ROMANCE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

French, Italian, and Spanish Placement Tests

If you are planning to take an elementary French, Italian, or Spanish class and you are a new student, freshman or transfer student, or you have not yet begun the elementary language sequence on the Ann Arbor campus, you must take the placement test in order to register for the correct course. You must register for the class into which you have been placed.

If you have registered for a class prior to taking the test, you will still be required to take the test in order to verify that you are in the appropriate level class.

If you have already taken French, Italian, or Spanish 101-232 on the Ann Arbor campus, or if you have already taken the placement test once, you are not eligible to take the test again. For questions regarding the LS&A language requirement, please see a general academic advisor or call POINT-10 (764-6810).

Please Note: With the reduction in the number of classrooms throughout LS&A, departments must limit the number of classes offered between 10 am and 4 pm. There will be more classes open before 10 am and after 4 pm. Please take advantage of the opportunity to register for these classes and avoid the "Lottery" (see 2b below).

Instructions for students requesting overrides for French or Spanish 101, 103, 231, or 232.

1. Try to find a section that will fit into your schedule, since the Department cannot guarantee every student a space in a section of his/her own choice.

However, do not register for a class that you cannot attend. You will not be eligible to override into the section of your choice if you are registered for any section of 101-232, even if you cannot attend that section.

2. As it states in the Time Schedule any registered student who misses one of the first four class meetings will be dropped from the course, thereby leaving some open spaces for those students who have been closed out.

If there is absolutely no section open which will fit your schedule, you should follow this procedure:

(a) Start attending the section you would like to get into on the first day of class. You will receive a Proof of Attendance form which must be signed by your instructor every day. You must attend a class every day, but it does not need to be the same section. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are taking.

(b) On Wednesday, September 14 at 7:00 p.m., there will be a meeting in the basement of the MLB, rooms to be announced later, for each of the above courses. At these meeting, students will be assigned to remaining vacated spaces in the most fair and equitable manner possible, using a lottery system. At no time, however, will any class be allowed to exceed 25 students. Students must bring their CRISP Official Printout of Classes and the Proof of Attendance form to the meeting!

3. Please note that you will not be allowed to change sections at the French meetings. Beginning Thursday, September 16, Elementary French Language Supervisors will hear requests for section changes and fill those requests to whatever degree is possible.

4. Please ensure when adding with the override that you also add modifiers for pass/fail, etc.

Courses in FRENCH (DIVISION 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. Students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Students with any prior study of French must take the Placement Test. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (LR).

The sequence of French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar, vocabulary, and culture which are needed in everyday life to understand French spoken at a moderate speed and to be understood by sympathetic native speakers. Vocabulary and structures are practiced in class primarily through communicative activities stressing listening and speaking. Authentic documents are used to develop reading skills and culture. Cultural awareness and listening skills are further developed through listening and video materials. Classes meet four hours per week in sections of 20-25 students. Daily homework assignments involve studying vocabulary and grammar, writing exercises or short compositions, and practice in listening comprehension. There are several quizzes and tests, as well as midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Class participation is graded. Students with any prior study of French should NOT enroll in sections. (Sections: 007 - 008 are reserved for students who have never studied French) Cost:3

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103. (4). (LR).

See French 101. It is Strongly suggested that transfer students see H.Neu for advice regarding placement in the appropriate course. Cost:1, Same texts as 101. WL:See statement above. (Neu)

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).

French 103 is a course for students with some prior language study in French, and covers the same material presented in French 101/102. Entrance into the course is by placement, or with the permission of the course coordinator. Because students are expected to be already familiar with some of the material, the course moves at a rapid pace, and students will need to plan on spending at least 8-10 hours each week preparing daily lessons. The objectives and methods of instruction are similar to those of French 101/102. Frequent quizzes (with both oral and written components) are administered to check students' assimilation of material. There are two hourly exams, a final and speaking tests. By the end of the course, students will have a good working vocabulary and strong listening comprehension skills; they should be able to express themselves in French (both in writing and orally) using most of the basic structural patterns in the language.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 are the third and fourth terms of language study offered. It presents a comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and literary excerpts. Both courses include the use of French movies and video. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on topics of interest, to understand conversations on such topics. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. Homework consists of grammar study, written exercises, and laboratory work both audio and video. There are comprehensive coursewide tests as well as the midterm and final examinations. Cost:3 WL:See statement above (Mellor)

