University Courses (Division 495)

First-Year Seminars, offered under the University Courses division in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, provide a unique small class educational experience to first-year students.

Seminars are offered by outstanding faculty and emeritus faculty from many different departments on a variety of topics. Each provides a group of approximately fifteen students with a stimulating introduction to the intellectual life of the University by exposing them to engaging subject matter and offering the opportunity for active participation that a small class will afford. It is hoped that students who take a seminar will find in it a sense of intellectual and social community that will make the transition to a large university easier. Some may discover a subject to pursue in further courses.

Seminars are open to all first-year students and should be elected along with other courses. Each will count toward satisfying the distribution requirements of the College in one of the three basic subject areas: Humanities (150), Social Sciences (151), or Natural Sciences (152).

Collegiate Seminars, offered under the University Course division (495) in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, provide a unique small class educational opportunity to students.

Seminars allow a student to personalize his or her education. Each seminar is taught by a regular professorial faculty member. Each is limited to approximately twenty students. Interaction between student and teacher, made possible by the small size of the class, facilitates deeper learning and allows the student to get to know a faculty member personally. Moreover, students find that in seminars, they learn much from one another because a learning community develops, and dialogue among students as well as between student and teacher takes place. We strongly recommend that each student take at least one seminar during the four years at Michigan.

Collegiate Seminars are open to any student who has completed the Introductory Composition Requirement. The seminars emphasize critical thinking about important and central topics and feature further instruction in writing.

All Collegiate Seminars count toward satisfaction of the College's distribution requirements in one of the three basic subject areas: Humanities (250), Social Sciences (251), or Natural Sciences (252).

111/Sociology 111. Introduction to Global Change II. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Natural Resources 111. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to guide students in learning about the natural world, the processes of science, and the role of human activities in shaping and changing the environment. The course will examine the evolution of life and the human species on earth and will focus on the spread of the human species including the advent of agriculture and cities; the spread of major world religions; the emergence of modern society; and the problems of global change produces by recent human advances in technology and institutions. The course is appropriate for all students and will assume no prior background. The homework and laboratories will depend heavily on the use of computers to develop quantitative reasoning, analytical thinking, writing, and to promote personal interaction with the faculty. Three 1-hour lectures and one 1-hour lab/discussion per week. Grades will be based on weekly written lab exercises, midterm, and final exam. (Ness, Teeri, Allan)

150. First-Year Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Understanding and Appreciating Poetry.
While poetry is speech, a mode of communication among men and women, it is speech of a special kind, in which words are used, combined, in such a way as to produce not simply a straightforward utilitarian statement like a telegram or a set of directions, but a complex work of art that communicates in many-sided subtle ways. Now, it may well be that a taste for poetry is a gift, quite as much as the ability to make poetry, it should be possible to deepen our appreciation of it by careful study of the exact ways in which poems make their appeal to us. The aim of the course will be to explore, by reading and discussing a variety of individual poems from both past and present, the ways in which poems work to produce the specific kinds of satisfaction they can offer us, and to help the individual reader develop a sense for the unique value of poetry, for one of the major arts. Reading assignments: close, analytic reading of a few poems for each class discussion. Short papers on single poems throughout the term, and a more extensive paper, towards the end, on the work of a particular poet chosen by each student individually. Text: The Norton Anthology of Poetry, Third Edition (Complete Edition, not the Shorter Edition). (Students who have access to the Second Edition should be able to use it without inconvenience.) (Barrows)

Section 002 Creative Writing. A workshop in which the student will obtain practice in writing informal autobiographical essays, short fiction, and poems. The student's work will be read and discussed in class and will also be discussed in scheduled conferences with the instructor. The student should be prepared to submit about six copies of each written assignment for the use of his or her classmates. (Lyons)

Section 003 Drama and Society. This course will examine the relationships between classic plays and the cultural, political, and artistic circumstances that produced them. Students will explore strategies for reading plays as distinct from other literary forms, and they will learn to consider a range of ways that plays have been written and performed over the last twenty-five hundred years. The course will begin with works first staged in Athens during the 5th century B.C., and will move through a series of plays staged in Europe, America, and Africa over the last several centuries. The plays will be read and discussed at the rate of one per week and assignments will include two short papers, oral reports presented in class, and midterm and final examinations. (Woods)

