Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course explores European history from the Enlightenment through the Second World War (1715-1945). While structured around the "turning points" of modern European history French Revolution, Napoleonic Wars, industrial revolution, 1848 revolutions, age of nation states, World War I, fascism and Nazism, and World War II it also explores the social, economic, cultural and political aspects of these transformations. Students will learn, for example, about liberalism, Marxism, and nationalism through texts of those who shaped these ideologies; through testimony of those whose lives were transformed by them; and through the scholarly works of historians. Course readings include a lively and varied selection of primary sources (transcripts of the trial of the king during the French Revolution; soldiers' letters from the trenches of World War I; excerpts from classics by Rousseau, JS Mill, Marx and Engels, and Nietzsche), historical novels by Dickens and Turgenev, and works by first-rate historians of Europe. There are two lectures and two discussion sections weekly. We emphasize critical and creative interpretation of lectures and reading materials in class discussions and in written work (midterm and final exams and two 3-5 page papers). Accompanying this course is an optional film series. Students will be able to receive one extra credit for attending this film series. Cost:3 WL:1 (Canning)

112. Modern Europe Film Series. Concurrent enrollment in Hist. 111. (1). (Excl).

History 112 is a one-credit optional course appended to History 111 for students who are concurrently enrolled in History 111. Students will view six films during the term, each of which expands upon the themes addressed in the lectures and readings of History 111. Proposed films include: Madame Bovary, Burn, All Quiet on the Western Front, Metropolis, The Wannsee Conference, and Nasty Girl. The aim of this film series is to make European history more tangible and to help develop critical and interpretive skills through the discussion and debates following the film showings. In addition to attending the film showings and participating in the discussion that follow, students will complete one 7-10 page paper for History 112. (Canning)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 122. (Murphey)

152/Asian Studies 112. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).

Southeast Asia is one of the world's most culturally diverse regions, home to Buddhist, Muslim, Confucian, and Christian civilizations. It boasts ancient monuments of surpassing grandeur and symbolic complexity. It was the scene of the bloodiest conflict since 1945, the Vietnam War. Today it has the world's fastest growing regional economy and is an area of mounting importance to Japan as well as the United States. This course offers an introduction (and thus assumes no prior knowledge) to Southeast Asian history from the earliest civilizations, through the colonial conquest, the indigenous political reaction of which Vietnamese Communism and the Vietnam Wars were one expression and the contemporary economic explosion. The course seeks to define Southeast Asia's uniqueness as well as its evolving ties to the rest of the world. Midterm, final, and optional paper. Two lectures, one section per week. (Lieberman)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

A survey of early American history from the period of initial colonization through the Civil War. The course will be organized around the interactions of the three dominant cultures which came together in early America: Native American, European, and African. We will explore the internal dynamics of each culture (family life, religious beliefs, political system, labor arrangements, gender roles) and how the clash of cultures shaped the experience of Americans in the colonial and national periods. Specific topics will include the problems of forming communities in an alien environment, the transition to slave labor and the origins of an African-American society, the American Revolution and the creation of the republic, the emergence of sectionalism, and the impact of early industrialism. Students will attend two lectures and two section meetings each week, and read a series of monographs and primary documents. A midterm, final exam, and written assignment are required. Cost:2 (Juster)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

Can a market economy support a moral community? Can a society divided along the lines of class, ethnicity, race and gender develop a unifying national citizenship and ideology? Can a nation with abundant resources distribute them fairly at home and deploy them humanely abroad? Can American politics be democratic, efficient, and meaningful? These are the questions that Americans have wrestled with since 1865 and these are the themes that we will follow through this survey of American social, cultural, and political history. Students will attend two lectures and two section meetings each week, take midterm and final examinations, and write an account of how their lives and those of their families have encountered modern American history. Readings will include a textbook and about half a dozen other paperbacks, including novels, autobiographies, and synthetic overviews of aspects of modern American history. Cost:4 WL:1 (McDonald)

171/German 171/Univeristy Courses 171. Coming to Terms with Germany. (4). (HU).

