GERMANIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

Courses in DUTCH (DIVISION 357)

112. Second Special Speaking and Reading Course. Dutch 111 or the equivalent. Graduate students should elect the course as Dutch 512. (4). (LR).

This course, a continuation of 111, proceeds with the basic grammar of the Dutch language. We will primarily use the monolingual text Levend Netherlands (Living Dutch), in which each lesson consists of an everyday conversation, a grammatical explanation, exercises, a comprehensive vocabulary list of one topic, questions about the conversation, discussion and homework. To enliven the class, the teacher will present the students with a variety of texts, music, video, and simple prose, which can serve as a starting point for conversation. Cost:1 WL:3 (Broos)

232. Second-Year Dutch. Dutch 231 or the equivalent. Graduate students should elect the course as Dutch 532. (4). (LR).

This course, a continuation of Dutch 231, will further examine the particular difficulties and subtleties of Dutch grammar and style. Grammatical items introduced in previous courses will be reviewed where necessary. Introduction to contemporary Dutch society by means of songs, video, comics, newspaper articles, and literature will enliven the course, which will be conducted mostly in Dutch. Cost:1 WL:3 (Broos)

339. Independent Study. (2-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

This course serves the needs of students who wish to develop special topics not offered in the Dutch Studies curriculum. It may be a program of directed readings with reports, or it may be a research project and long paper. Courses in the past covered different areas like Dutch-Indonesian literature, the language of Rembrandt and his contemporaries, Dutch between English and German, etc. Courses must be supervised by a faculty member and the student must have the faculty member's agreement before electing the course. Cost:1 WL:2 (Broos)

495. Topics in Dutch Literature. Dutch 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

The course will examine prose and poetry of both the Netherlands and Belgium. Issues like the influence of the Second World War, feminist writing, Dutch Indies Literature are among the many topics that will provide the students with material for discussion about authors, opinions, place and point of view of (modern) Dutch literature. The course will be conducted in Dutch. Cost:1 (Broos)

German Courses (Division 379)

101. Elementary Course. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 100. (4). (LR).

First course of a two-term sequence in elementary German. The first-year program is designed to develop the ability to understand and speak "everyday German", to develop reading and writing skills, and to get to know the German-speaking world through discussions and readings. Ample opportunity is provided to develop conversational skills in a wide variety of situations encountered in German-speaking cultures. Additional time outside of class is required to listen to cassettes, to work on the computer, to read, and to study the structure of the German language. There are chapter tests and a final. The language of instruction is German. Cost:2 WL:2

102. Elementary Course. German 101 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 100 or 103. (4). (LR).

Second course of a two-term sequence in elementary German. See German 101 for a general description. Cost:2 WL:2

103. Review of Elementary German. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 100 or 102. (4). (LR).

Course for students who have had two to three years of high school German or one or more terms of college German not at the University of Michigan - but who are not yet at second-year performance level. This course is designed to develop the ability to understand and speak "everyday German," to develop reading and writing skills, and to get to know the German-speaking world through discussions and readings. Ample opportunity is provided to develop conversational skills in a wide variety of situations encountered in German-speaking cultures. Additional time outside of class is required to listen to cassettes, to watch videos, to work on the computer, to read, and to study the structure of the German language. There are three major tests and a final. These sections meet FIVE times per week. Students may enroll in 231 upon satisfactory completion of this course. The language of instruction is German. Cost:2 WL:2

112. Second Special Reading Course. German 111 or the equivalent (placement test). (4). (Excl).

The objective of this course is to teach students to read German for research purposes with the aid of a dictionary. Course content includes an intensive review of grammar and syntax followed by translations from texts in the humanities, the natural and social sciences. Choice of reading texts is determined in part by the composition of the class. Course requirements include daily preparation and recitation, one examination following the completion of the grammar review, one examination during the reading of assigned texts. The final examination requires the translation of sight passages with the aid of a dictionary. The course prerequisite is German 111 or a placement examination (CEEB, GSFLT, or departmental). Like German 111, German 112 is open only to graduate students and undergraduates in special programs. Cost:1 WL: 2

113. Advanced Special Reading. Completion of German 112 with a "B" or the equivalent. (4). (Excl).

This course will offer directed reading in various fields of specialization for research purposes. Texts to be read will be selected by participants with the approval of the instructor. Instruction will be tutorial and success will depend upon progress in the level of comprehension. No specific texts will be required, although grammatical or lexical reference works may be individually recommended. No examinations will be required.