Section 004 Not only St. Francis: Christian Writing on the Environment. Does Christianity have anything to say about current environmental issues? How have Christians in the past understood relationships between God, Nature, and humanity? This course critically examines biblical and Christian writings on environmental topics from antiquity to the present. The course studies the Bible as the basis for Christian thought, and examines such writers as Iraneus, Augustine, Patrick, Dame Julian of Norwich, Hildegard of Bingen, Francis of Assisi, Thomas Aquinas, John Calvin, Annie Dillard, and Wendell Berry. The course ends with an assessment of criticisms of Christianity as a major culprit in the modern environmental crisis. Students will write journal entries for each reading assignment, and will share their ideas in discussion. Lectures will place each author in his or her time and society. A research paper will allow each student to explore authors or ideas in greater depth than classtime has afforded. Cost:2 WL:1 (Wessel Walker)

Section 005 Visions of the Past. History is constructed for us in many forms, both verbal and visual, and works of the imagination, like a painting or a novel, provide most of us with most of the history we know. Many more Americans have read or seen Gone With the Wind than have perused a history of the Civil War; Emmanuel Leutze's "Washington Crossing the Delaware" has for generations fixed schoolchildren's sense of the heroic general. This course will examine the various forms, from the traditional narrative to the TV documentary, with the aim of understanding their value and persuasiveness. Episodes in European and American history will provide the contexts. Thus, for example, we will read Arthur Miller's play about the Salem witchcraft trials, The Crucible, and then consider a recent feminist analysis of that tragic episode. Later we will read Martin Luther King's memoir of the Montgomery bus boycott and compare his memory of it with a recent documentary film. Ultimately in discussing how history is represented we will reach the question of why, and why each generation must write its own version. Some introductory commentary on texts and contexts will be provided, but discussion will be the primary way we handle the individual works. Several short papers (5 pages) will be assigned, and these, together with participation in class discussion, will determine the grade. (Marwil)

151. First-Year Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (SS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Current Issues in Sport Sociology.
This structured seminar on the current issues, developments, and trends in sport sociology will be analyzed from various contributing theoretical and research bases. Critical new developments will be addressed as they occur. Topics include such disparate elements as status, race relations, ethical values, and bureaucratic structure of collegiate and professional sport. Other important themes include social deviance, recruiting practices, socializations via sport, socialization into sport, sport and gender equity and reward systems. Lecture and discussion. (Vaughn)

Section 002 Public Education in the South for Blacks and Other Minorities, 1863-1954. The purpose of the seminar will be to trace the development of elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education of Blacks and minorities in the southern states of the United States from the Emancipation Proclamation to May 17, 1954. Particular emphasis will be focused on judicial litigations from the supreme court decision to Plessy vs. Ferguson, from which the doctrine of "separate but equal" evolved, to the historic Brown vs. Topeka, Kansas Board of Education 1954, which upheld the fundamental principle that racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional. Of special importance will be seminar discussions revealing how Blacks and minorities were successful in achieving an education in spite of the barriers confronting them in the states where they resided and resulting from supreme court decisions, including the Supreme Court of the United States. Students will be expected to read a number of the classic writings of Black and minority authors such as W.E.B. DuBois, E. Franklin Frazier, Booker T. Washington, John Hope Franklin, and many others. The writings of contemporary Blacks and minorities will be explored as well as books about Blacks and minorities such as Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma. Students will be expected to prepare readings, participate in seminar discussions, and develop a research topic preferably centered around one of the southern states under investigation in the seminar. (Palmer)

Section 003 New Challenges for U.S. Foreign Policy. The dramatic ending of the Cold War presented makers of U.S. foreign policy with a new array of intractable problems. Euphoria over the end of the confrontation of two superpowers that had threatened the world with nuclear war for nearly half a century was short-lived. In fact, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and empire restoked smoldering ethnic, racial, religious and cultural antagonisms far beyond the area of Soviet hegemony at a time when other critical issues for U.S. diplomacy the spread of nuclear weapons capability to Third World countries, the traffic in drugs and weapons of mass destruction, the trade gap with Japan, the impact of the European Community's economic union, uncontrolled immigration from Latin America were intensifying. This seminar will examine as many of these challenges as time permits and students will impersonate the State Department's Policy Planning unit and National Security Council staff for purposes of oral presentation, class discussion and the writing of "action" papers for the President and the Secretary of State. But we will begin with the policy-making process: how decisions are made and who the players are in addition to the President and the Secretary; the roles of the National Security Council, the Defense and other Cabinet departments; the CIA and other intelligence units; Congress, business, labor and citizen groups; domestic and foreign lobbies. We will study the constraints on the use of U.S. power political, economic and political imposed by the practice of allied and United Nations diplomacy, American history, traditions and mores. Course requirements include a typed report on a relevant book and a take-home final in the form of a comprehensive long-term policy recommendation on a major foreign-policy issue. A package of selected readings will be assigned in lieu of a textbook. Cost:1 Call instuctor at 995-1132 to discuss override. (Hovey)