See German 171. (Eley, Amrine)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).
Section 001 The Roman Empire and its Heirs.
A survey of Roman history from the consolidation of the Roman empire in the first century B.C. to the rise of its political heirs in the Mediterranean world in the eighth century A.D. Topics to be discussed include Rome's overseas expansion; the administration of a large empire; the impact of Christianity; the conversion of Constantine; heresy and the imposition of orthodoxy; barbarian kingdoms; Justinian's reconquest; the rise of Islam; and the coronation of Charlemagne as a revived Roman emperor. Readings will include many ancient texts in translation and some modern scholarship. Classes will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussions led by TAs. Final grade is based on two tests, frequent written exercises, and participation in discussions. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. Cost:1, maybe 2 WL:1 (Van Dam)

211/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. (3). (SS).

This course will study the institutional, economic, and intellectual development of Europe from the time of the Crusades, when contact with the East were reestablished, to the discovery of the New World, when European expansion moved west over the Atlantic. Some important themes will be the nature of kingship and representative institutions; patterns of urban, economic, and demographic growth; and movements in religious and intellectual life. Some specific topics to be covered include the demands of the secular world for greater religious experience; definitions of orthodoxy and the development of the Inquisition; scholastic thought and Western creativity; feudalism, chivalry, and the Hundred Years War; the Black Death and a fascination with the macabre. Modern interpretations of the period will be supplemented with readings from contemporary documents (chronicles, romances, poetry, sermons, etc.). In addition to a midterm and a final examination, students will write a paper. This is a lecture course, but some periods will be reserved for discussion. WL:2 (Hughes)

216. War and Society in the 20th Century: World War I. (3). (Excl).

World War I the Great War is not only a shaping event in modern history but in the Western consciousness of war itself. As a war involving whole populations, not just military forces, as a war of attrition that no longer measured battles in familiar chronological or territorial terms, as a war fought with technologies that mocked heroic impulse, it raised profound questions about a previously honored if feared activity. In brief, it revived an old question: "Is War Evil?" This course will, therefore, concentrate on how the Great War raised and answered this question, but it will also look at how war has been valued in the West before 1914, and at how another World War (1939-45) would require yet a new appraisal of this "peculiarly human activity." In a century defined by war, real or imagined, the questions of its "evil" takes on a special importance. And World War I is the context crucial to consider. (Marwil)

221. Survey of British History from 1688. (4). (SS).

This lecture course covers the history of Britain in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Topics include: British society and politics in the 18th century; 18th century economic and cultural change; industrialization and the making of modern class identities; the impact of the French revolution on British politics; regional differences and the histories of Scotland and Wales; the "Irish question" in the 19th and 20th centuries; the development of working class politics; Liberalism, Conservatism, and the emergence of Labour politics; gender and the activities and ideas of women; sexuality in the 19th and 20th centuries; imperialism, science, and the ideas about race; the position and activities of Blacks and Asians in Britain; social and cultural modernity; the impact of the two world wars; Britain in the post-colonial era; British-American relations; youth in Britain in the post-war era; the sixties and seventies; Thatcherism; and contemporary British social, political, and cultural movements. Assignments will include several short papers; sections; and a take-home final. No special background is required, but familiarity with modern European history would be very useful. Readings will include both primary and secondary materials and both historical and literary sources. Cost:2 WL:4 (Israel)

265. A History of the University of Michigan. (3). (HU).

The University of Michigan has been a leader in shaping the modern American university. The course will examine this heritage and history from the perspectives of students, faculty, fields of study, administration, etc. It will explore the factors that have shaped the University and place it within the larger social, political, national, and international context. The only prerequisite is an interest in your University and its place in history. Presentation will be through lectures with slides. Grading will be based on essay/objective exams; term project or research paper; photo quiz to acquaint students with central campus, its architecture and embellishment. Readings will be from a course pack and 2 or 3 required texts. Cost:2 WL:1 (Steneck,Steneck)

275/CAAS 231. Survey of Afro-American History II. (3). (SS).