230. Intensive Second-Year Course. German 102 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 221, 222, 231, or 232. (8). (LR).

This course provides highly motivated students the opportunity to complete the two-term intermediate German sequence in one term. You will be expected to increase the level of accuracy at which you can express yourself and the range of situations in which you can function in German-speaking cultures. We will read and discuss a variety of brief fiction and non-fiction texts, e.g., fairy tales, short stories, newspaper and magazine articles. Toward the end of the term, we will read a longer literary work, such as DER RICHTER UND SEIN HENKER or DIE PHYSIKER. There will be an extensive review of German grammar; however, the majority of the class time will be devoted to discussing the assigned texts and working on small group activities. Films, short videos, and contemporary German music will supplement classroom instruction. There will be weekly quizzes on individual readings and grammatical features as well as a comprehensive final. You will also have to write compositions regularly. The language of instruction is German. Cost:2 WL:2

231. Second-Year Course. German 102 or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 221. (4). (LR).

Third of a four-term sequence in contemporary German. The second-year, or intermediate, program is designed to increase students' proficiency in understanding, speaking, writing, and reading German. Students are expected to increase the level of accuracy at which they can express themselves and the range of situations in which they can function in German-speaking cultures. There will be an intermediate grammar review and selected readings. There are three hourly tests and a final examination. Students write essays related to class readings. The language of instruction is German. Cost:3 WL:2

232. Second-Year Course. German 231 or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 236. (4). (LR). Some sections of German 232 address special topics, e.g., music, philosophy, science, current political issues, etc.

Second course of a two-term sequence in contemporary intermediate German. The second-year program is designed to increase students' proficiency in understanding, speaking, writing, and reading German. Students are expected to increase the level of accuracy at which they can express themselves and the range of situations in which they can function in German-speaking cultures. They will be able to read, comprehend, and discuss a large variety of texts. Traditional whole class instruction is supplemented with communicative activities involving pairs or small groups of students. There are three hourly tests and a final examination. In addition, students write essays related to class readings. The language of instruction is German. Cost:2 WL:2

Section 003 The Amazing Middle Ages. This section addresses itself to students with a general interest in the European Middle Ages who would like to learn more about it and who also want to improve their knowledge of German. It is to introduce the genuinely curious to an era of great human accomplishments and it will, in doing so, both confirm and destroy some long-held beliefs. The texts to be read are all in modern German translation and will be in a course pack and a paperback. As to literature, there will be heroic, courtly, and facetious short narratives as well as some of the troubadour love lyrics. Added to these are excerpts of Arthurian romance and other literary genres. The paperback, Helmbrecht, contains one of the best-known medieval novellas in which the author tells his contemporaries what both knights' and peasants' lives should and should not be. To broaden our view of the medieval scene, there will be presentations by faculty members from different Departments: Music, History of Art, and History. The langauge of instruction is German. Course requirements will be an oral report, one hourly test, and a term paper. (Scholler)

Section 004 Homeland. This section, to be offered together (in alternating weeks) with Section 005 Nation, will explore the concept of "Heimat" (homeland) in its historical and literary contexts over the past 200 years. We will focus on selected texts by authors from German Romanticism to the present, concentrating on how historical events - especially the emergence of Germany as a nation, and the Third Reich - affected this fundamentally German concept. The primary goal is familiarity with the vocabulary and sentiments that surround "Heimat" (in contrast to "Nation") as an essential component of German culture and personal identity. In addition to discussion of readings, course work will include vocabulary-building, weekly grammar review, and short written exercises. Materials will be available in a course pack designed for both sections. Several class sessions will be devoted to viewing of important films. Evaluation will be based on several short essays, three hourly exams, occasional quizzes, and participation and quality of contribution. The language of instruction is German. (Fries)