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

In French 232, students will continue learning and reviewing vocabulary and grammar from the second half of the book Ensuite. There will be short weekly readings (advertisements, literary, excerpts, and short stories) and by the middle of the term, students will begin reading a full-length French novel!! (They will read the majority of the novel on their own and take a reading comprehension test at the end of the term). Throughout the term, students will listen to French songs, see several videos (from French television) as well as two French movies. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized, daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. In addition to the outside reading test, there will be 3 course wide tests, a midterm, and a final examination. (Meyer)

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward midterm students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 25 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, a midterm, final, and outside reading examinations. Cost:2 WL:4 (Hagiwara)

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but more advanced cultural and intellectual readings, as well as audio, written or video materials, provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, but homework, attendance, and participation in classroom activities determine the Credit/No Credit grades. Cost:1 WL:4 (Hagiwara)

350. Independent Study. French 232 or the equivalent and permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT) May be elected for a total of six hours credit.

French 350 is an Independent Study course which may be offered to undergraduate students who demonstrate the need to study some specific language aspect of French, phonetics (in this case it must not correspond in any way to French 325), grammar, style and translation included. The course may be elected for up to 6 hours of credit, but that option should be exceptional. Generally 3 credits are granted if the course work is as intensive as any regular course at the 300 level. The type of requirement for the final grade must be specifically indicated: examination or other. In all cases the student petitioning for independent student 350 and the supporting instructor must demonstrate that the course is needed and that no other regular course may be taken as a substitute.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Section 001: De Marianne à Ariane.
The course is designed to help you expand your knowledge of some aspects of contemporary France, and see how traditions and contemporary concerns intermingle in France on the eve of the 21st century. Lectures will deal with topics ranging from education, history and geography, to integral parts of everyday life such as family, cafes and leisure. These topics will be used as the basis for discussion and writing in the sections for which students will be asked to read articles and work with videos. The final grade will take into account your active participation, bimonthly papers, in-class exams, oral presentations and final.

362. Advanced French. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

French 362 is neither a literature nor a grammar class. It is designed as a bridge between the highly structured activities of language courses and the more independent work required in literature and civilization courses. French 362 has two main objectives: (1) to help students improve their written and oral fluency; (2) to familiarize students with the linguistic and analytic tools necessary to approach a document, whether a literary text, a newspaper article, or a video document. Used as the basis of round-table discussions and written exercises, these documents will help students increase their ability to write and converse fluently on different themes presented in class. Active classroom participation is essential, and is part of the final grade. All classes are taught in French. Bi-monthly essays, 2 in-class exams, one final examination. WL:4 (Belloni)

363. French Phonetics. French 361 and 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course, conducted in French, is designed to introduce basic concepts in phonetic theory and to help students improve their pronunciation of French through (1) study of the physical characteristics of individual sounds, the relationship between sounds and their written representations, the rules governing pronunciation of "standard" French, and (2) intensive oral practice in the production of French consonants and vowels, syllabification, intonation, liaison, and deletion/retention of the "mute E." During the first week, students will record a speech sample and will be informed of problem areas to work on independently using audiotapes. Homework for each class consists of reading theory, writing phonetic transcriptions, and oral practice with tapes. Participation, 1-2 oral quizzes, and the final oral exam will evaluate proficiency in pronunciation. Homework, quizzes, a midterm, and a written final exam will evaluate ability to use the phonetic alphabet and knowledge of basic theory. Cost:2 WL:1 (Neu)

370/RC Core 370. Advanced Proficiency in French. RC Core 320, or French 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See RC Core 370. (Carduner)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c) development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays. In the second half of the term, each student will work on his/her own diary (journal). Final course grade will reflect the students' progress, and participation in class. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students concentrating in French. No Auditors. (Gabrielli)

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361, and prior or concurrent enrollment in French 362. A maximum of six credits of French 380, 414, and Business Administration 415 may be counted toward a degree. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the LANGUAGE of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is partly built around a fictitious company whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, applying for a job in France. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. Attendance mandatory. NO AUDITORS. Maximum enrollment is 20. (Gabrielli)

411. Advanced Translation, English-French. French 372 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will concentrate on developing the students' advanced translating skills. Working mainly from English texts to be translated into French, it will use the practice of translation as applied to a variety of different styles with the goal of increasing the students' knowledge and command of syntactic and stylistic potentialities of the two languages. In the second half of the term, students will be asked to work on individual projects for which they will choose an extract from a contemporary English narrative text. Projects will be discussed in class and individually. Grading is based on participation, day-to-day preparation, homework, the individual project and in-class assignments. (Belloni)

427/Rom. Ling. 454. French Syntax. Permission of advisor. (3). (Excl).

