Courses in PHILOSOPHY (DIVISION 442)

The Philosophy Department offers a series of 150-level courses that serve as introductions to specific areas of philosophical thought. Each probes a group of philosophical issues related to certain other fields or areas of human concern, and each is designed to show how questions in these fields or areas can lead naturally to larger philosophical matters. Philosophy 155, "The Nature of Science," will be offered Fall Term, 1993. Each will be taught by a faculty member and will be limited to 50 students.

Philosophy 181, 202, 231, 232, and 297 are general introductions designed to acquaint the student with a representative sample of philosophical problems concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self, morality, religion, and society. They deal with such questions as: If a person's actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is he capable of free actions for which he can be held morally responsible? What is a person just a very complex machine, a combination of a mind or soul and a body, or what? How can such common sense beliefs as that other human beings are conscious, or that there exists an external physical world, be justified? What are scientific theories, and what kinds of considerations bear on whether they should be accepted? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Are value judgments (e.g., moral or aesthetic judgments) "objective" or "subjective"? What are the basic differences between the major kinds of social, political and economic organizations, and what reasons are there for preferring any one of them to the others? How should one live one's life? What is the "meaning" of life, and what does this question mean?

The 200-level philosophy introduction and 181 vary in their instructional format. Philosophy 202 (three hours) approaches issues through a mixture of twentieth century writers (e.g., Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer) and seminal figures in Western intellectual history (Plato,Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant). It is taught by graduate student teaching assistants in sections of approximately 25 students. Philosophy 231 (three hours) and 232 (four hours) can be expected to cover similar issues and texts, but in a different format; a faculty member delivers two lectures each week, and students are divided into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections which meet one (231) or two (232) hours per week. Philosophy 181 has yet a different format. It is smaller, limited to 50 students, and is taught in a combination lecture/discussion format three times a week. Finally, Philosophy 297, Honors Introduction, is taught by a member of the faculty to small groups of 25-30 students.

The Department offers three elementary introductory courses in logic: 180, 201 and 203. 180 and 201 both cover some informal logic, while 203 introduces students to symbolic logic. 180 is taught by faculty in a section of 40-50, while 201 and 203 are taught in sections of 20-25 by advanced graduate student teaching assistants.

Some 300-level courses do not have prerequisites and can serve as introductions to particular branches of philosophy. Three such courses will be offered Fall Term, 1993: Philosophy 356, "Bioethics," Philosophy 365, "Problems of Religion," and Philosophy 375, "Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud."

154. Law and Philosophy. Students are strongly advised not to take more than two Philosophy Introductions. (3). (HU).

A discussion of fundamental issues that arise at the intersection of the law and ethics, including: (1) Is there a moral obligation to obey the law and, if so, what are its limits? (2) What is the moral justification for punishing people who break the law? (3) What limits are there to the justifiable use of legal coercion? If time permits, we'll also discuss (4) The origins and nature of property rights. The course is intended for students who have no prior experience in philosophy. Two papers and one exam. Cost:2 (Velleman)

180. Introductory Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This course is designed to improve critical reasoning skills and provide an introduction to formal logic. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning, some of the elements of formal (symbolic) logic, and logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. There will be lectures, discussions, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and reading and writing exercises. It is possible that the course will make extensive use of computerized exercises and tutorials, with weekly assignments to be completed at public computing assignments. (No prior experience with computers would be needed.) Students who wish to know whether the course will use computer-assisted instruction should contact the Department prior to registration.

181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This introduction to philosophy will take a partly historical, partly systematic approach. There will be some readings from philosophical classics beginning with Plato, and some recent works that present contemporary problems in philosophy. There will be two papers, a midterm, and a final exam. Instruction will be mainly through lecture, but with discussion during lecture period. (White)

Sections 002 and 003. An introduction to some of the main problems of philosophy, such as: Does God exist? Do we have free will? Is a person just a complex machine? Can we know that a world external to our minds exists? Is the killing of an innocent human being ever justified? Are value judgments (e.g., moral or aesthetic judgments) "objective" or "subjective"? How should one live one's life, and what is the "meaning" of life? The critical examination of these issues should help in the acquisition of skills of critical thinking, reading, and writing. Readings will be drawn from classical writers and contemporary thinkers. The course will be limited to 50 students, which should permit student discussion and participation.

201. Introduction to Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This course aims to give the student a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument. Students will be expected to master some technical detail, but the emphasis in this course is on non-technical, informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. Sections usually have about twenty-five students each. Each section meets three hours per week and is generally conducted with some informality and considerable student participation. Discussion and questions are encouraged, particular problems are analyzed, and students are required to demonstrate mastery of assigned material. Course requirements for grading vary from instructor to instructor. Normally there are weekly assignments frequently in written form and short, periodic quizzes.