Section 004 Environmental Injustice. Environmental injustice is an issue of importance to all, but especially to people of color communities, that is low income, minority, economically, politically, and socially disadvantaged populations. This course introduces students to one of the most important issues of contemporary history, providing an overview of differences and similarities regarding various aspects of the actual environmental crisis worldwide. Environmental degradation will be analyzed in terms of economic development, labor, class, race, and gender from a sociopolitical point of view. The participation of peoples and governments in the development and solution of environmental problems will be explored. Lectures, discussion, guest speakers, videos, and case studies from the United States, Third World Countries, and Latin America. Requirements include readings from a course pack, active and meaningful class participation, oral presentations (individual and/or team work), two short essays, and a final research paper. (Velez)

Section 005 Building a Community of Change. This course will offer an introduction to community development through "empowerment education" as developed in the writings of Paulo Freire, Myles Horton, Lyra Srinivasan, Augusto Boal, David Werner and Bill Bower, and other progressive educators who have worked with oppressed people around the world. Students will critically analyze situations of social inequality and hardship faced by individuals and communities in the United States through readings and class discussion. They will learn and practice educational techniques that encourage people to document, discuss and reflect on the underlying causes of their poverty: problem identification and analysis, group discussion, popular theater and other arts. Through carefully structured community service experiences they will learn to understand problems and needs from the point of view of the poor and become familiar with something of the cultures, contexts, skills and knowledge, and ways of thinking of the people they serve. Writing assignments, both in and out of class, will help students integrate the readings with their experiences in the community and to come to their own conclusions about the nature and causes of social problems. Students who are interested in doing National Service or Peace Corps work, or who are interested in medicine, political science, economics, social work, law or environmental science will find this course a useful introduction to, as one student put it, "the human side of development." (Fox)

Section 006 Gender Issues, Christian Thought, and The Bible. When was the last time you [ read Genesis 1-3? This fascinating myth about Adam, Eve, and the Serpent had an enormous impact on the development of Christian thought in areas ranging from creation and salvation to the social roles of men and women. Did you know that some Christian women practised transvestism for the sake of entering the Kingdom while some men condoned castration? Such issues as androgyny, celibacy, marriage, primordial paradise, the feminine aspect of the godhead, and the implications of "becoming male" will be pertinent to our discussions. We will study many early Christian movements. Our major goal will be to analyze the aspects of "male" and "female" in these movements and answer the question: In what way(s) was the social history of early Christianity a reflection of its religious ideology? We will review Elaine Pagel's classic, The Gnostic Gospels, plus biblical passages, The Gospel of Thomas, Gnostic texts, and some of the apocryphal Acts of the apostles. Several one page exercises and an essay take-home final will be administered. No religious background or prior knowledge required. (DeConick)

152. First-Year Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (NS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 The Human Body in Sickness and Health.
How would you define health? How would you describe your own body and how it functions? This course asks you to explore the answers to questions like these for yourself, and also look at answers to these questions provided by biology. We will compare and contrast our own answers and those provided by biology with answers suggested by art, literature, and history. The intent of the course is to explore different constructions of the body biological, social, personal so that at the end of the term we will respond to these questions again with a deeper, and revised, understanding of our personal constructions of health and the body. We will explore "myths" and "facts" in the constructions of the human body and the intersection of belief with these constructions. The biology of the human body is presented as a framework for this exploration. Topics covered will include: images of the body in art, in advertising and in language; reductionism versus holism; psychosocial problems such as anorexia/bulimia and AIDS and reproductive behavior; asymmetries of health care race, class, and gender issues as related to health. The format will be primarily interactive with discussion, small group exercises and mini-lectures. Emphasis will be on writing to learn. As students, you will be expected to keep a journal in which you reflect on your class experience and learning. A short paper will be required biweekly, with 2 longer papers during the semester. (Gates)