This course combines an introduction to linguistics and an indepth review of French syntax. We will explore the basic concepts of modern linguistic theories, including discourse analysis, and see how they are applied to French. We will also compare typical linguistic approaches to language analysis with traditional grammar rules. From this analysis of French we will proceed to exercises designed to increase your competence in grammar and awareness of French stylistics. These exercises involve comparisons of French and English, various sentence recombinations, analyses of sentence structures from simple to complex patterns, including literary and conversational passages, a study of the relationship between word order and the "highlighting" devices and rhythmic patterns of French, correction of grammatical errors made in speech and compositions by French lycee students as well as American students learning French, and translations from English to French. The course will be conducted in French, and the classroom work will consist of lectures and readings (60%) and travaux pratiques (exercises) and three one-hour take home examinations. Cost:2 WL:4 (Hagiwara)

Civilization

381(386). Themes in French Literature and Culture. French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 French as Play, Creative Writing, and Performance.
A course intended to make students producers, as well as consumers, of French literature and culture. Intensive practice in the French language and an unconventional introduction to French literature through a series of exercises and activities. Literature, in this course, will be taken not as a group of texts to be studied and analyzed, but as something to be produced, performed, transformed, spoken, played with, and invented. Activities and exercises will include: pastiches of autobiographical and fictional texts, collaboratively written scenarios and dramatic scenes, oral performance (individual and collective) of literary works (both pre-existing and student written), transformations from poetry to prose and vice versa, lipograms and other Oulipian experimental writing, pastiches and original compositions of letters and maxims, interviews, small group discussion of work in progress, mutual correction, collective discussion of issues raised by the course. Texts: Micro-Robert, Dictionary, course pack, and a small paperback anthology. (Paulson)

385. Contemporary France: Politics, Culture and Society. French 361. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

France is going through a period of profound changes. New definitions of authority are emerging, new social, political and cultural patterns are becoming visible. The political transformations revealed by national elections result from deep structural changes in the social, economic and cultural areas. The course will describe and analyze this evolution. It will examine the demographic trends, the political system, the social organization, the educational establishment and the cultural values as well as the daily life of the French citizens (how they eat, work, play, etc....). The problem of the foreign population and its impact on the concept of a "French identity" will be discussed in depth. Finally the challenge of a unified European economy will be considered. The course is conducted in French. Lectures and discussions. Course pack. Four written papers. No Auditors. (Gabrielli)

Literature

386/MARC 386. Introduction to French Literature (Beginnings to 1600). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

An introduction to methods of literary study through the discussion of selected works of the medieval and Renaissance period. We will examine the significance of formal characteristics of literary works (narrative, theater, and lyric poetry), and develop techniques of analysis suited to each type. We will also explore the relationship between literary form and social context. What prompted the creation of a new vernacular literature where none existed before? How does this literature use themes and symbols to create portrait of society and its structures? Intended for students of French culture and literature; taught in French. No previous study of literature or of medieval and Renaissance history is required. Readings in modern French, include the following: Marie de France, Lais; lyric poetry of the troubadours; Beroul, Le roman de Tristan et Iseut; La Farce de maitre Pierre Pathelin; and a selection of Renaissance poetry. Required work: 4 short papers (3 pages), midterm and final examination. Cost:3 WL:1 (Graham)

387/388/389 INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).

The aim of this course will be to consider the origins, ideologies, and aesthetic practices of modernism in 19th century France. Writers to be discussed will include: Flaubert, Gautier, Baudelaire, Huysmans, and Rachilde. Requirements: 4-5 written assignments (4pp. in French). The grade will be based on class participation and the written work submitted. No final examination. The course will be taught in French. Cost:3 WL:4 (Clej)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).

The course will deal with the novel and the poetry, first of the generation born around 1870 (with the titles of Gide, Colette, Proust and Valéry) and then of the last twenty years (with two short novels by Modiano and Wittig respectively, and poems by Guillevic and Char). Two short papers and a term paper will be required. (Muller)