202. Introduction to Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with philosophical thinking on the great questions that have moved mankind throughout history, and to discuss possible solutions to them. The course is taught in independent sections of approximately twenty-five students. Each section is taught by a teaching assistant who selects the topics and readings. Some sections examine the systems of such major historical figures as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche, while others employ primarily the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and others. The subject matter generally includes ethics, free will and responsibility, philosophy of mind, epistemology and skepticism, and perhaps arguments for the existence of God. The text is either a book of readings or a set of larger selections from separate editions of well known philosophical works. During the term each student is usually required to submit a total of at least fifteen pages of critical discussion through a series of short papers varying in length from three to five pages. Several short quizzes may also be given as well as a final examination.

203. Introduction to Symbolic Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203 or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

Common sense classifies arguments as good or bad according to a variety of formal and informal criteria. Roughly speaking, we count an argument good if it makes plausible assumptions which exhibit its conclusion as likely to be true. Though the common sense classification is familiar and useful, sometimes we want something more precise and more amenable to systematic investigation. Thus we idealize from the intuitive notion of a "good" argument and call an argument VALID if it is impossible for its assumptions to be true without its conclusion being true as well. Logic can now be defined as the study of validity. As it turns out, this study is best pursued by constructing artificial languages designed to replicate in purer form the logically relevant features of natural languages like English. Symbolic logic, the subject of this course, is the study of validity by preference to these formal languages. Students meet in sections of about 25 students each. Each section meets three hours per week and has a lecture/discussion format, with considerable student participation. Course requirements and grading vary from instructor to instructor, but normally there are weekly homework assignments and periodic quizzes.

231. Introduction to Philosophy: Problems and Principles. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

This is a first course in philosophy assuming no background in the subject; it is open to students from all areas of the University at any stage in their studies. The course has two main goals. First, to give you a sense of what philosophers think about and why. This will be done through consideration of several historically important issues: the existence of God, skepticism about the external world, personal identity, mind/body relations, freedom of the will, and moral responsibility. The second goal is to develop the philosophical skill, and more generally the critical and argumentative skills, of those enrolled. Philosophy 231 and 232 share a common lecture for two meetings per week. Philosophy 231 carries three hours of credit, has one discussion meeting per week, and requires two short papers. Philosophy 232 carries four hours of credit, has two discussion meetings per week, and requires three short papers. The course has two texts: Anthony Weston, A Rulebook for Arguments, (Hackett Publishing Company) and Joel Feinberg's anthology Reason and Responsibility (Dickenson Publishing Co.) Cost:2 WL:4 (Yablo)

232. Problems of Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 231. (Yablo)

296. Honors Introduction to Logic. Honors students or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203 or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

This course covers the fundamentals of mathematical logic. Topics that will be covered include the language and proof methods for propositional and quantificational logic, the important metamathematical results of completeness, incompleteness and undecidability, and basic topics in the foundations of mathematics.

297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
An introduction to philosophy by studying three great philosophers - Aquinas, Descartes and Hobbes who represent three very different approaches to the problems of philosophy. In the middle ages, Aquinas attempted to harmonize Greek philosophy and the Biblical tradition, creating a system (Thomism) which dominated European education for centuries. In the 17th Century Descartes and Hobbes inaugurated the modern period in philosophy by reacting against Thomism, setting the terms in which many contemporary philosophers debate its issues. We will try to understand their philosophies and make a critical judgment about the viability of their systems. Among the topics to be discussed: the existence of God, the immortality of the soul, human freedom, what the good for human beings is, the reasons for (and limits on) our obligation to obey the law. Classes will be a combination of lecture and discussion. Students will be evaluated on the basis of three short papers and a final exam. No prerequisites. Texts: An Introduction to St. Thomas Aquinas, ed. by Anton Pegis, Modern Library paperback; Descartes, Selected Philosophical Writings, trans. by John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch, Cambridge paperback; Hobbes, Leviathan, ed. by Edwin Curley, Hackett paperback. Cost:1 (Curley)

Section 002. This course will introduce students to philosophy through an examination of some major philosophical issues and problems, with some attention given also to the history of philosophical work on those problems. Examples of the problems to be dealt with are: free will, determinism, and moral responsibility; the possibility of objectivity in ethical discourse; the nature of our knowledge of the physical world; the nature of the mind and its relation to the body. Readings will be derived from modern works, and historical texts. The small size of the course will allow significant opportunity for discussion.