See CAAS 231. (Patterson)

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (3). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. The course will study four different historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Native Americans, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries; and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. We will focus on American history, although comparisons will be drawn to other societies. The course is a basic introduction, however, first-year students must obtain permission of the professor to enroll. Classes are taught in lecture format, and will include a variety of audio-visual sources. Reading assignments will range from modern histories to poetry and old medical journals. There will be two essay-style examinations, and frequent short quizzes. This is a challenging and demanding course. Those who miss the first meeting without advance permission will be dropped from the course. Cost:1-4. Required purchases cost $15, but additional required reading assignments, available on reserve or for optional purchase, cost up to $110 additional if bought. WL:4 (Pernick)

286/Religion 286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (3). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all majors, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantines' conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic & Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the llth century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Attention is also given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam and a final are required. (J. Fine)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

319. Europe Since 1945. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is to provide a comprehensive critical introduction to European society, culture and politics since the Second World War. Lectures and readings will cover both Eastern and Western Europe, the international arena and the national histories of particular countries, and social and cultural life as well as political developments. The course aims to explore the shaping of the contemporary world and to introduce students to societies and political cultures which are both structurally similar and fundamentally different from their own. Instruction will be via lectures and ad hoc discussion, evaluation via midterm exam and end of term essay. No special background is required; prejudices and preconceptions about European societies are enough. Cost:3-4 WL:2 (Eley)

333/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of East Central Europe. (4). (SS).

See Russian and Eastern European Studies 396. (Gitelman)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

The wars of this century have been important experiences both for American society and for millions of individual Americans. This course examines those wars through literature, histories, films, lectures, and discussions in order to find patterns of change: changes in how America fights wars and changes in the society that results from them. It also examines changes in the personal perceptions of the experience of war: perceptions not only of the combat soldiers but also of the many others affected by wars. Among the readings are Gray, The Warriors, March, Company K, Sledge, With the Old Breed, and O'Brien, The Things They Carried. There will be a midterm and a final exam. Please register for only ONE lecture section and one discussion section. Cost:4 WL:1 (Collier)

370/Women's Studies 370. Women in American History to 1870. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the history of American women as a group, as individuals, and as members of different classes, and racial, regional and ethnic communities. Using work, politics, and sexuality as organizing concepts, it focuses particularly on the significance of gender in determining women's experiences from the early seventeenth century to 1870. Special attention is paid to initial and continuing encounters of Native Americans, Euro-Americans, and African-Americans; to evolving constructions of "womanhood" and their significance for different groups of women; to the meaning of religious movements, wars, economic transformations, and demographic shifts for women's individual and collective efforts to determine the course of their own histories. (Karlsen)

371/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine how social constructions of gender, race, class, and sexuality have shaped women's lives in the U.S. from the Civil War to the present, and how some women have pushed at the boundaries of those constructions through, for example, changing patterns of work, leisure, education, and intimacy; through political activism; through labor organizing; through involvement in a variety of social movements; and through popular culture. We will emphasize the diversity of women's historical experiences by region as well as by social category, and will situate those experiences in the larger contexts of social, economic, and political change on local, national, and even global levels. Requirements include a midterm, a final, and a paper, as well as active participation in discussion sections. Films will be shown. Cost:2 WL:4 (Johnson)

376/Amer. Cult. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (Excl).

See American Culture 372. (Robinson)

382. History of the Jews from the Spanish Expulsion to the Eve of Enlightenment. (3). (Excl).

This course will survey major trends in Jewish history from the break-up of the medieval order to the emergence of a new order in eighteenth-century Europe. The unifying theme will be the emergence and spread of Lurianic Kabbalah within Jewish society, culminating in the Sabbatian movement and the rise of Hassidism in Eastern Europe. The course deals with three broad episodes: the dispersion of the Spanish exiles and the rise of new communities in the Mediterranean; the impact on European Jewry of the Reformation, the Counter-Reformation and the rise of the Atlantic states; and the rise of Eastern European Jewry. Requirements for the course: midterm and final exams, term paper. (Bodian)

386. The Holocaust. (4). (Excl).

This course will attempt to answer some of the most vexing historical problems surrounding the Nazi regime's systematic extermination of six million Jews during World War II. For example: What role did Christian hostility to Judaism play in the growth of genocidal racism in Germany? How did German political traditions prepare the way for Nazi authoritarianism? Why did the German people acquiesce in the Nazi program of mass murder? Why did the American and British governments refuse to come to the aid of European Jews? How did European Jews behave in crisis and extremity? Was the Holocaust "unique"? There will be a midterm, a paper of 10 to 15 pages, and a comprehensive final. Cost:2 WL:1 (Endelman)