401. French Literature in Translation. A knowledge of French is not required. May not be included in a concentration plan in French (or teaching minor). (3). (HU).
Section 001 French Feminocentrism.
This course is about relations of desire and power in the French (-language) novel; it is about representations of women and the striking interest displayed by novelists male and female in the "psychology" of women; but it is also and consequently about men too and the "sociology" of the relationships between men and women. Most specifically, the hypothesis will be that realistic fiction in general and novels in particular are, somewhat like gossip, interested in women because they tend to be identified in male-dominated social formations as sources of social scandal; and that the novels are interested in scandal because what a given society or social group takes to be scandalous reveals what its norms are and how they function. Novels, in short, are about "trouble" and trouble reveals how "order" functions but if women have been thought of as synonymous with trouble in this sense, we will also look at how certain women writers have responded to this characterization by "writing back." This is mainly a reading course. Class-time will be devoted to lectures and discussion (in proportions that will be partly determined by the size of the class). There will be no midterm or final, but students will be required to keep a journal of their reading which will be regularly graded. (Chambers)

440. Le cinéma français. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This is a course in the history of French and Francophone cinema and cinema theory, beginning with the work of the early filmmakers Lumière and Méliès, through the Poetic Realism of the 30s, the New Wave, and recent French film. The emphasis will be on surveying the variety of films in French: the classic works of Renoir, Carné, and Truffaut; films from the Avant Garde; by women directors including Marie Epstein and Chantal Akerman; and the cinema of the African and Canadien disapora. Discussions will follow close viewings of the films. Readings and discussions will be in English. Lab fee required. (White)

450. Independent Studies. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

The work to be done should not be the same as that offered in a regular course. A written description of the project together with an appropriate bibliography must be submitted for initial approval to the proposed instructor of the course and then to the concentration adviser for final approval prior to the beginning of the term during which the independent study is to be undertaken.

460. Topics and Themes in French Literature. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 La Politique Du Cinéma/Un Cinéma Politique.
From its origins, French cinema has been profoundly political. This course is an intensive survey of the politics of French film. We will take a broad working definition of "the political," examining films whose content makes a political statement, as well as those which seek to create a new politic through revolutionary aesthetics. For example, we will discuss how Gance's Napoléon uses visual technique to comment on heroism, revolution, and totalitarianism, how Marcel Ophuls' documentary style reveals and conceals the horrors of the French collaboration with the Nazis, and so on. The issues of colonialism, gender, Americanization, communism and more, will be considered through the works of the Surrealists, the Popular Front films of the 30s, African cinema, Resnais on the Algerian war, Francophone feminists, and Godard on Vietnam. Readings, discussions, and class assignments will be in French. Lab fee required. (White)

Section 002 Women Writers in the Francophone World. In this course we will read novels, short stories, plays, and poems by a diverse group of women writers who all express themselves in the French language. By exploring the fictional worlds of women from Algeria, Canada, France, Mauritius, Senegal, and the West Indies, we will seek to develop an understanding of the many experiences that French-speaking women from around the globe have chosen to describe in their writings. Readings will include works by Aminata Sow Fall, Mariama Bâ, Maryse Condé, Simone Schwarz-Bart, Anne Hébert, Assia Djebar, and others. Cost:3 (Mullaney)

Section 003 Evil Individuals, Forms of Death and the Dance of Death in Medieval Western Literature. This course, taught in English, examines both the concept of evil opposed to forms which are considered as its opposite (sainthood, heroism, etc.), and some major forms and manifestations of evil found in the European West and quite specifically in French history, literature, and art. Under forms of evil, we consider the devil, medieval acts of cruelty (martyrdoms, punishments, ordeals, torture), heresies, Templars, Cathars, witches, and witchcraft, demons, and monsters and wildmen, traitors, dwarfs, fools, evil men and women (bestiaries, the fabliaux, Raynart the Fox, the Fifteen Joyes of Marriage). Among other manifestations of evil, diseases: the plague, leprosy, mental illness, and finally death, suicide, and La Danse Macabre. No course prerequisites. Lectures and discussions. Students are assigned several book reports (to be presented in class), and one major topic to research and to present at the end of the term orally and in writing (term paper, 20-30 pages). Evaluations are based on class participation, oral presentations (50%) and final research presentation and term paper (50%). Required texts: A.C. Shannon, The Medieval Inquisition, The Liturgical Press, 1984; Mermier, Tristan and Yseut by Beroul, Peter Lang Publishing; The Song of Roland, Penguin edition; and one other book probably. Cost:3 WL:4 (Mermier)

Courses in ITALIAN (DIVISION 399)

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (LR).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with parallel emphasis on conversation. Text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 101 covers the first half of the text. Course topics include: (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include: (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination. Cost:3 WL:1

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden the student's knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also emphasized. The course covers the second half of the text with workbook and lab manual; readings supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination. Cost:3 WL:1