Section 005 Nation. This section will alternate weekly with its partner section ("Heimat"). While that section will focus on literature from German-speaking regions, we will explore in this one the writings of various philosophers, politicians, and other authors during the same 200-year period. Their writings are concerned with the question of what constitutes a nation-state and what, if anything, is "Germanness." The two sections together will play off the "personal" against the "political," and note the points in German history during which the one is subsumed by the other. Course requirements and materials are the same for both sections (i.e., weekly grammar review, short written exercises, film viewing, three hourly exams, occasional quizzes, and regular class attendance and participation). The final grade will be assigned by both instructors. The language of instruction is German. (Lutomski)

Section 006. This section will explore the "Ausländer-experience" in Germany starting with the influx into the then Bundesrepublik of foreign workers (Gastarbeiter) shortly after the end of WWII. We will examine the economic, geographic, social, political and cultural ramifications of this influx, with special emphasis on the resulting clash of cultures in Germany. These will be examined as they are presented by the Gastarbeiter and his family writing in German about their everyday life and experiences in Germany. We will be examining various genres and media presentations of the problem, such as prose, drama, film, poetry, music, newspaper and magazine articles, radio plays, and television. A look at post-Reunification developments in the "new" Bundesrepublic will round out the course. In addition to the readings and media activities, the student will write a number of essays and two short exams during this half of the term. The language of instruction is German. (Van Valkenburg)

236. Scientific German. German 231 or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 232. (4). (LR).

The purpose of this course is to provide basic practice in the reading and translation of texts primarily from the natural sciences. Course requirements include daily preparation and recitation. Students will also select and translate an outside article in their field. Quizzes are given in addition to a final exam. Texts supplied by instructor. Cost:1 WL:3 (Paslick)

325. Practice in Writing and Speaking German. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The sequence of German 325 and 326 is required for concentration in German. It is primarily intended to improve fluency and accuracy in written and spoken German. One hour each week is devoted to a systematic grammar review including translation from English to German. The remaining class time is devoted to German conversation based on readings and topics chosen at the discretion of the individual instructor. A German essay of one or two pages is assigned approximately every week. One or more five-minute oral presentations may be required. There are midterm and final examinations. Cost:2 WL:2

326. Practice in Writing and Speaking German. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See German 325.

351. Business German. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The course is designed to introduce students to the terminology and practices of procedures used in German business, industry, trade, banking and insurance and the journals, newspapers and reports covering their activities. The subjects covered range from advertising to financial transactions and reports. The course is a continuation of German 350 which is not a prerequisite to 351. The text will consist of readings from actual German business reports and transactions taken from journals, newspapers and professional journals and advertising. The emphasis in the course will be on banking, commerce and international trade. There will be a selected list of outside reading in English such as William Manchester's The Arms of Krupp and others. Cost:1 WL:4 (Fabian)

382. Nineteenth to Twentieth-Century Drama. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

The texts provide an introduction to German dramas of the 19th and 20th centuries. These dramas reflect not only the main literary but also the significant cultural and political trends of the period. In conjunction with German 381, 383, 384, or 385 this course can be taken in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a German concentration or for a German teaching major or minor. The emphasis is on the analysis of individual plays, but the instructor will include some biographical, literary and historical background. The texts are by Hauptmann, Schnitzler, Kaiser, Brecht, Durrenmatt and Frisch. The major language is German, but not exclusively. A term paper will be assigned. It may be in English. The final exam will consist of essay questions concerning the texts for the term. Cost:1 WL:2 (Cowen)

383. German Lyric Poetry. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course introduces students with a few years of the language to German lyric poetry, written from the age of Goethe to the present. We will use the latest edition of the anthology by Echtermeyer and von Wiese, Deutsche Gedichte and we will supplement it with mimeographed materials and (for Lieder settings) with records and tapes. During the first half of the term, we will learn the basic principles of metrics and traditional poetic forms. But the main purpose and the focus of the course is the comparative analysis and critical interpretation of selected poems. The possibilities as well as the limits of interpretation and evaluation will be established through discussions. We will also take a close look at some published translations and will attempt our own English versions. Method: Guided discussions (instructor will speak German, students have choice) and occasional background lectures. Student evaluation: Several short interpretative papers, a midterm and a final exam, all to be done in English on the basis of the German texts. (Seidler)