389. War Since the Eighteenth Century. (3). (Excl).

This course deals with the war and military organization in Europe and North America since the beginnings of modern states (about 1500). It emphasizes the more recent period, from just before the 18th-century American and French Revolutions to the present time. Its focus is on the interaction of warfare - a changing set of techniques and technologies with the broader political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects of war. Attention is also given to particular military campaigns and battles, but mainly to make clear the technical aspects of war and to illustrate important trends and patterns. The approach of the course is comparative, between the differing histories of nation-states, and between the divergent military experience of Europe and North America. The aim of the course is to explore the central role played by war in the history of the modern, Western world. Three weekly lectures, with readings discussed at Friday's lecture; hour exam and two-hour final, optional term paper, and occasional in-class written exercises. Paul Kennedy, Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, and Russell Weigley, American Way of War, are the main books, supplemented by other books; reading assignments are fairly heavy. Cost:2 WL:3 (Shy)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators needing ECB requirement and by override only. Apply for overrides at 4633 Haven Hall Monday, Nov. 8 from 4-6 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meeting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 The Church and the Jews. The course will examine the complex relationship between the Western Church and the Jews, from the time of the Church Fathers. It will analyze ideas and policies regarding Jews as expressed in different realms, from theology and canon law to church art and popular preaching. It will also attempt to survey the factors which led to striking changes in church attitudes and policy, with emphasis on the interplay of the theological legacy and evolving realities. A term paper is required. (Bodian)

Section 002 Anglo-Saxon Ethnologies. This course will examine ideas developed by British and Anglo-American peoples (the Anglo-Saxons of the title) about the relations among nations or races of the world (ethnologies). We will concentrate on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and ethnologies of peoples most affected by British and American expansion during that time: those of India, Native Americans, and African Americans. We consider both the politics of this ethnological knowledge, and its technical and substantive content. This is a small, seminar-type course in which students can expect lots of readings for discussion in class, two papers (a short essay and a research paper), and oral presentation to the class of their chosen topic of research. (Trautmann)

Section 003 Political Culture in Britain and France, C. 1750-1850. Politics broadly conceived has recently had a major historical comeback, reflecting the drive to fuse together the methods and findings of social, anthropological and cultural history, and to return the study of power to center stage. The course introduces fresh approaches to political culture through the study of France and Britain, two nations that had always seen each other as a political "Other," and never more so than during their diverging political paths in the Age of Revolutions. Topics of discussion will include: the politics of class formation, political symbols and rituals, forms of political resistance, royalty and loyalty, the role of language in politics, politics and theater, the making of a public sphere, the political uses of sex, the gendered construction of politics and the political construction of gender. (Wahrman)

Section 004 Athenian Democracy. An examination of the world's first democracy. Following a brief review of Athenian history from 594 to 323 B.C., topics will include: (a) democratic institutions, such as the assembly, council, lawcourts, allotment (rather than election) of most pubic officials, ostracism and comedy; (b) the significance of citizenship and the roles of women, foreigners and slaves; (c) the assessments both favorable and hostile of contemporary writers and later political theorists; and (d) a comparison of Athenian and American democracy. Readings from such authors as Herodotus, Thucydides, Aristophanes, Plato, Demosthenes, Aristotle, Plutarch, Polybius, Cicero, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson and Karl Marx; examination also of inscriptions, coins, ballots and other archaeological remains. No prerequisites. One weekly two-hour discussion meeting and 2-3 papers totalling at least 30 pages. Cost:2 WL:2 (Loomis)

Section 005 The Immigrant Experience in America. The course is designed to explore the personal and collective experience of immigrants arriving in the United States during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In successive weeks the focus will fall on such groups as the Irish, Jewish, Polish, Italian, Japanese, Chinese, Armenian and Puerto Rican. Categories of special interest will include immigrant expectation and adaptation; the tension between ethnic exclusiveness and assimilation; the fit of the immigrant within the new city and its politics; native-born reactions; and the condition of ethnicity in contemporary America. One or more meetings may offer films or may call on members of local ethnic communities to convey particular ethnic patterns. Tentative marking requirements include vigorous class discussion and several analytical essays. The course does not form part of a Departmental sequence, nor do special background or prerequisite courses have any bearing on its successful completion. (Linderman)