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102 or equivalent. Italian 206 may be elected prior to Italian 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Italian 206 emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is for students who have had at least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading material from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short storied, etc) which will be discussed in class. Use of the language laboratory will provide additional conversational material on various aspects of Italian life. Class will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading is on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of magazine and newspaper articles, short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions and oral reports center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. Cost:2

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (LR).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian, including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a continuing review of grammar, and the elements of composition. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:4

Other Language and Literature Courses

360. Italian Culture and History, Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries. (3). (HU).

This course, treating the 18th century through the 20th century, emphasizes the political, social and cultural difficulties that Italy encountered once it had lost the privileged position it held in Europe during the Renaissance. The importance of European movements, such as Illuminism and Romanticism, will be stressed as both artistic and political manifestations. Particular attention will be given to the mid-19th century struggle for the unification of the country, and the conditions that allowed the Fascist takeover. The Fascist period will be analyzed, considering in particular Mussolini's control over the mass-media, his promotion to the movie industry and the position of the intellectuals toward the dictatorship. The achievements of Italy after the second World War will be the focus of the last part of the course. Selected works by the following authors will be read: Vico, Verri, Beccaria, Goldini, Parini, Alfieri, Foscolo, Mazzini, Manzoni, Leopardi, Carducci, Verga, and early 20th-century figures. Students will be required to write two or three short papers during the term. Cost:3 WL:4 (Frisch)

362. Advanced Italian. Italian 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Further proficiency in oral and writing skills will be stressed in Italian 362. Reading materials will include short fiction and non-fiction, as well as lengthier assignments of outside reading on which various written and oral assignments will be made. Participation in class discussion, occasional oral presentations, weekly compositions based for the most part on assigned readings, the subject matter of which will deal primarily with subjects of topical interest. Continuing grammar difficulties will be treated as they arise. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly. Cost:1 WL:1 (Habekovic)

380. Italian Cinema and Society. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU).

The course, which will be taught in English, traces the historical development of Italian cinema from the postwar advent of neorealism to the mid 1980's. The course has several aims: to understand the political, economic, and cultural contexts which generated and supported the neorealist movement; to explore and analyze the theoretical bases of neorealism and its reception, both friendly and hostile, in Italian intellectual/political circles; to examine various aspects of the movement beyond neorealism proper in films of the 1950's and 1960's by Fellini, Visconti, Olmi, Bertolucci, and Bellocchio; and to expose the rethinking and re-evaluation of the neorealist aesthetic as carried out by Brusati, Scola, and the Taviani Brothers in the 1970's and 1980's. The course requirements, beyond class participation, will be three 6-8 page papers. A knowledge of Italian is useful, but is not required. Cost:2 WL:4 (Frisch)

472. Italian Theatre from Alfieri to Pirandello. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course will treat the dramas of one of Italy's greatest modern playwrights, Luigi Pirandello. While we will consider Pirandello's major theater in some detail, we will also review his narratives and his essays in order to understand the social and intellectual background of fascist Italy. In addition, various contemporary dramatists will be discussed. Requirements for the course are the following: two essays (5-8 pp. each); a class presentation; and a final exam. Readings and discussion will be either in English or Italian depending on the composition of the class. (Lucente)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101. (4). (LR).

A continuation of Portuguese 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on departmental exams, oral exams, quizzes, written assignments and daily oral work. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. WL:4 (Viviani)

232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 231 or the equivalent. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Portuguese and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Portuguese-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on exams, designed to assess ability to speak, understand, read and write Portuguese, plus periodic written work (including compositions) and oral class participation. WL:4 (Viviani)

350. Independent Study. Portuguese 232 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed must be submitted to the concentration adviser no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Portuguese Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. (Proposal forms are available in the Department Office.) The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course.

450. Independent Study. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of six credits.

The work to be done should not be the same as that offered in a regular course. A written description of the project together with an appropriate bibliography must be submitted for initial approval to the proposed instructor of the course and then to the concentration adviser for final approval prior to the beginning of the term during which the independent study is to be undertaken.

Courses in ROMANCE LINGUISTICS (DIVISION 460)

414/Spanish 414. Background of Modern Spanish. Good reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 414. (Dworkin)

454/French 427. French Syntax. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See French 427. (Hagiwara)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. Students who began Spanish at another college or university must also take the placement test.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (LR).