Section 002 Cosmology... Physical Science Contemplates the Nature of the Universe. Physical science has been called the most successful of mankind's enterprises. Through its particular methodology and outlook, physical science supplies a means for understanding the World around us, just as religious experience and the arts make their contributions to the total of human comprehension. This seminar will attempt to reveal what physical scientists believe to be the "true nature" of the Universe, and why they think so. We will try to present this seminar without mathematics, but students are warned that some of the concepts might be tough to deal with, anyway. One aim will be to comprehend how the physical scientist thinks, visualizes things such as quanta, quarks, and quasars, and decides what is "true" and what is not. Students will be helped to look closely at those activities. We start with an overview of contemporary science's view of the cosmos, taking a look at space, time, gravity, expansion of the Universe, and quantum weirdness. Then we will discuss scientific methodology and talk about scientific process and philosophy relevant to these modern scientific concepts. This will involve us in thinking about the nature of scientific explanation and scientific law. We will, however, be more involved with the concepts of scientists than with the history or philosophy of science. The best explanations of the Universe that scientists currently have are embodied in relativity and quantum mechanics, two separate theories that individually provide incomplete descriptions of nature. We will introduce them non-mathematically and describe some of the views of nature they offer. The readings will explore the current picture of the basic structure of matter the idea that the constituent particles of the atom consist of still more fundamental particles. Students will be guided to think about whether this view of matter a view which describes the make-up of the Universe itself actually describes reality or whether it is just a scientific convenience. Our reading will consider some fanciful notions such as where the physical laws of nature came from, whether the Universe could create itself and whether the presence of consciousness in the Universe (for example, thinking human beings on earth) is necessary for its existence. Astronomy has known of the expansion of the Universe for over 60 years, but it is only recently that scientists have been able to find convincing evidence that there was an origin event. We will summarize current astronomical observations about the structure of the Universe and find how they lead to the belief there was a beginning. Scientists think they can eventually understand the origin event and its immediate aftermath through theoretical calculations. The seminar will explore how they attempt this enormously complex task, and will explain what they are finding. Seminar meetings will emphasize student discussion of reading material. From time to time there will be a short quiz or a one-page paper written in class. We will read two complete books Hawking's A Brief History of Time and Davies and Gribben's The Matter Myth and excerpts from seven others. There will be a midterm and a final examination, both of essay type, and a required term paper on a topic chosen by the individual student. (Teske)

Section 003 Drugs, Culture, and Human Behavior. An introductory survey of psychoactive drugs and plants, toxins, and other chemicals that alter human behavior with an emphasis on their use in various cultures. Following a historical introduction and an overview of drug action mechanisms, each chemical group is discussed from the following perspectives: history of use, specific modes of action, physiological and psychological effects, reasons for use (religious, medicinal, recreational, etc.), cultural influences, and potential hazards and treatments. Topics include alcohol and other depressants, coca leaves and other stimulants, psychedelics and hallucinogens, psychotherapeutics, medicinal plants, and contraceptives. Course requirements: three short (4-6 pages) essays; a term paper or a take home exam. A sample of course readings: Selections from all or part of the following: Bakalar and Grinspoon, Drug Control in a Free Society; Marshall, Belief, Behaviors, and Alcoholic Beverages; Berridge and Edwards, Opium and the People: Opiate Use in Nineteenth Century England; Pacini and Franquemont, Coca and Cocaine: Effects on People and Policy in Latin America; Harner, Hallucinogens and Shamanism; Etkin, Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet. (Rose)

Section 004 Natural Resources: Rights and Responsibilities. Natural means occurring in the world/universe but not made by people. Resource means help meet some human need or desire. Virtually everything in the world is potentially a resource for people. Especially vital for human well-being is the natural state of the world, which enables us to live. This includes an appropriate temperature; a breathable atmosphere; protection from harmful radiation; clean water to drink; plants to provide food; sun, water, soil, and warmth for plants to grow; and, more recently in human history, stuff to make things from and energy to make things work. In this seminar we will ask: how did/do these resources come into being?; who does use/consume/destroy them for what end?; what are the consequences for human well-being of their use/consumption/ destruction?; what could a responsible society do to promote desirable consequences and avoid undesirable ones?; and what are the psychological, social, political, blocks that prevent us from doing these things? Students will approach these questions in three ways: quantitative data and concepts; quantitative dynamic models; scientific, psychological, social, and political argument. Students will read some assigned readings, forage for data, practice quantitative exercises to develop concepts of dynamic process, participate in class discussion, write short in-class essays, and produce a term project. (Estabrook)

171/German 171/History 171. Coming to Terms with Germany. (4). (HU).