Section 006 Michigan in the Era of Industrialization. This course will focus on the period in Michigan history from 1880-1920. It will examine several themes in that period including immigration, industrialization, settlement patterns, etc. A general familiarity with United States history is required. History colloquia are conducted in the seminar format and are limited to a small number of students. As a result, emphasis is placed on student participation in discussions. Each student will be required to write a major research paper that will draw on the resources of the Bentley Historical Library, which contains original manuscripts and archives relating to the history of the state. The course provides an opportunity for students to gain familiarity with a critical period in the industrial and social history of the U.S. and to do original historical research. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, class discussion, and a seminar paper. Cost:2 WL:2 (Blouin)

Section 007 Language and Knowledge in the 19th Century. This course is an exploration in a mostly underwritten chapter of trans-Atlantic intellectual history. We will investigate the role that ideas about language played in conceptions of knowledge during the nineteenth century. Readings will come mostly from primary sources and will be biased toward American materials. Students will write a substantial research paper. The grade will be based on both the writing and contributions to class discussion. Cost:2 WL:5. Get override at Dept. office. (Turner)

Section 008 Memory and Identity in Twentieth-Century United States. This course will look at how memory and the narratives that spring from memory oral, written, and visual interpreted U.S. history and shaped responses to new social events. We will study how memory and identity are themselves changing historical categories, the products of historical events and often of conscious human decisions. We will discuss how conceptions of national identity have related to changing rituals of public memory. At the same time, the class will examine the ways various groups within the United States have constructed and maintained their own sense of distinctive identity, while often proposing competing descriptions of U.S. national identity. Reading and discussion will be both theoretical and practical. Students will conduct original research and present conclusions in a thirty-page paper that relates their work to ongoing scholarship. As this is an intensive writing course, the paper will be presented first in draft form and then revised. Cost:3 WL:1 (Cándida Smith)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators and by override only. Apply for overrides at 4633 Haven Hall Monday, Nov. 8 from 4-6 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 American Wars: World War II. The course asks whether it is possible to find in varieties of experience, 1939-1945, conflicting social values that might help to explain the patterns in which the war was fought in the European and Pacific theaters. Readings will range from the memoirs of American, German and Japanese soldiers in combat to the accounts of women and children on the homefronts. Of particular concern will be childhood training, relationships between individuals and their governments, attitudes towards military establishments, methods of wartime mobilization, the construction of images of the enemy and the consequences of actual contacts with the enemy in and after battle. The course grade will be based on the quality of class discussion and of several extensive analytical papers. (Linderman)

Section 002 Early Childhood Education, the Family and the Schools. This is a small undergraduate studies course in which students will examine American early childhood education from an historical perspective (enrollment will be limited to 15 students). The course will start with an examination of attitudes toward early childhood education in colonial America and conclude with a review of policy options for early education today. Institutions such as infant schools, kindergartens, and Head Start will be analyzed. Students will read critically appropriate secondary works about early childhood education and discuss them during class meetings. Changing attitudes and practices toward early childhood education will be placed within the context of the changing roles of the family and the schools in the training of the young. Each student will write a 10-15 page original research paper on early education. Grading in the course will be based upon a midterm examination, a final examination, the 10-15 page research paper, and class participation. (Vinovskis)

Section 003 Modern Visions of Ancient Greece. This discussion-based seminar course explores varying ways in which ancient Greece has been imagined and interpreted by modern people, especially in Victorian Britain and the contemporary U.S. We will examine the ways in which representations of Greek history and culture reveal the concerns and preoccupations of modern people, and we will consider how ancient Greece's status in Western culture as a source and model has been first constructed and then reconstructed in light of changing concerns about art, class, race, empire, gender, and sexuality. Readings may include recent works like Frank Turner's The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain, contemporary debates about the meaning of male-male sexual activity in ancient Greece, feminist writings about women in classical Greece, and modern novels set in ancient Greece, as well as 19th century sources like Samuel Butler's argument that Homer was a woman, Jane Harrison's matriarchalist theories, stories and essays by E.M. Forster and Walter Pater, and poetic revisions of ancient Greek myths and histories. We will conclude with a reading of the first volume of Martin Bernal's Black Athena and an examination of the debate about Bernal's thesis, attempting to understand and place in context both Bernal's claims and those of his critics. Students will write a long research paper on a topic of their choice. The course will not assume any previous knowledge about either ancient Greece or Victorian Britain. (Israel)

