140. Introduction to Arabic Culture and Language. (3). (Excl).

This course will offer a general survey of the social, religious, cultural, historical and linguistic aspects of the modern Arab world. Special attention will be given to family, gender relations, East-West relations, the role of the past and of social change, Arabic art and music. It will include an Arabic language instruction component focusing upon the basic communication needs. The course material will be explored through lectures and videos supported by listening and viewing guides in addition to discussions based upon the assigned readings. A good deal of the course is specifically intended to increase students' sensitivity to racial bias and acceptance of multi-cultural diversity. There will be emphasis on developing effective outlining, writing, and oral presentation skills. Grades will be based upon class participation, short essays, monthly language tests, and a final project. (Rammuny)

204/Rel. 204. Islamic Religion: An Introduction. (4). (HU).

This course provides a comprehensive introduction to Islam as a religion and as a religious tradition. After examining the fundamental sources of Islam, particularly the Qur'an and the Reports concerning the activities of the prophet Muhammad, we will discuss how these foundations gave rise both to the beliefs and practices of Muslims and to an Islamic civilization with important achievements in such areas as law, theology, science, philosophy, and mysticism. Our emphasis will be on the early and formative centuries of Islam, but modern developments will be covered as well. A midterm and final exam. (Walker)

260. Ancient Egypt and its World. (3). (HU).

The course is an undergraduate survey of the culture of ancient Egypt, focussing on Egyptian religion (the gods and their cults, life after death, mummification, etc.), ways of thinking (practical wisdom and elevated philosophy), basic institutions (the kingship, the priesthood, etc.), literature and science. The student will be taught the elements of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, how it was deciphered and the derivation of our own alphabet from it. Throughout, special attention will be given to a comparison of Egyptian ideas, values and religious thought to our own with open-ended class discussion. There is a midterm (40% of grade) and final exam (60% of grade) and an optional 10-page paper at term end. Three textbooks, all paperbacks, are compulsory. Note: As of late October, Approval is pending before the LS&A Curriculum Committee to increase the credits for this course from 3 to 4 and to add a one-hour discussion section per week. (Krahmalkov)

275. Islam and the West to 1800. (4). (HU).

The encounter of Islam with Christian Europe, from the early Middle Ages until the modern period. Emphasis on: the concept of holy war, in its Muslim and Christian versions, and the history of military encounters, especially in Spain and during the Crusades; economic relations, commerce and travel; cultural exchanges; and the ideas which these two great civilizations formed of each other. No prior requirements. Provides introduction to some important aspects of Islamic civilization. Requirements: biweekly short papers, midterm and final exams. (Bonner)

398. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

This course is an independent study reading course which must be supervised by a Near Eastern Studies' faculty member. It is normally taken by a student who would like to study some aspect of a subject within a course already taken in further detail. Arrangements for the course are made directly with the faculty member.

446. Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the modern literature of the Arab Lands, Iran, Israel and Turkey. The course is taught by four professors, each of whom will examine the literature in which he/she specializes. Lectures introduce major literacy figures and their works within the framework of the historical and social circumstances of their lives. Materials are in English translation. Cost: A course pack worth $10.00 for each of the four segments of the course possible. (Stewart-Robinson)

468/Jud. Stud. 468/Rel. 469. Jewish Mysticism. (3). (Excl).

A critical study of the historical development of Jewish mysticism, its symbolic universe and its social ramifications. While the course will survey mystical traditions from the early rabbinic period through the modern, the focus will be on the variegated medieval stream known as kabbalah. Among the issues to be explored are: the nature of mystical experience; images of God and the Person; symbols of the male and female (gender symbolism); the problem of evil; mysticism and language; kabbalistic myth and ritual innovation; and kabbalistic interpretations of history. Modern interpretations of mysticisms will be considered as well. The readings for the course will consist largely of secondary sources from the fields of the history of Judaism and comparative religion. These will be supplemented by close readings of pertinent primary texts (in translation). Requirements include two exams and a research paper. Class lectures will be supplemented by discussion. (Ginsburg)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature; Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. Cost:1 WL:3 or 4 (Schramm)

474/Hist. 443. Modern Middle East History. (3). (Excl).