Section 003. The course is an introduction to philosophy for Honors undergraduates through the study of three classic, but accessible, texts: Hume's First Inquiry, J.L. Austin's Sense and Sensibilia, and Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. No previous acquaintance with philosophy is required. The mode of instruction will be lectures, but with plenty of time for questions and discussion. Students will be expected to produce three short papers, and to sit a midterm class test and a final. (Rumfitt)

319. Philosophy of the Arts. Philosophy 202 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Philosophy 419. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the arts from a philosophical perspective. It will investigate what art is, the nature of creation, criticism, interpretation, evaluation, and appreciation, and the ways in which the various arts are important, concentrating on several specific art forms such as the novel, photography and film, representational painting, and music. It will treat questions such as: What, if anything, is distinctive about art and aesthetic experience, and how are they related to other aspects of life and culture?, In what ways are works of art expressive of feelings?, Do they have cognitive content?, In what ways do we learn from them, and how do they work to change people's perspectives or attitudes?, What is fiction and why are people interested in it?, Why and in what ways is photography more (or less) powerful than painting and drawing?, What is it for a painting or a novel to be realistic?, What is meant by indeterminate art, conceptual art, found art, and performance art?, How are these forms of art interesting, and how do they compare with more traditional ones (e.g., do they deserve to be called "art"?). (Walton)

345. Language and Mind. One philosophy course. (3). (Excl).

This course is an advanced introduction to several problems shared by philosophy of mind and philosophy of language, involving three aspects of mental or linguistic representations: Pragmatics Can we systematize the dizzying variety of mental states and "speech acts", to begin to explain how they work? How do we understand non-literal speech acts such as metaphor, when more is meant than is said? Semantics What makes a representation have the meaning it does? Does a representation have meaning independently of contexts and independently of other representations? Syntax - In what senses are linguistic representations "structured"? Are mental representations similarly structured (in a "brain language')? Is thinking a kind of manipulation of internal sentences (in the way that a conventional computer manipulates its data structures) or is it a kind of interaction of simple nodes in neural networks? Your grade will depend on three 7 page papers and class participation. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lormand)

355. Contemporary Moral Problems. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 455. (4). (HU).

This course will explore competing theories of justice, the moral dimensions of the problems of racism and sexism, contrasting explanations of racial and gender inequality, the state enforcement of morality, and the moral status of animals and the environment. Rival conceptions of freedom, equality, and justice will be assessed through an examination of such issues as affirmative action, sexual harassment, censorship of pornography, abortion, and animal rights. Several weeks will be devoted to a critical study of racism as a moral issue and as a social phenomenon. Emphasis will be placed on the relations between moral and political theories and social analysis. There will be three papers and a final examination. Cost:3 WL:4 (Anderson)

370. Philosophical Aspects of Literature. (3). (HU).

This course will consist primarily in an examination of the philosophical content of selected works of literature. We will consider what these works have to say, in one way or another (or what we can learn from them) about questions of morality, freedom, human nature, knowledge, reality, and so forth. To a lesser extent we will examine philosophical problems concerning the nature, function, and value of literature itself, including questions about the manner in which literary works express or communicate philosophical ideas, compared to the ways in which philosophical essays do. The readings will include (tentatively) literary works by Beckett, Camus, Dostoevsky, George Eliot, Kafka, Sartre and others. We will also study various philosophical writings which treat the philosophical issues we find in the literary works. Two short papers will be required, and there will be several quizzes and a final examination. (Walton)

371. Existentialism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

No other philosophic movement has raised issues and questions as evocative and mortal as has been done by Existentialism. Solitude, Anguish, Authenticity, The Death of God, Self-deception, Nausea, The Will to Power, The Absurd, Fascism, Nihilism, and in spite of that the birth of a new Humanity and Culture! We will try to understand what authors like Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Kafka, Hesse, Rilke, Gide, Malraux, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus and Handke wrote and thought about these matters. The course will require hard work and hard thinking. If you feel very frail you probably should not take it. Two papers and a final examination. (Bergmann)

372. Philosophical Topics in the Study of Gender. One course in philosophy or women's studies, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Section 001. Philosophy and Gender. The course this term will discuss several feminist frameworks for thinking about gender and gendered bodies. The following questions will guide our discussion: Is there a tenable distinction between sex and gender? What does it mean to say that a category is socially constructed? What is oppression? How is gender oppression different from and/or related to other forms of oppression? In what ways do accounts of the social construction of gender enrich our understanding of agency? In exploring these issues, we will also consider specific feminist issues that arise in science, medicine, popular culture and law. Topics may include: sexuality, rape and pornography, fashion, femininity. Requirements: several short homework assignments, two papers, final exam. Cost:3 WL:4 (Haslanger)