385. Short Fiction: Naturalism to the Present. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

The texts provide an introduction to German short stories and novellas of the twentieth century, from the periods before and between the world wars (Mann and Kafka) to recent prose fiction (Grass). In conjunction with German 381, 382, 383, or 384, this course can be taken in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a German concentration or for a German teaching major or minor. The emphasis is on the analysis of the individual works, but some historical and literary background material will be included. The texts read in recent terms were by Kafka, Mann, Musil, Boll, Durrenmatt and Grass. The major language is German, but not exclusively. Two short interpretive papers will be assigned for the term; they may be in English or German. The final exam will consist of essay questions concerning the texts for the term. Cost: 1 WL: 4 (Paslick)

426. Intermediate Composition and Conversation. German 325 and 326; or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

In this course various approaches will be used to improve the student's proficiency. Since only German is used in this class, it cannot be taken in fulfillment of the ECB requirement. Written assignments include a weekly composition of at least two pages. Occasionally students are required to listen to a tape on the history and culture of the German-speaking countries and to use it as a departure point for an essay. Video cassettes will also be integrated into the course. Each student is expected to give a brief presentation and lead the subsequent discussion. The final grade is based on compositions as well as class participation. German 426 may be taken independently of German 425. Cost:1 WL:Call the instructor at 663-9673. (Weiss)

453. German Classical Literature. One year beyond 232 or the equivalent, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course will consist of an intensive reading of works by Lessing, Goethe, Schiller, and Kleist. Readings will be drawn from several genres, including drama, lyric poetry, and theoretical essays. Necessary background material, including consideration of what "classical" means in the context of German literary history, will be presented via short lectures. The main body of the course, however, will be discussion of the primary works. There will be some reading in secondary literature, and two short papers will be required. There will be a final examination. The primary language of the class room will be German, but students may write their papers and the final examination in English. Cost:1 WL:4 (Crichton)

492. German Honors Proseminar. Senior Honors standing. (3). (Excl). May not be repeated for credit.

German 492 can be elected only by students who have completed the Senior Honors Proseminar, German 491. In German 492, students write their Honors thesis on a topic of their own selection. Each student works under the supervision of a faculty member who has a research interest in the general area of the thesis topic. The grade is based on the quality of the thesis, which will be read by at least one faculty member in addition to the thesis director, and on the student's performance in an oral defense of the thesis before a faculty committee. An Honors citation is also awarded if the student's overall performance in 491 and 492 is judged to be of Honors caliber. (Fries)

499. Seminar in German Studies. One year beyond 232 or the equivalent, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 German Nationhood and its Transformations, 1789-Present.
The making of the German national identity is a complex path with many historical stages. We will examine some of the ideas about nationhood and discuss their social and political context. The course is devoted to reading, analyzing, and comparing texts (in German; in case of longer ones only parts of them) written by German authors over the last 200 years that explicitly or implicitly refer to the idea of German nationhood. We will also read parts of books (most of them in English) from the fields of social history and political science that provide contextual and theoretical understanding of questions relating to construction of nationhood. Requirements: two take-home exams, 15-minute oral presentation, 10-page term paper. (Lutomski)

Section 002 Writing Home: Geographies of German Cultural Identity. This graduate seminar (open to qualified undergraduates with the permission of the instructors) will focus on the aesthetics of the German colonial period, and then concentrate on the contemporary "minority" literature produced in German on the representation of "double cultural identity." The seminar participants will undertake a critical analysis of literature relating to Africa and compare it with the German literature of emigration to North America (centering on the work of Ernst Henrici). Using historical and literary approaches to the culture of German colonialism and marginalized identity within a German-speaking context, the instructors hope to formulate an aesthetics of German colonial literature and so-called Ausländerliteratur (literature written in German by non-native speakers) with a focus on the construction of identity and the Heimat in Europe, Africa, and North America. The first part of the seminar will focus on texts of the colonial period, including works which thematize questions of race, gender, and ethnicity vis-à-vis identity); the second part will concentrate on theories of minority discourse in a German-speaking context, and the production of literature by non-German authors (among them Alev Tekinay, Emine Sevgi Özdamar, Rafik Schami, Yüksel Pazarkaya, Ismet Elci, and others). The seminar will be conducted in English and/or German. Students will be required to participate in discussion, prepare one oral presentation (in research groups or individually), and write one seminar paper due at the final meeting. All reading will be in German. (Simpson)

German Literature and Culture in English

Courses in this section do not require knowledge of German.

