologic history of one of the major ocean basins to be selected each year by the class. The class is given in a lecture format, class discussions are encouraged. The textbook is Marine Geology by J.P. Kennett. Cost:3 WL:2 (Rea)

455. Determinative Methods in Mineralogical and Inorganic Materials. One term of elementary chemistry and physics. (4). (Excl).

Determinative methods is a course in techniques of analysis of inorganic materials with lectures aimed at providing theoretical background for understanding of the techniques as practiced in laboratory exercises. The major emphasis is placed on X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption. Although silicate and mineralogical analysis is emphasized, no background in geology is required. Entrance to the course is by permission of the instructors. The grade is determined by laboratory grades, three midterms, and a final. Cost: 2 WL:3 (Peacor, Essene, and Owen)

458. X-ray Analysis of Crystalline Materials. G.S. 455 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to single-crystal diffraction (principally X-ray) theory and techniques through the basics of crystal structure analyses. In the first three weeks, symmetry theory is covered, emphasizing space groups. In the following six weeks the theory and techniques (rotating crystal, Weissenberg, precession) of X-ray diffraction are developed. In succeeding weeks general diffraction relations are developed into the techniques of crystal structure analyses. Students are encouraged to provide their own original research materials (or they are provided) to serve as a vehicle for learning the techniques of determination of unit cell and space group parameters in the laboratory, but this is not required. Cost:2 WL:3 (Peacor)

468. Introduction to Signal and Image Processing in the Earth Sciences. Math. 116. Prior or concurent enrollment in a structured computer language such as "C" or Pascal . (3). (Excl).

Students use image processing software to manipulate topographic elevation images developing contour maps, block diagrams and shadow images. The fractal geometry of space and time series are explored. Topics include (1) Frequency domain transforms; (2) Calculation of the "fractal dimension" using both the Variogram and Hurst Exponent methods; (3) Kernel operator design for image processing; (4) Conversion of numerical data to images; (5) The map as a matrix. Grades are based on problem sets and a term project. Several "problem oriented" take home examinations employed to evaluate student performance. Readings: Image Lab, T. Wegner, (Waite Group, 1993) as a text which will be augmented by xeroxed articles. Cost:3 (Outcalt)

478. Aqueous Geochemistry. Chem. 365 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Solution-mineral-gas equilibrium and mass transfer in geochemical environments ranging from near surface to deeper crustal temperature/pressure regimes. Models for ion activity/concentration relations, reaction path for rock/water interactions, mineral dissolution and precipitation mechanisms and reaction kinetics, adsorption and incorporation of ions. Geochemical links between atmosphere, ocean and crustal reservoirs will be quantified in light of equilibrium and kinetic constraints. Examples focus on surface waters, oceans and crustal fluids. Integrated lecture, laboratory and problem solving to relate chemical concepts to actual field and laboratory measurement of natural water chemistries. Computer modeling of activity-concentration and mineral equilibria. Two hours of lecture and two hours of practicum per week. Evaluation based on weekly problem sets, two examinations and a focused research project. Cost:2 WL:4 (Walter)

483. Geophysics: Seismology. Prior or concurrent election of Math. 215 and Phys. 240; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course studies physics of earthquakes and the Earth's interior. Various seismological techniques to infer those from seismic waves are presented. Most treatments are application of physics to the real Earth and basic knowledge of math and physics is required. Geological background is not required. The outline of the course is: (1) basic seismological information including spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, magnitude and intensity scales, locating earthquakes, and seismometry; (2) elastic wave theory including stress and strain, seismic wave equations, body and surface waves, refraction and reflection, free oscillations of the Earth; (3) the Earth's structure; (4) earthquake source models. Lecture and laboratory. WL:4 (Ruff)


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