See German 171. (Eley/Amrine)

175/Slavic Surveys 221. Ukraine, Armenia and the Baltics: Culture and Ethnicity in the Other Europe. (3). (HU).

See Slavic Surveys 221.

176/Russian 222. Russia Today. (3). (HU).

See Russian 222. (Makin)

177/Slavic Surveys 240. Introduction to Slavic Folklore. (3). (HU).

See Slavic Surveys 240. (Stolz)

210. Perspectives on Careers in Medicine and Health Care. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 Careers in Medicine and Health Care.
This course is for students considering a career in the health professions. It is designed to help them acquire perspectives to facilitate their decision-making process. Health care professionals visit the class and share their educational and professional experiences. Students become acquainted with the prerequisites for professional and graduate schools and spend time with dental, medical, osteopathic, nursing, and public health students. We consider problems facing the health professions in the 90's: problems of health care delivery, the high cost of medicine and its effect on the uninsured and underinsured. We discuss issues relating to malpractice and death and dying. Students are expected to respond in writing and in class to the visitors, to the reading materials, and to films. Two course packs and one book serve as the required texts. All students are responsible for taking definite steps toward the development of their own goals through a self-inventory of their values, skills, and interests and through a term paper exploring a possible career direction. Evaluation is based on class attendance and participation and completion of all assignments. The class meets Mon. 3-5, Thurs. 7-9:30 p.m. at 2130 Dorset Rd., Ann Arbor. A map showing the location of 2130 Dorset Rd. will be available at 1017 Angell Hall. Cost:2 WL:5 Enrollment by override only: contact Fran Zorn at 1017 Angell Hall (763-2062) or call 662-0683 and leave a message. (Zorn)

250. Collegiate Seminars. Open to any student who has completed the introductory composition requirement. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Idea, Form, and Medium.
The goal of this course is to help students understand the challenge and value of expressive form for the artist working in theater, motion pictures and literature. The course will have as its basis the theoretical assumption that "cinematic" structures (time and space manipulation, parallel development, montage, etc.) have served the modern storyteller well in the development of complex characters and engaging narratives. Taught as a lecture-discussion seminar, class materials will include the reading of fiction, the viewing of classic films, and the study of film theory and literary criticism. One exercise, for example, will involve the evolution of Christopher Isherwood's short story "Sally Bowles" to stage play (I Am a Camera ) to film/musical Cabaret. Students will read Roddy Doyle's novel The Commitments and analyze the film adaptation by Alan Parker. Course grading will result from short written assignments and a term paper/oral report project. (Beaver)

Section 002 The Human Vision of Don Quijote. Don Quijote is known as the greatest expression of idealism: the knight's absolute commitment to his vision has influenced generations of readers while Cervantes' novelistic techniques have shaped modern Western fiction. This course will discuss not only these issues but will deal also with questions that were hotly debated in the Renaissance: the nature of narrative, the importance of similitude, poetry vs. history, etc. Central to our efforts will be an exploration of the nature and consequences of the knight's idealism. Was Cervantes writing a critique of misplaced imagination or chronicling the aspirations of the human spirit? Students are expected to be active participants in class discussion and will be asked to write two papers. (Casa)

Section 003 Language and Personal Identity. Much of what we take to be "natural" or "normal" is very closely related to the structure of our native languages. Our languages not only provide us with the words with which we define ourselves as humans, they also provide us with ready made classification systems. Topics we will study include: Does our language treat equally men and women, members of various racial and ethnic groups, those of all sexual orientations? How useful for self-definition are categories like race (in color terms), social class (in economic terms), sexuality (in terms of male vs. female gender)? What can we learn from the history of individual words (what is to be made of the fact that "witch, bawd, shrew, frump, harlot" originally referred both to men and women; that "tart" and "hussy" are shortenings of "sweethart" and "housewife")? We will also examine campus slang and jokes to discover their role in self-definition. Class discussion will be based on and supplemented by regular (nearly daily) short (1-2 page) written assignments. (Toon)