Spanish 101, an introductory course, has been designed to help students develop proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing in Spanish at the beginning level. Furthermore, it intends to enhance a deeper understanding of the culture/Culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Grade is based on several quizzes, in class oral work, written work, a Midterm and a Final exam, both of which assess the student's proficiency in all five skills. Cost:4

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. Spanish 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in Spanish 103. (4). (LR).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based ondepartmental exams, oral exams, quizzes, written assignments and daily oral work. Cost: Same texts as 101. WL:4

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish 103 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere. Cost:2 WL:4

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

Spanish 231, a third-term course, has been designed to help students develop proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading and writing in Spanish at the intermediate level. Furthermore, it intends to enhance deeper understanding of the culture/Culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Grade is based on several quizzes, a Midterm and a Final exam, which assess the student's proficiency in all five skills.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 112. (4). (LR).
Section 007.
This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on exams, designed to assess ability to speak, understand, read and write Spanish, plus periodic written work (including compositions) and oral class participation. WL:4 (Guzman)

Section 008 Topics in South American Culture. Spanish language will be used in exploring selected South American Indian and modern urban cultures. A variety of materials and approaches will be used. Differences and similarities with American culture will be explored. Active participation in class discussions is expected. Final grade will be based on class participation, quizzes, compositions, oral presentations, midterm and final exam. The goal of this course is to enhance the cultural understanding of this part of South America and to improve the use of Spanish language. (Gonzalez)

Section 017. Spanish 232, a fourth-term language/literature course, has been designed to help students develop proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing in Spanish at the intermediate-advanced level. It has been structured with the specific aim of giving students an overview of Hispanic literature, art and culture. Grade is based on student presentations, class discussions, periodic written work, quizzes, and a midterm and final exam, which asses the students' proficiency in all four skills. (Hilberry)

Section 020. See Section 007. (Milne)

Section 022. This course will present an overview of the history and cultural development of Mexico and Central America from the time of the Spanish conquests to the present. Working with the selected readings students will gain important insights into the historical processes leading up to the formation of the present day Mexican and Central American societies. The readings will include eye-witness accounts of the Spanish conquests from both the Spanish and Native American perspectives, selections treating the nature of the pre-Columbian American societies, and general readings treating the colonial period, the formation of the modern republics, and the arts, literatures, and political situations of the same. The course will also include in-class interviews with representatives of the Mexican and Central American cultures. (Milne)

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Spanish 111 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 112 is the second of a two-course sequence in which students learn the art of Spanish translating. Students enrolling in Spanish 112 should already know the major Spanish verb tenses and should come to the course with a fundamental knowledge of Spanish grammar. In Spanish 112 students read a number of texts from a broad spectrum of academic and nonacademic disciplines, including biology, anthropology, archaeology, history, the culinary arts, and many other areas of human interest. As language recognition is the principal skill acquired in Spanish 112, the course does not stress speaking.

Other Language Courses

358. Spanish Conversation for Non-Concentrators. Spanish 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Spanish 361 or 362. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 358, 361, and 362 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 358 is a practical Spanish conversation course for non-concentrators interested in the Spanish language and in contemporary Hispanic culture. Texts include journalistic prose as well as journal formatted videos aimed at increasing students' knowledge of current affairs in Spain and Latin America. Audio tapes will be employed to improve pronunciation, vocabulary and listening skills. Class format includes group discussions, debates, oral presentations and role-playing. Attendance and participation will be mandatory and will constitute a large part of the course grade. Grades will also be determined by examination of students' listening and expressive skills. Finally, students will practice writing in various practical formats such as letters, book or movie reviews, etc. These written exercises will form the final component of the course grade.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 358, 361, and 362 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to increase the accuracy of students' Spanish and to increase vocabulary and cultural knowledge through readings. The course is centered on a grammar-review text. Students do readings in Spanish, prepare translations and other exercises, and expand vocabulary. Time is allotted to class discussion of readings and especially to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are conducted exclusively in Spanish. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in class discussions or presentations.

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 358, 361, and 362 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve student's ability to read Spanish prose, as well as their skills in conversational and written Spanish. To this end, students will be presented with a variety of written, visual and audio materials designed to stimulate discussion, both written and oral. Compositions are assigned regularly and oral presentations by students required. Classes are conducted exclusively in Spanish. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in class discussions or presentations.