385. Continental Philosophy Since 1900. One course in philosophy. (3). (Excl).

This course is a survey of 20th century French and German Philosophy. We will analyze and interpret some of the major texts and schools of thought which have developed since 1900, and we will critically evaluate and discuss the significance of the views of these philosophers. We will begin with the development of phenomenology (Edmund Husserl, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty). Sartre's existentialism will be briefly discussed. Then we will consider Structuralism (Claude Levi-Strauss, Roland Barthes, Jacques Lacan), Critical Theory or "the Frankfort School" (Max Horkheimer, Jurgen Habermas, Herbert Marcuse), the thought of Michel Foucault (as represented by his The Order of Things), and Hermeneutics (Hans-Georg Gadamer). We will be concerned with the implications of the views of these thinkers for the critique of objective (and scientific) thought, for the investigations of subjectivity, for work in the social sciences, and the methods and goals of intellectual activity. Students will be required to write several papers. (Meiland)

389. History of Philosophy: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

This course examines the development of modern philosophy in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Considerable attention is devoted to each of Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume and Kant. The primary emphasis is placed upon philosophical rather than historical or interpretative issues. These philosophical issues are drawn from epistemology and metaphysics, to the exclusion of ethics and political philosophy. The following topics are discussed: skepticism about the existence of the material world, theories of perception and of the nature of material objects, the problem of induction, the nature and limits of a priori knowledge, innate knowledge, empiricist theories of meaning, analytic and synthetic truth, necessary and contingent truth, God, substance, causation, the self, the relationship between mind and body, and personal identity. Students are evaluated on the basis of three papers and a final examination. There are three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. WL:1 (Loeb)

402. Undergraduate Seminar in Philosophy. Open to junior and senior concentrators and to others by permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

This term's seminar will be devoted to the topic of personal identity. We will read both classic works and the most recent literature on the subject. Students will write several short papers. (Velleman)

406. Aristotle. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

This course will be a general introduction to Aristotle's philosophy, including mainly his ethics, his metaphysics, and his theory of knowledge. There will be two papers, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (White)

419. Philosophy of the Arts. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 319. Will not satisfy 400-level course requirement for concentration in philosophy. Not open to philosophy graduate students. (3). (Excl).

See Philosophy 319. (Walton)

420. Philosophy of Science. A course in logic or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Philosophy of science is concerned with such questions as: (1) In what sense, or in what ways, are scientific theories tested or confirmed? (2) Do these methods of testing or confirming confer upon scientific theories a special claim to be believed or to be objective? (3) How are we to interpret certain central notions in science: explanation, law, probability, cause, and so on? (4) Does the history or sociology of science raise questions about the epistemic claims of science? We will discuss these questions, and others, taking as our focus a survey of the development of philosophy of science from logical positivism to the present. Among the figures we will read are a number of the most influential 20th century philosophers, including: Popper, Hempel, Kuhn, Putnam, Carnap, Ayer, Quine, Lakatos, and Van Fraassen. Midterm and final examination. Term paper. WL:1 (Sklar)

429. Ethical Analysis. Phil. 361, 363, 364, or 366. (3). (Excl).

Questions about the nature and standing of morality arise in both theory and practice. In this course we will critically investigate several of the most influential philosophical conceptions of morality, including historical figures such as Hume, Kant, and Mill as well as contemporary writings. Among the questions we will consider: What is the meaning of moral language? Are moral judgments capable of truth or falsity? In what sense, if any, can moral claims be objective? What is the relation of moral theory to moral practice? And, Why be moral? Midterm and final examinations; a term paper. WL:4 (Railton)

442. Topics in Political Philosophy. Phil. 363, 364, 366, or 441; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course will explore controversies surrounding three prominent ideals in modern political philosophy: equality, freedom, and community. What forms of social and political organization best embody these ideals? Is equality a matter of distributing external goods equally among persons, or does it more centrally concern eliminating relations of domination among persons? Can freedom be realized through role differentiation? Are community rights inimical to freedom, or necessary for its full realization? These and other questions will be considered by confronting liberal theories with feminist, socialist, and communitarian theories. Likely authors include Mill, Rawls, Sandel, Herzog, Walzer, Habermas, MacKinnon, Okin, and Hooks. Classes will combine lecture and discussion. There will be two papers and a final examination. Cost:3 WL:4 (Anderson)

455. Contemporary Moral Problems. Not open to graduate students in philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 355. (4). (Excl).