Section 004 Tradition, Development, Nationalism, and War in Twentieth Century Asia. For Winter Term, 1994, this section is jointly offered with Asian Studies 381. (Murphey)

Section 005 The African American Experience in South Africa. This course seeks to provide an introduction to the history of the African American Experience in South Africa. Our focus will be on the ideological, religious, cultural and political ties that have informed African American and Black South African relations from the nineteenth century to c. 1970s. The format is that of a seminar; all students are expected to participate in discussion. (Atkins)

398. Honors Colloquium, Junior. Honors students and junior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course is a methods seminar required of juniors who are members of the History Department Honors Program. It is not available for general enrollment. [Cost: 1] [WL: 5] Must be admitted by letter from Honors Committe. (Steneck/Lindner)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. Cost: 1 WL: 5 Must be admitted. (Hughes)

432. Russia to Peter the Great. (3). (Excl).

Since medieval times, Westerners have brought back tales of exoticism and barbarism from Russia to their homelands, but few have taken the time to understand the nature of Russian society and culture. This course attempts to examine early Russian society in its own terms, while also studying the historiographic tradition and the issues at stake for the various historians of the field. The course spans the history of Russia from the ninth century, when written records begin, to Peter the Great at the end of the seventeenth century. Topics include the formation of the Russian state, the conversion to Orthodox Christianity, the invasion of the Mongol horde, and the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The course emphasizes interpretive issues, historiographic debates and questions of historical method. Class sessions will combine lecture and discussion. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two short papers (5-7 pages), a midterm and a final exam. There are no prerequisites. Cost:3 WL:4 (Kivelson)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of fifteen independent republics, the experience of Communism in Russia and Eastern Europe is being rethought as if the seeds of destruction had been planted already in the revolution. This course looks at the complex evolution of political structures, social developments, and cultural responses during the 70 years of the Soviet system. Beginning with the prerevolutionary crises and political movements, it surveys the rise of Stalin, the building of a "totalitarian" state, and the successive reforms that ultimately unraveled the system. The history of Russians is examined along with that of many non-Russian peoples. Students are required to attend two lectures and one discussion section each week, write a research paper, and take two take-home examinations (midterm and final). (Suny)

439. Eastern Europe Since 1900. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys the 20th century history of Eastern Europe in a broader European context. Eastern Europe (or East-Central Europe) is a key to the understanding of contemporary history, as most political movements, ideologies, cultural trends, and wars of our time originated in this area. The course focuses on the countries between Germany and Russia, mainly on Poland, Czecho-Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, but also on Bulgaria, Albania, former Yugoslavia, and the former Soviet republics of Moldova, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Topics include: the description of Eastern Europe (symbolic geography and geopolitics, from Mitteleuropa to the fall of the Iron Curtain); empires vs. nation-states: the failure of political identity; states, societies, and individuals: elites, intelligentsias, state bureaucracies, 'working classes', and 'new men'; religion, culture, and politics; Socialism, Nationalism, Fascism, and Communism; the two world wars and their consequences; the Other Europe: a synthetic history of the Soviet bloc, from 1945 to the early 1990s. Requirements: one midterm, one final, two essay; a list of readings; and initiative. Some knowledge of one of the languages spoken in the area would be highly appreciated. (Antohi)

443/GNE 474. Modern Middle East History. (3). (Excl).

This course deals with the modern history of the Arab World since the beginning of the nineteenth century. It discusses the decline of the Ottoman hegemony in the area and the rise of European imperialism. We will then look at colonialism in the Arab World (e.g., Algeria), the attempts at modernization (e.g., Egypt and Tunisia) and local responses. The second part of the course will examine the emergence and formation of national states in the area since WWI. Special attention will be given to nationalist movements and the struggle for independence. The last part of the course looks at the rise of socialist and Pan-Arab ideologies as well as opposing ideologies such as Islamic revivalism after WWII. In this part we will examine the main challenges facing the Arab countries such as development, democracy, the impact of petroleum, the Palestinian issue, Western Sahara Conflict, the Lebanese Civil War, and the Gulf Crisis. Students are required to take one midterm examination and to write a final paper (10-15 pages). (Aafif)

448/CAAS 448. Africa Since 1850. (3). (SS).