Section 004 Religious Change in the Roman Empire. In the fourth century AD, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire. The Christianization of western Europe, North Africa, the Balkans and the Middle East was the most important act of Roman government. But what did it mean for practitioners of traditional religions in this area, and what did it mean for Christianity itself? How did Christianity change, and how did it change the Roman empire? In this course we will examine the nature of religious conversion, the impact of traditional, polytheistic practice on Christianity, and the creation of new power structures within the Church from the fourth to seventh centuries AD, when the emergence of Islam altered the religious equation in the Mediterranean World. After an examination of the structures of traditional religion in the ancient world we will move on to the nature of Constantine's conversion to Christianity in 312. From this point onward, the imperial government had a central role to play in the evolution of Church doctrine, and we will look at the effect of this upon the structure of the Church. Of particular importance in this regard will be the emergence of holy people, operating outside the limits of the traditional church, creating alternative Christian hierarchies in various ways throughout the empire. At the same time, Christianity provided a new vehicle for communication between the Roman state and peoples beyond the frontiers of the empire, with significant results. Christianity also provided new historical paradigms that enabled people to interpret and argue about the events of their lives in fresh ways, we will therefore spend some time looking at the formation of a new Christian paradigm for history. This course is concerned with the study of religion in its social context and methods available for that study. It is only coincidentally concerned with documents not at all concerned with the truth or falsity of any system of religious belief. (Potter)

Section 005 Gödel, Escher, Bach. Douglas Hofstadter's 1980 book Gödel, Escher, Bach is one of the most popular unread books in history. Subtitled A Metaphoric Fugue on Men, Machines, and Minds in the style of Lewis Carroll, it was an instant classic that won the Pulitzer Prize and enjoys continuing sales after more than a decade, but far more people have bought it than have read it. This course will discuss many of the themes that run through it, including mathematics, artificial intelligence, metaphor, creativity, computing, meaning, art, music, and consciousness. We will attempt to actually finish the book, and will read a number of works on collateral topics. Besides the various reading and writing assignments, each class member will undertake a term project on some topic relevant to the course and make a formal seminar presentation of it towards the end of the term. Active participation in class, and in a computer conference is a course requirement. Required textbooks: Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach; Hofstadter, Metamagical Themas; Lakoff and Johnson, Metaphors We Live By; Bateson, Mind and Nature; and a course pack. Cost:2 (Lawler)

251. Collegiate Seminars. Open to any student who has completed the introductory composition requirement. (4). (SS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001. Alternative Realities: Science and the Study of Human Perception.
This course will investigate a number of questions about the nature of human perception, about the nature of science, and about the relationship between them. A number of broad, highly subjective, inherently interesting questions about the nature of perception will be investigated. The broadest of these questions will the question of cultural relativism: Do people from widely different cultures experience immediate reality in fundamentally different ways? However, these questions will provide a vehicle for introducing more fundamental questions: How can such questions be meaningfully investigated? And, especially, can such questions be asked from within the framework of modern (positive, operational) science? The goal will be to expose the students to the philosophy of science in a palatable manner, with an emphasis on the discussion of the limitations of scientific investigation and an introduction to alternative modes of inquiry. The alternative realities to be explored will be those attributable to cultures, subcultures, cults, historical eras, substances (i.e., drugs), and mental illness. Most importantly, the scientific enterprise itself, as one mode among others, of establishing an order of reality will also be presented in this context. The readings for the course will be broad and eclectic. Selections will be assigned from: Aldous Huxley, The Doors of Perception; Allison Lurie, Imaginary Friends; Owen Barfield, Saving the Appearances; Walker Percy, Message in the Bottle; Thomas Szasz, The Myth of Mental Illness; Helen Keller, The World I Live In; and Theodore Roszak, Where the Wasteland Ends. We will also focus some discussions on a number of contemporary movies which will be viewed in informal, supplementary classes held at the instructor's home. These will include: Do the Right Thing; Koyaanisqatsi; Field of Dreams; and Dances with Wolves. Finally, an MTS conference will be established in which the students can have continuing interactions among themselves, and with the instructor. The students' grades will be entirely determined by writing papers. The students' writing will be individually developed and evaluated through individual tutorial meetings held every three or four weeks at the instructor's office. Cost:3 (Pachella)