Intended primarily for graduate students outside the philosophy department. Course content is the same as in Philosophy 355. Philosophy 455 requires longer and more substantial papers than those expected in Philosophy 355. Does not meet the Philosophy Department's 400-level course requirement for philosophy concentrators. Cost:3 WL:4 (Anderson)

460. Medieval Philosophy. One Philosophy Introduction or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will be organized around a set of problems which we will trace through various authors from the early middle ages till the end in the 16th Century. The problems will be: Does God have foreknowledge of everything that happens in the world he created? Does he predestine everything that happens? And, What are the implications of his knowledge and power for human freedom and moral responsibility? The authors we will look at will be: Augustine, Boethius, Aquinas, Ockham, Calvin and Molina. For some of these (Boethius, Aquinas, Calvin) we will be looking only at selections from larger works devoted to many other issues. In those cases you will not be required to buy the books; we will rely on library reserve. For Augustine, Ockham and Molina, I will ask you to buy: Augustine, The Teacher, The Free Choice of the Will, Grace and Free Will, (Fathers of the Church Series, vol. 59), Catholic UP Ockham; Predestination, God's Foreknowledge, and Future Contingents, trans. by Marilyn Adams and Norman Kretzmann, Hackett; Molina, On Divine Foreknowledge, trans. by Alfred Freddoso, Cornell. Though it is not a prerequisite, it would be desirable for students to have had some course in ancient philosophy (Philosophy 388, 405 or 406) prior to taking this course. Evaluation will be based on two short papers during the term and a long paper at the end of the term. Method of instruction: lecture and discussion. Cost:2 (Curley)

462. British Empiricism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

This course will be an intensive examination of Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, the three major English language philosophical writers of the early modern period. The course will concentrate on epistemological and metaphysical issues. Students should have had some previous work in philosophy, preferably in the history of philosophy or epistemology and metaphysics.

465. Contemporary Continental Philosophy. Phil. 412 and two other courses in philosophy; or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A detailed critical introduction to some important themes and thinkers in twentieth century continental philosophy. We will be especially concerned with the novel understandings of time, language, and cultural power developed by various traditions of continental thought. The course will fall into three main parts: the first (and longest) on phenomenology, especially Heidegger; the second on Saussure and structuralism; the third on the Frankfurt school and French philosophy since the sixties. Background reading will include various important excerpts from nineteenth century thinkers: Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Kierkegaard, among others. Written work for the course will consist of three short papers, due at intervals during the term. Class discussion will be strongly encouraged. Cost:2 (Hills)

475/Chinese 475/Hist. of Art 487/RC Hums. 475/Asian Studies 475. The Arts and Letters of China. May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy. (4). (HU).

See Chinese 475. (Y. Feuerwerker)

477. Theory of Knowledge. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

The course this term will focus on the issue of objectivity. We will begin by considering some traditional conceptions of objectivity and will work our way up to more contemporary discussions in, e.g., Nagel, Williams, Wright, Putnam. We will then consider a series of critiques of objectivity, with a particular emphasis on projects in feminist epistemology and the sociology of knowledge. In this latter part of the course we will discuss work by, e.g., Berger, Rorty, Harding, MacKinnon, Longino, and others. Requirements will include several short homework assignments, two papers and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:4 (Haslanger)

481. Metaphysics. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

Aristotle defined metaphysics as the study of being qua being. Where every other science concentrates on some special part or aspect of reality, metaphysics considers reality at its most general and abstract. Here are some of the topics that might be covered: existence, identity, essential properties, natural laws, causation, supervenience, and primary vs. secondary qualities. Most of the readings will be from contemporary sources, although some historical material might also be included. Class format will be lecture/discussion. Requirements are two medium-length papers and a final examination. The course is aimed at undergraduates with a substantial background in philosophy (e.g., Philosophy 383 and some logic) and graduate students. Cost:2 WL:4 (Yablo)

505/Chinese 505. Modern Chinese Thought. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is a seminar (limited to fifteen students) on modern Chinese thought from the period after the Opium War to the present. The unifying theme will be the conflict and fate of traditional and modern values in Chinese society. Class meetings will concentrate on discussion of topics raised by assigned readings and will involve maximum student participation. Active participation in discussions is expected of all students. Open to upperclassmen and graduate students. Permission of instructor is required. One substantial seminar paper and two one hour exams are required. (Munro)


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