See History 443. (Aafif)

481/Rel. 481/Engl. 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (4). (HU).

See English 401. (Williams)

489. Islamic Intellectual History. (3). (Excl).

This course is an historical exploration of the various modes of Islamic intellectual discourse as focused primarily around the following fields: philosophy, theology, mysticism (Sufism), historiography, Qur'anic commentary, law, and literary theory. Open to all interested students but some background in Islamic history or thought would be helpful. Final exam and term paper. (Walker)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, Honors advisor, and the LS&A Honors Council. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors," or "with Honors," in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

567/Jud. Stud. 470/Rel. 470. Topics in the Study of Judaism: The Sabbath and Sacred Time. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.
Section 001 Hasidism.
An investigation of the meaning of Hasidism as a religious and social movement within Judaism. Within the context of a historical overview of the movement's leading schools and figures, emphasis will be placed on the nature of religious personality, the contemplative life, mystical experience and daily devotion as presented in Hasidic teachings. We will also consider issues such as charisma and religious authority, the relation between elite and popular religion, and story and music as expressions of religious and cultural meaning. The impact of Hasidism on 20th century Judaism(s) will also be explored. The course is especially suitable for undergraduate concentrators in NES, Judaic Studies, or Religion. Requirements include a class presentation, brief interpretive essays, and a research paper. The course will be conducted as a seminar. Cost:3 (Ginsburg)


121/Rel. 121. Introduction to the New Testament. (4). (HU).

Although it has influenced the Western world more than any other book, the New Testament having originated almost 2,000 years ago in the Eastern Mediterranean world is not easy to understand. The course will, first of all, introduce the student to the historical, religious, and social setting of the New Testament. Then, we shall look at the various New Testament writings. They must be allowed to speak for themselves and not be clouded by any denominational or sectarian program. The student will be introduced to the insights and methods of modern scholarship when dealing with questions such as: What did the various New Testament writings really intend to say? How did they say it? Why did they say it? Finally, the problem of the development of early Christian doctrine will be addressed, albeit briefly. Why were some of the early Christian writings excluded from the New Testament canon? The method of instruction will be recitation. There will be two-three exams and a final paper. There are no prerequisites. Cost:2 WL:1 (Fossum)

202. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. ABS 201 or equivalent. (3). (LR).

Lessons and exercises in a standardized form of the language of the Hebrew Bible. Presentation of grammar and vocabulary. Daily recitations and weekly quizzes. Cost:1 WL:3 (Schramm)

283/Rel. 283. The Beginnings of Christianity. (4). (Excl).

Most of our ideas (and fears) about the presence and nature of evil come to us from the ancient Jewish and Christian traditions and surprisingly, the documents that were more influential are not those in the "canons" of contemporary Judaism and Christianity. Centuries before Jesus and the Mishnah, the Jewish apocalyptic tradition of 1 Enoc had already developed some concepts, such as the original sin (of angels or Adam) and the existence of the Devil, concepts that we are used to considering typically "Christian." All the Judaisms of the first century (including the Qumran community and the early Christian and Rabbinic movements) had to face the issue of the origin of evil a mysterious power challenging both god and God's creation. The Jewish people wavered between two opposite emphases: the hope in the gracious coming of a heavenly mediator and on the other hand, the trust in the capability of human will to survive the temptation. Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism were able to give reasonable answers by making the "Son of Man" (Jesus) and the Law respectively, the "medicine" against the power of evil. They did not eliminate, however, the problem of evil, the trouble of being by nature inclined to sin, and the fear of God's punishment. Our culture, which owes so much to these religions, has inherited their doubts no less than their certainties. (Boccaccini)

402. Intermediate Biblical Hebrew. ABS 401. (3). (LR).

The student will be introduced to the elements of Biblical Hebrew syntax and other aspects of advanced grammar. Selected Biblical texts will be read and their historical and literary backgrounds analyzed and discussed. (Krahmalkov)

496/Rel. 404/Anthro. 450. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404.