171/Hist. 171/Univeristy Courses 171. Coming to Terms with Germany. (4). (HU).

An interdisciplinary course on German history and culture, beginning with the present and working backwards to unification under Bismark. This attempt to "come to terms with the [German] past" will consider not only social and political history, but also the philosophy, literature, art, music, and culture of "everyday life" generally. (Amrine/Eley)

442. Faust and the Faust Legend in English Translation. Junior or senior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

No prerequisite. We will begin by tracing the earliest versions of the Faust legend from the late Classical "myth of the Magus" to the sixteenth-century chapbooks. The main focus of the course shall be however the four central texts of the tradition: Marlowe's Tragicall History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus, Goethe's Faust, A Tragedy (both Parts; tr. Arndt). Thomas Mann's Doctor Faustus: The Life of the German Composer Adrian Leverkuhn as Told by a Friend (tr. Lowe-Porter), and Mikhail Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita (tr. Glenny), and the fundamental theological, philosophical, aesthetic and social issues as they raise. No knowledge of German required (but German concentrators will be required to read Goethe and Mann in the original). May be used to fulfill, by petition, the Humanities distribution requirement. (Amrine)

445. Holocaust Literature in English Translation. Junior or senior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 German Antisemitism in English Translation.
This course will examine the ideas and events in German society, culture and history which can be identified as having contributed to the events known as the Holocaust. Relevant historical and cultural events of various periods as they reflect on this topic and are evidenced in literature, laws and community life will be identified. The time period to be covered extends from the Roman period of German history with its archaeological and anthropological evidence of Jewish life during that period through the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Enlightenment to modern times. Events covered will be the effect of the Crusades on Jewish community life and Christian-Jewish relationships along with the role of the Church and its theological edicts. This will be followed by the events of the Middle Ages and the exodus of both German and Jewish communities to the Slavic lands and the role of the Ghetto in preserving medieval German customs in the form of clothing, names and above all language in the form of Yiddish with its clearly Germanic roots. The period of German Humanism will focus on the writings of men such as Erasmus, Reuchlin, Pirkheimer, Melanthron and Luther and the effect of including Hebrew as one of learned languages of that age with the resulting intellectual contact, while maintaining exclusion and persecution on the cultural and community level. The period of the Enlightenment with its emerging bourgeoisie energy and its emphasis on tolerance will include the writing of figures such as Henrietta Herz, Rachel Levine Varnhagen, Dorothea Schlegel and Moses Mendelsohn who pioneered in leading their co-religionists into what appeared to be the main stream of German culture, society and intellectual life. The last period covered will be the era following the founding of the German culture, society and intellectual life. The last period covered will be the era following the founding of the German empire in 1871 and will trace the course of seemingly continuing emancipation and its parallel rise of a new form of anti-Semitism. The origin and effect of the racial basis of anti-Semitism as found in the writings of Paul de Lagarde, Moeller van den Bruck, Erwin Mohler and the racial edicts of National Socialism during the 1933-42 period will constitute the concluding part of the course. The course will not deal with the actual events of the Holocaust as such. (Fabian)

449. Special Topics in English Translation. Junior or senior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001 Evil in Medieval Literature.
The course will direct its attention not only to evil words and evil deeds but also to evil intentions and to the philosophical issue of EVIL in this world. Up to the 13th century, these aspects play an important role in most, if not all, narrative works in Europe. They are also addressed in medieval drama and in some lyrical works. Among the readings will be examples of heroic works, of mock epic, animal epic, Arthurian romance, 10th century drama, saints' legend, novella, religious and didactic verse, and love lyric. After a general introduction on medieval values, and in combination with class presentations by students, the emphasis will be on discussion. The course is open to students from all fields, and no knowledge of a foreign language is required. Texts to be bought come in the form of a course pack and two paperbacks (Penguin Classics: Tristan by Gottfried von Strassburg and the Nibelungenlied ). There will be a midterm, an oral presentation, and a term paper. Cost:1-2 WL:4 (Scholler)