Section 002 A Study Of The Holocaust As An Historical Event And Its Impact On Jewish Thought And Culture. The first part of the course will focus on the historical context: on the European Jewish community on the eve of the destruction, and on the events leading up to and culminating in that destruction. The second part of the course will focus on inner Jewish reactions to the Holocaust, and its philosophical and ethical implications. Poetry, fiction, autobiographical attestations, psychological literature, as well as theology, music, film, and architecture will all be treated as sources for exploration. Each session combines lecture with seminar discussion. Take-home midterm; final exam or project; 6-10 page paper. (Ginsburg)

Section 003 Neandertals. In studies of Human Evolution, it seems as though the European "Cave Men" Neandertals have always been the problem. Over the century and a half since their first discovery the Neandertals have been regarded as our ancestors, our betters, our extinct cousins, and even our pets. After the interpretation of the fossils developed into cartoon characters, a new generation raised with the cartoons came to use them in interpreting the fossils. The arguments about Neandertals often became national arguments, for instance French vs. German science, and their resolution was caught up in broader issues of power and politics. The Neandertals, in a phrase, became a mirror for ourselves. In this seminar we will focus on Neandertals their discoveries and how their interpretation became a reflection of the beliefs and unspoken assumptions of the societies their discoverers lived in. A newly published book by E. Trinkaus and P. Shipman, The Neandertals Changing the Image of Mankind, will be the text. (Wolpoff)

Section 004 Identity: Self, Community, and Power. Students will ask how individuals, across a lifetime, construct a self, absorbing and rejecting elements of the social context. Students will look at particular crucibles: the relation of the individual to the power of the state; the relation of the individual in a stigmatized group to her own culture and to the majority culture; the issue of identity in the successive stages of women's lives; the issue of identity in the corporate organization; the prerequisites for liberation from abusive relationships. Students will read fieldwork, essays, and novel; do independent field work; and write every week. The instructor will introduce material from his current research with members and leaders of white racist groups. The course calls for a student who has imagination, takes her own life seriously, has sober interest in the social and political world, wishes to stretch herself, and likes adventure. (Ezekiel)

252. Collegiate Seminars. Open to any student who has completed the introductory composition requirement. (4). (NS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Coastal Systems and Human Settlements.
This is a freshman-level, seminar-format course directed toward an introduction to the importance of natural processes in and consequences of human development along various coastal settings. Study of the ramifications of short-term settlement in areas of long-term subsidence and/or coastal erosion will be used as a means to better comprehend the various repercussions of human interaction with natural systems. The class will introduce students to those geologic processes which have given rise to coastlines of the world, will establish a basis for understanding why these regions have been in a state of rapid change for thousands of years, will examine the reasons why human modification of coasts and adjacent rivers has commonly exacerbated this situation, and will explore the ramifications of anticipated global warming and attendant global sealevel rise in the coming decades. (Wilkinson)

262/RC Interdivisional 262. AIDS: The Challenge to Society. (4). (NS).

See RC Interdivisional 262. (Sloat)

280. Undergraduate Research-A (Grade). First or second year standing, and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). A maximum of 8 credits of 280 and 281 may be counted toward graduation.

This course provides academic credit for students engaged in research through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP). To receive credit, the student must be working on a research project under the supervision of a University of Michigan faculty member. Students may elect the course for 1-4 hours of credit. For each hour of credit, it is expected that the student will work three hours. The grade for the course will be based on a final project report evaluated by the faculty sponsor and on participation in other required UROP sponsored activities, including monthly peer advising sessions, and submission of a journal chronicling the research experience. Students will receive a letter grade for this course. This course is open only to students enrolled in the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program.

281. Undergraduate Research-B (Credit). First or second year students, and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. (EXPERIENTIAL). A maximum of 8 credits of 280 and 281 may be counted toward graduation.

This course provides academic credit for students engaged in research through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP). To receive credit, the student must be working on a research project under the supervision of a University of Michigan faculty member. Students may elect the course for 1-4 hours of credit. For each hour of credit, it is expected that the student will work three hours. The grade for the course will be based on a final project report evaluated by the faculty sponsor and on participation in other required UROP sponsored activities, including monthly peer advising sessions, and submission of a journal chronicling the research experience. This course is offered for credit / no credit only. This course is open only to students enrolled in the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program.

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