414/Rom. Ling. 414. Background of Modern Spanish. A thorough reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course surveys the historical, social, cultural, and literary background against which spoken Latin of the Iberian Peninsula evolved into Spanish. The emphasis is on the external rather than the internal history of Spanish. Topics covered include the influence on the development of Spanish of such diverse languages as Basque, Gothic, Arabic, French, Italian, and Literary Latin, the role of the Reconquest (Reconquista) in shaping the linguistic map of Spain, and the circumstances leading to the rise of the Castilian dialect as the national standard. The ability to read Spanish is essential. Selected chapters from Rafael Lapesa, Historia de la lengua espanola and Antonio Alatorre, Los 1,001 anos de la lengua espanola will be made available in a course pack. In addition, graduate students will be required to read the chapters dealing with Spain in Roger Wright, Late Latin and Early Romance. There will be a midterm and final exams, and a written report. Prerequisite: Good reading knowledge of Spanish. Cost:1 WL:3 (Dworkin)

Literature

350. Independent Studies. Permission of concentration adviser. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit more than once with permission.

This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Concentration Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. (Proposal forms are available in the Department Office.) The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course.

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU).

El curso se propone introducir al estudiante a la literatura Espa iola de la Edad Media y del Siglo de Oro, partiendo desde la consideración de las principales teorías sobre la producción de la obra literaria y los distintos puntos de vista para su estudio. Se considerarán las obras más representativas de dichos períodos en los diversos géneros de la prosa (de ficción e hist6rico-ensayística), y de la poesía lírica, épica y dramática. Los alumnos trabajarán, dirigidos por el profesor, en un ensayo de tipo filológico sobre un género, un tópico, o un aspecto formal, que considere una obra medieval y otra del Siglo de Oro. Habrá dos exámenes: uno a mitad del semestre, y otro al final. (Lopez-Grigera)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU).

The late eighteenth-century and the 1930's mark the two extremes of the period represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, methods and approaches of literary criticism are considered, and an effort is made to show how the works exemplify their cultural context, ranging from the Enlightenment through Romanticism, Positivism, Symbolism to Existentialism. Representative authors who may be studied are Moratin, Larra, Becquer, Galdos, Azorin, Machado, Jimenez, Unamuno and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of periodic tests, midterm and final paper, and a final exam. The course is conducted in Spanish. Cost:3 WL:4 (Anderson)

373. Topics in Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001.
The topic this term is the theater primarily of nineteenth-century Spain. It is possible to study plays as part of literary movements, and of course we shall take note in our analyses of Romantic and Realistic characteristics. Our focus, however, is to be on the play as spectacle. We shall try to see how sentiments struggle with ideas, how audience involvement varies with critical distance, the author's desire to represent grand human problems or those of a specific social class, to show traditional historical verities or current reality. Another issue to involve us is how the rise of the middle class in Spanish life, and particularly of the ticket-buying public, affected theatrical writing. Some of the authors to be read are Zorrilla, Hartzenbusch, García Gutiérrez, Tamayo y Baus, and Galdós. Active class discussions, quizzes, a term paper, and final examination constitute the course exercises. Conducted in Spanish. WL:4 (Hafter)

Section 002. This course will concentrate on the Spanish vanguard, 1918-1936, a period of radical experimentation in the arts. Based upon readings from literary magazines, as well as viewings of films and art-slides, we will examine the "cultural dialogue" of the period focusing on the issues and problems that preoccupied writers and artists. Given that this dialogue took place in an international frame, we will also consider how Spanish literature and art participated in European artistic movements, such as futurism, cubism, dada and surrealism. Readings will include short stories, essays, poetry, and drama. Assignments will include an oral presentation, three short essays and two exams. Evaluation will be based upon written assignments and class participation. Methods: lecture/discussion. Cost:1 WL:4 (Highfill)

382. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU).

Covers the main Spanish American contemporary authors in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortazar, Gabriel Garcia Marquez; Vicente Huidobro, Pablo Neruda, Cesar Vallejo; Rodolfo Usigli, Octavio Paz). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. Conducted in Spanish. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports, (b) midterm exam, and (c) final examination. (Goic)

387. Social Forces and Literary Expression in Golden Age Spain. A 300-level Spanish course or permission of instructor. Not recommended for students who have taken Spanish 371. (2). (HU).

A discussion of the some important texts of the Spanish Golden Age, Lazarillo de Tormes, Diálogo de las cosas ocurridas en Roma, Fuenteovejuna, among others, which will focus on economic, social and cultural conflicts present in that period: the conflict between nobles and monarchy, the separation of classes, the role of the "conversos". (Casa)

435. Independent Study. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 3 credits.

See Spanish 350.