Scandinavian Courses (Division 471)

First and second year SWEDISH (Swedish 104, 234) will be offered Winter Term, 1994. Taught by a lecturer from Sweden, an experienced language teacher, Swedish can be used to meet the LS&A language requirement. The program also has a third-year advanced seminar for students with proficiency in Swedish. It is Scand. 430, Colloquium in Scandinavian Literature.

Any students who would like to concentrate in Scandinavian Studies must complete two years of Swedish. Second-year proficiency in Swedish is recommended to participate in the University of Michigan exchange program with the University of Uppsala, Sweden. For further information, contact
Marion Marzolf, Program Director
3315 MLB
(747-0408).

104. Elementary Swedish. Swedish 103. (4). (LR).

Second-term Swedish is intended for students with a previous knowledge of Swedish, up to a level of Swedish 103. The emphasis is placed on developing communicative language skills, both written and oral, review and extension of basic grammar. Oral, written and listening exercises will be employed in the classroom and the language lab. The textbook will be supplemented by newspaper articles, radio news, some Swedish poems, etc. The instruction will principally be in Swedish. Students are evaluated on the basis of examinations and class participation. Students needing Swedish 103 or the equivalent for entry into 104 can meet this prerequisite by passing an examination by the instructor. Cost:2 WL:4 (Olvegård)

234. Second-Year Swedish. Swedish 233. (4). (LR).

Fourth-term Swedish is intended for students with a previous knowledge of Swedish up to a level of Swedish 233. The emphasis is placed on further developing on both oral and written communicative language skills, review and extension of Swedish grammar, Swedish literature and Swedish civics (history, politics, traditions, etc.). Extracts from Swedish novels, poems, newspaper articles, and documentary articles will be used. Oral, written, and listening exercises will be employed. All instruction will be in Swedish. Students are evaluated on the basis of examinations and class participation. Students needing Swedish 233 or the equivalent for entry into 234 can meet this prerequisite by passing an examination by the instructor. Cost:1 WL:4 (Olvegård)

430. Colloquium in Scandinavian Literature. Reading knowledge of Swedish. (3). (Excl). May be elected twice for credit.

For students with two years of Swedish (Elementary and Second-Year Swedish) or the equivalent. All writing, reading and talking will be in Swedish. At the end of the course the students will have a better understanding of Sweden in many different aspects: culture, history, politics, social life, etc. Authentic Swedish texts will be used as a bases for oral and written analyses and for classroom discussions. Grades will be based on class participation, written assignment and oral presentations. The teacher is a native speaker from Sweden. Cost:1 (Olvegård)

421. Modern Scandinavian Literature in English. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Modern Scandinavian Drama.
During the twentieth century, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden have had one of the most thriving theatre scenes in the world. Considering the relatively small populations, the sheer number of theaters and productions is unequaled anywhere in the world. Modern Scandinavian drama begins, of course, with the monumental achievements of Ibsen and Strindberg, whose plays are still regularly revived. The coruse will start with plays such as Ibsen's A Doll's House and The Wild Duck and Strindberg's Miss Julie and The Dream Play, arguably the single most important play in the Scandinavian theatre. Other playwrights to be studied will include some of the name from this list: Lagerkvist, Björnson, Hamsum, Heiberg, Bergman, Munk, Abell, Grieg, Ryom, Panuro, and Enquist, as well as other contemporary writers. We will also trace the continuing influence of the three national theatres, the importance of regional theatres, and the rise of commercial theatres, the growing children's theatres, and the free (experimental) theatres, such as the internationally famous Odin theater. The role of the unusually high public funding will also be discussed. There will be a brief foray into the high quality television and radio theatre. The course should be of interest to students of Scandinavian studies, German, English, comparative literature, and theater. All texts will be available in English. (Herold)


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