This is the second of a two sequence lecture course designed to introduce students to central themes in Sub-Saharan African history from 1850 to the present. It will deal with such issues as the abolition of the slave trade, the rise of legitimate commerce, European penetration and imperial systems, physical confrontation, colonial subjugation, underdevelopment, nationalism and decolonisation. Cost:4 (Atkins)

451. Japan Since 1800. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is W.G. Beasly, The Rise of Modern Japan (St. Martin's Press, 1990). Other reading assignments will be organized in a course pack. Cost:3 WL:1 (Large)

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; the 1980s and the Reagan presidency; and the presidencies of Bush and Clinton. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Cost:3 WL:4, a student may also visit the faculty office to see about getting on a Waitlist into the course. (S.Fine)

477. Latin America: The National Period. (4). (SS).

This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the present. The approach is both thematic and chronological, focusing on: (1) the colonial heritage, political independence, and the development of new forms of political rule; (2) agrarian transformations and labor systems (slavery, wage labor, peasant cultivation, peonage); (3) urban growth and industrialization; (4) nationalism and struggles to define national cultures; (5) the social construction of racial, ethnic, and gender identities; (6) revolutionary movements and military responses; and (6) international relations. Selected regions will be discussed under each topic, with particular emphasis on Haiti, Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, the Andes and Central America. Requirements include a book review, a longer essay, a midterm, and a final. Texts include Skidmore and Smith, Modern Latin America, selected novels and historical and anthropological monographs, and a course pack including articles and documents. The course format is lecture/discussion. Cost:4 WL:1 (Caulfield)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (Excl).

See Economics 491. (Levenstein)

494/Econ. 494. Topics in Economic History. Econ. 201 and 202. (3). (Excl).

See Economics 494. (Dye)

A course number in the 500s does not indicate a more difficult or advanced course than one in the 400s.

508. Magic, Religion and Science in Early Modern England. Hist. 220 and junior standing are recommended. (3). (Excl).

The mental world of men and women in the early modern age (1500-1800) was very different from ours. Magical beliefs suffused the thinking of ordinary people in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; religion was a matter of urgent importance and political struggle for people of all classes. By tracing the intertwined histories of magic and religion in this period one can follow the evolution of most important elements of popular culture. This course does just that, and shows that there were profound shifts in beliefs. It follows the fortunes of official religion, asking how deeply and how quickly the Reformation transformed the religion of ordinary people, and analyzes clerical hostility to magic, focusing on magical healing, astrology, alchemy, and witchcraft. Finally, it will consider the causes and cultural meaning of the rise of science, exploring both the ways in which magic fostered science and ultimately came to be defined as antithetical to it. The course does not presuppose a background in English history, but students should be broadly familiar with the major European cultural movements in this period - the Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment. (MacDonald)

517. History of Ireland Since 1603. (3). (HU).

A narrative history of modern Ireland from the time of the collapse of Gaelic culture at the Tudor conquest until the present. Lectures will treat aspects of cultural and social as well as political history. The main texts will be Moody and Martin, The Course of Irish History, and R.F. Foster's Modern Ireland 1600-1972. Course work will include a sequence of periodic brief quizzes, one term paper, a final examination. There is no course prerequisite and no prior knowledge of Ireland is required. Cost:2 WL:1 (McNamara)

521. Germany Since 1870. (3). (Excl).
Modern Germany, 1914-1990.
This course examines German history from the collapse of the Wilhelmine Empire in World War One to the 1990 unification of East and West Germany. We focus on three areas. First, we examine the institutions and state organization of constitutional monarchy, republic, Nazi dictatorship, the West German capitalist republic, and the East German state socialist republic. Second, we examine changes in society and economy. Finally, we examine intellectual and cultural trends: rejection of the Republic, Nazi culture, and attempts to come to terms with Nazism in East and West Germany. There are no formal prerequisites, but some knowledge of European history is assumed. Assignment: midterm, final, and a substantial term paper. Cost:3 WL:3 (Caldwell)