437. Introduction to Literature Studies and Criticism. One 400-level Spanish course or permission of adviser. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Este curso considera dos problemas complementarios, el de las teorías literarias, y el de los métodos de análisis literario que proceden de dichas teorías. El curso tendrá una dimensión diacrónica: comenzando por la Edad Media, hasta el presente, se ejemplificará con textos espa oles, tanto en las teorías como en la crítica. En especial se hard una revisión de la crítica en torno a la poesía de Garcilaso, y de Quevedo, al Lazarillo de Tormes, y al Quijote. En el curso se harán dos tipos de práctica: a) comentarios de textos, y análisis literarios; con especial consideración sobre de la composición de diferentes tipos de ensayos, y b) una bibliografía crítica sobre un momento de la crítica literaria de algunas de las obras consideradas en el curso. El exámen final será sobre la historia de las teorías literarias y de la crítica. (Lopez-Grigera)

450. Middle Ages. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-387 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course proposes an intellectual adventure: an exploration of the distant world of the Iberian Middle Ages from the 11th to the late 14th centuries. Our readings imitate the adventurous nature of the course, dealing with adventures in love, war, and intellectual exploration. Texts will include the Poema de mio Cid, the Libro de Apolonio, Berceo's Milagros de Nuestra Se ora, the Conde Lucanor of Juan Manuel, and the Libro de buen amor of Juan Ruiz. Conducted in Spanish. Requirements: course journal, midterm and final exams, midterm and final papers, other short writing assignments. (Brown)

460. The Spanish Comedia. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (Excl).
Golden Age Drama.
A reading of some of the key comedias of the Golden Age Period by Lope, Tirso de Molina, Calderón de la Barca. The course will place these works within their literary and cultural context and will focus on the world view present in these plays. Paper, final exam. (Casa)

466. The Modern Spanish Novel II. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

In this course we will read and discuss novels of the post-war and post-Franco periods in Spain (1939-1990). The primary objective of the course is to explore various analytical approaches to narrative. A secondary aim is to examine "novelistic space" the fictional world projected by the text into the mind of a reader. To what extent is that imaginary space organized and governed by the reader, by the text in hand, and by the culture a large? And how do those modes of organization differ in the various novels and change over the course of time? Assignments will include two medium-length papers and two exams. Evaluation will be based on written assignments and class participation. Methods: lecture-discussion. Readings include six novels and a manual of literary analysis. Cost:3 WL:4 (Highfill)

476. Latin American Poetry of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 9 credits.

This course will deal with the Spanish American poetry of the Contemporary Period. It will include the reading of short poems by poets such as Gabriela Mistral, Vicente Huidobro, César Vallejo, Pablo Neruda, Nicanor Parra, Octavio Paz, Ernesto Cardenal, Enrique Lihn, Carlos Germán Belli, Oscar Hahn, José Emilio Pacheco, and references to many others. The approach will be close reading of a number of poems. The format will be lecture and discussion. Students will be required to write a number of assignments, a midterm paper and a final paper. Evaluation will take into consideration: participation 10%, assignments 20%, midterm 30%, and final paper 40%. Text: Cedomil Goic, Historia y Crítica de la Literatura Hispanoamericana. Volume 3. Barcelona, Editorial Crítica, 1988. (Goic)

485. Case Studies in Peninsular Spanish and Latin American Literature. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent or permission of advisor. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Section 001 Latino/a Literatures: The Politics of Language and Cultural Identity. Reading knowledge of Spanish is essential. Class discussions will be conducted in Spanish, English, and code-switching. This course explores language and bilingualism as sites for defining and reconceptualizing cultural identity among Latinos/as in the United States. Through poetry, prose, essays and testimonies written by Latino/a writers, students will delve into the political meanings of using Spanish, English, and codeswitching in literature and in daily life. Issues such as the role of language in creating a cultural identity, the practice of codeswitching and bilingualism, the dialectics between orality and written texts, and the power dynamics related to bilingualism and the use of Spanish in the United States will all be explored. The course is interdisciplinary in its approach and will include readings in literature, sociolinguistics, education, politics and cultural studies. Cost:2 WL:1 (Aparicio)

490. Spanish Honors: Introduction to Literary Studies and Criticism. One 400-level Spanish literature course, and permission of Honors advisor. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 491.

491. Senior Honors Course. Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Students who successfully complete the Junior year Honors sequence are eligible to elect the senior year sequence (Spanish 490 and 491). In Spanish 491 the focus is upon selected topics, authors, literary movements, or genres chosen from Spain or Spanish America depending on the needs of the student. The student will study and analyze the subject, supervised by a senior member of the faculty. A description of the project and required exercises to be completed must be submitted to the Honors Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Honors Committee. The committee is to receive any lengthy paper submitted in the course. Prerequisite: Open only to seniors by permission of the Departmental Honors Committee.


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