522. Introduction to Akkadian. ABS 521. (3). (Excl).

This course is the second term of the Introduction to Akkadian language sequence. (Yoffee)


Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 101 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

In 102, the basic vocabulary and fundamental structures of Arabic are continued through vocabulary lists, grammar presentations and oral and written practice based on short readings including simple news items, narration, and description. There is increased emphasis on developing conversational, reading and writing skills. There will be focus on communicative drills and activities involving student-teacher, student-student, and group interactions. Daily written assignments are required involving biographical information, and writing short descriptions and narration utilizing vocabulary and structures covered in class. Grades are based on class participation, weekly achievement tests, monthly comprehensive tests, and a final exam including an oral component. Textbooks: (1) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part One (Lessons 11-20) and (2) Course pack including supplementary cultural material, dialogues, and activities. Cost:1 (Rammuny)

202(232). Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 102 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

Primary goals are to have students develop the ability (1) to communicate/speak in Arabic with native speakers of Arabic on familiar topics, (2) to understand familiar spoken Arabic, (3) to read and understand specific content on an intermediate level, and (4) to communicate in writing and provide correct responses within the scope of the content of this course. This course is taught in Arabic using a communicative approach. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, tests and quizzes, and a final exam. Required text: Abboud and McCarus, Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part Two, 1975. (McCarus)

222(202). Intensive Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 221 or 102 or equivalent. (6). (LR).

This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to use Arabic. The primary goals of this course are to have students develop the ability: (1) to communicate/speak in Arabic with native speakers of Arabic on familiar topics; (2) to understand familiar spoken Arabic; (3) to read and understand the specific content of an elementary level; and (4) to communicate in writing and provide correct responses within the scope of the content of this course. This course is taught in Arabic using a communicative approach emphasizing the use of language. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, texts and quizzes, and a final exam. Required text: Peter Abboud et al., Elementary Standard Arabic, Part l. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, 1975. (Khaldieh)

312(302). Introduction to Classical Arabic. Arabic 311. (3). (Excl).

Continuation of Arabic 311. Easy readings in Classical Arabic, with review of grammar. (Bellamy)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

422(402). Advanced Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 421 or the equivalent. (6). (Excl).

This course is required of all students concentrating in Arabic and is recommended for other students who expect to learn Arabic for use in related fields. It is the second part of a one-year sequence of Intermediate Modern Arabic whose objectives are to enable the student: (1) to comprehend spoken literary Arabic comparable in content and difficulty to the student's intermediate level; (2) to participate with a native speaker of Arabic in a dialogue or conversation using familiar vocabulary and structures; (3) to read with understanding of subject matter comparable to what he/she has learned; and (4) to write a summary of about 100 words of a short story or passage read, and answers to questions in the form of short paragraphs. The method of instruction stresses the four language skills with particular emphasis on oral and written practice based on selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and non-fiction and A-V cultural materials. The course is conducted in Arabic and meets six hours weekly with 10-12 extra hours per week for outside of class preparation including listening to lesson tapes, writing assignments and review. Course grade is based on classroom performance, weekly written assignments and quizzes, a midterm and a final examination. (Khaldieh)

432. Arabic Syntax and Semantics. Arabic 422 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

For students with an advanced knowledge of Arabic and preferably an elementary knowledge of linguistics. Lectures on the syntactic analysis of Arabic will be supplemented by assigned readings. Course grade will depend on class attendance and participation and on a term paper on some aspect of Arabic syntax/semantics. (McCarus)

545. Qur'an. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Selected readings from the Qur'an in Arabic. Students may consult translations if necessary. (Bellamy)

547. 'Abbasid Poetry. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Selected readings from the Arab poets of the Abbarid period, A.D. 750 - 1100. (Bellamy)


Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

Continuation of the development of basic communication skills of reading, writing and speaking modern standard Hebrew. Class drills, class discussions in Hebrew, language laboratory drills.

302. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 312. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. In additon to continued study of morphology and syntax, some reading selections in fiction and non-fiction prose will be introduced. Cost:1 WL:5

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

402. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 401. (3). (Excl).

This is a continuation of the Hebrew sequence comprising the second term of the third year Hebrew class. Participation in Hebrew 401 offered in the previous term is not required if the student is at the advanced level. The focus will be on developing proficiency in all five language skills. Student participation is an essential part of the course. Readings will include short works of fiction as well as journalistic pieces and a range of Hebrew literary forms from the different genres and time periods. This will be supplemented by other media including music, video, recordings, readings, etc. Students' grades will be determined on the basis of assignments, participation (including in-class presentations) and a final exam. Cost: 1 WL:3 (Bernstein)


Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Persian. (4). (LR).

This course is the continuation of Elementary Persian 201. All four language skills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing) will be emphasized. the class will be conducted in Persian with occasional recourse to English for grammatical explanations. There will be daily assignments and in-class conversation groups. By the end of the term, students will have acquired an adequate knowledge of all major points of Persian grammar. They will be able to conduct simple conversations in Persian, read non-technical simple prose, and write passages on a variety of topics. Grading will be based on attendance, homework, quizzes, a midterm and final examination. Incoming students may join the class pending examination and approval by the instructor. (Amirsoleimani)

402. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

This course is a continuation of 401. The emphasis will be increasingly on reading, composition, and dialogue with the objective of achieving intermediate competency. The two main textbooks are Windfuhr-Bostanbakhsh, Modern Persian. Intermediate Level I, and Windfuhr, Modern Persian, Intermediate Level II. Additional material include tapes and videos. Special needs or interests of the students will be taken into consideration.

412. The Kurdish Language. Permission of instructor. (4). (LR).

Continuation of Kurdish 411: development of speaking, reading and writing skills in the Kurdish of Sulaimania, Iraq. Additional emphasis is placed this term on the reading of journalistic and, time permitting, literary prose. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, homework assignments, and test grades. Textbook: Abdulla and McCarus, Kurdish Basic Course. (McCarus)


Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

This course is the sequel to Turkish 201 and is the second half of Elemenatry Turkish. We will focus on speaking and writing the language of Modern Turkey. Course topics include the phonological structure of Turkish, basic sentence patterns, and basic vocabulary. The aural-oral approach is emphasized and serves as the basic course format. There are tapes which accompany the text, Turkish for Foreigners. Student evaluation is based on written and oral quizzes, and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:3

402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

Part of the departmental sequence in Modern Turkish. The course is designed for students who have completed Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It provides further study of Turkish grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Comprehension and oral and written expression will be developed through translations and compositions. Readings will be emphasized. Evaluation will be determined on the basis of class quizzes and performance, a midterm and final examination. Books cost $20.00 if not already purchased for fall term. (Stewart-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

512. Readings in Tanzimat Turkish. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This course is part of the department's language sequence in Ottoman/ Turkish program. A recitation/discussion type of course in which Ottoman texts of the 19th century in the Arabic script are read in class, analyzed and discussed from the point of view of language and content. Quizzes, a midterm and a final examination are required. The texts are specially selected and Xeroxed for distribution to the class. (Stewart Robinson)

551. Modern Turkish Prose Literature. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Part of sequence in required language courses for majors, M.A. and Ph.D. candidates. The objective is to continue to develop comprehension ease in modern Turkish through the reading of the literary products of modern Turks. Recitation type course includes reading, translation, and discussion of content and style. Quizzes and a final exam are required.Cost: About $5.00 of xeroxed material. (Stewart-Robinson)

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