523. France, 1661-1789. (3). (Excl).

A study of the French Old Regime and the causes of the first great revolution of the modern era. The course undertakes a selective examination through lectures of certain problems and themes the feudal background, state-building and its social consequences, the corporatist society, the aristocratic resurgence or reaction, the Enlightenment, and the meaning and limits of reform. In these lectures several questions are posed: what did the revolution change? why did large-scale revolutions take place in France rather than elsewhere in Europe? why did revolution come when it did? in what senses was revolution inevitable? accidental? Comprehensive coverage and narrative treatment of the period are obtained through the readings. (Bien)

531. History of the Balkans Since 1800. (3). (Excl).

History 531 is a lecture course which surveys the history of the modern Balkans the area which consists of the ex-Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania from roughly 1800 to the present. There are no pre-requisites nor required background. Interested freshman should feel welcome. Grading is based on: one hour exam, a one-hour written exam, writing on one essay question out of about four, one course paper (approximately 15 pages, topic according to student interest but cleared with instructor) and a written final exam (2 essay questions to be chosen from a list of about 8 questions). Major issues to be covered are: liberation movements of the Serbs and Greeks from the Ottomans, development of their two states, the crisis of 1875-78 with international involvement ending with the Treaty of Berlin, Croatia and Bosnia under the Habsburgs, the development of Bulgaria after 1878, the Macedonia problem, terrorist societies, World War I, the formation of Yugoslavia, nationality problems in Yugoslavia between the Wars, German penetration and the rise of dictatorships in the inter-war Balkans, World War II with Yugoslav and Greek resistance movements (including the Greek Civil War), Tito's Yugoslavia, its 1948 break with the USSR and Yugoslavia's special path to socialism. Cost:3 WL:4 (J. Fine)

538. The Ottoman Enterprise. History 110 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course covers the history of the Near East from the arrival of the Turks in Asia Minor in the eleventh century to the heyday of Ottoman rule in the seventeeth century. In addition to the central area, we will also look at some topics in the history of Inner Asia and Iran insofar as they affected the Mediterranean. Among special subjects treated are: nomadic society in history, the Mongols in the Near East, the end of the Byzantine Empire, the growth and spread of Turkish culture, the economic history of the Mediterranean in the age of discovery, the conquest and governance of the Balkans in the age of the Renaissance and Reformation, the comparative social history of town and countryside, and like subjects. Classes will consist of lectures and discussions of the required readings (drawn from contemporary sources, for the most part). Undergraduates will be required to take two exams and prepare a book report on a topic to be chosen in consultation with the instructor. (Lindner)

559. U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (3). (Excl).

This course examines American diplomacy since the outbreak of World War I. Major topics include entry into and participation in the two World Wars, the origins and development of the Cold War, the war in Vietnam and the diplomacy of the post-Vietnam era. Although extensive attention is given to the world setting in which America acted, the primary emphasis is upon the formulation and execution of American policy, including investigation of the forces, domestic and foreign, which influenced it. A textbook and reading for a term paper are required. In addition to the paper, an hour exam and a final examination are required. Cost:1 WL:3 (Perkins)

562. American Intellectual History to 1870. History 160 and junior standing strongly recommended. (3). (Excl).

A study of the intellectual history of English-speaking America from around 1600 to the middle of the nineteenth century. Emphasis falls on writings about religion, government, natural science, education, and human nature, with occasional reference to imaginative literature and the visual arts. The European backgrounds and contexts of American thought also receive attention. Readings are in primary sources: the works of individuals studied in the course. Undergraduates are required to write a midterm examination, a final examination, and a 10-15 page term paper on a topic selected with the advice of the instructor. Requirements differ somewhat for graduate students. Freshmen and sophomores are not admitted except with prior permission from Professor Turner. Students who wish more information about the course should contact him through the History Department. Cost:2 WL:3 (Turner)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A study of the origins, development, and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprise in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the anti-trust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920s, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, postwar business developments, and current business trends. (Lewis)

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