ANTHROPOLOGY

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The course explores the evolutionary basis for human variability. For this purpose, the course will deal with a review of principles of human evolution, fossil evidence, relationship among human and non-human primates in behavioral and morphological characteristics, human inter-population differences, and environmental factors that account for these differences. (Frisancho)

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course explores the utility of natural selection theory for understanding human behavior and ecology. Specific topics include: conflicts of interest between the sexes, human mating systems, reproductive ecology, menstrual taboos, cultural differences, sex and religion, reciprocity, kinship, and senescence. Students will prepare for class by reading undergraduate text and original scientific papers. Lecture/Discussion format. Grading: midterm exam, 1 paper, short writing assignments. Prerequisite: At least 1 course in the natural sciences. Cost:2 or 3 WL:4 (Strassmann)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology and must be dispensed with before we can make sense out of the very real aspects of human biological variation. This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These will be contrasted with the biological traits that show regional clustering but which have no adaptive value and cannot therefore be hierarchically arranged. (2) If the common concept of race has an inadequate biological base, how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that they owe more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept. All the material covered by the course will be dealt with in lecture. Supplementary readings will be suggested from time to time, along with specific sections in the assigned texts. Texts: A.R.Frisancho, HUMAN ADAPTATION; C.L.Brace, THE STAGES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION. Lecture outlines (syllabus) and C.L.Brace, RACE IS A FOUR LETTER WORD will be available at Kinko's copying. Cost:2 WL:3/4 (Brace)

399. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the College Honors Program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program.

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The application of genetic theory and data to the interpretation of the course of human evolution. The data include variation both among human populations and among humans and their close primate relatives. Reconciliation of the genetic data with various views of the fossil record will also be considered. Lectures and course pack. Grade based on midterm and final exam. Cost:1 WL:3/4 (Livingstone)

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl). (BS).
Section 001 Simulation of Genetic Systems.
The use of computer simulation to interpret patterns of genetic variation in human populations. Variations considered include the hemoglobin alpha and beta change loci, G6PD deficiency, and other deleterious genes found in high frequencies in some human populations. (Livingstone)

Section 002 Nutrition and Evolution. Prerequisites: Biol. Anthro 161 or equivalent, sophomore standing. This course will examine the interaction between human biology, society, and culture by focusing on the differing ways in which humans respond to variability in nutritional resources. The specific topics will include accommodation to dietary restriction, industrialization and dietary habits, ecological basis for food choice, cultural variability, population differences and dietary preferences, and evolutionary basis of contemporary diets. (Frisancho)

564. Hominid Origins. Anthro. 365 or 466 or the equivalent. Primarily for biological anthropology concentrators. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is about the origin of the human species and the life history of the earliest type of human Australopithecus. It examines the ancestry of the hominids, the various theories of their origin, and aspects of australopithecine evolution such as their locomotion, behavior, adaptations, and taxonomy. Emphasis is placed on the application of evolutionary theory to species origins and mode of evolution, the biomechanical links of form to function, and the importance of the discovery of stone tools. The format is three weekly lectures and a laboratory section. Evaluations are based on a paper, final exam, and laboratory texts and assignments. Prerequisite: Anthro 365 or equivalent or more advanced class in evolution. Cost:2 WL:4 (Wolpoff)

568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Bio. Anthro. 368; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This is an advanced course examining theoretical issues in the ecology and behavior of the non-human primates. We will apply evolutionary theory to the range of diversity in primate social systems, and will examine the work of theorists in interpreting primate behavior, primarily from field studies. Topics include: evolution of sociality, territoriality, feeding ecology, aggression and reproductive strategies. Grades will be based on papers. Cost:2 WL: There are no overrides and a limited enrollment. (Mitani)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS). (This course fulfills the Race or Ethnicity Requirement).

This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Satisfies diversity requirement. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Section 001:Staff; Section 150:Peters-Golden)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS). (This course fulfills the Race or Ethnicity Requirement).

What place does language have in everyday life? How is language used to reinforce relationships of power, especially along racial, class, and gender, lines? How do languages change, and how does change reflect the structure of society? These are a few of the questions that will be raised in this course, which is about the nature of language and the ways in which it reflects and contributes to social life. Topics covered include: (1) The ways in which languages differ, the ways in which they change, and the reasons for differences and change; (2) The relationships between speech, social class, race, and gender; (3) The politics of language use in society, including language policy toward issues perceived to be "problems," both in the United States and in other countries. The course has no prerequisites except curiosity about the interrelationships between language and society. There will be a required text and a course pack. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ahearn)

285. Cult Archaeology. (4). (SS).

Cultural archaeology examines claims in the press and on television that cultural achievements by non-Western people are a consequence of contact with superior beings. The examples will be drawn from the prehistory and contact periods in the New World and the approach will be a case study using critical thinking as an analytical method. Claims of contact with beings from outer space, diffusion of ideas and methods across the Pacific, and pre-Columbian appearance of Europeans and Africans will be examined. The subjects discussed include art, architecture, agriculture, social change and cultural evolution. The goal is for students to learn critical thinking, to understand professional ethics, to appreciate cultural racism and the harm that it does, and to know what to believe in an imperfect knowledge arena. The course format is lecture and discussion sections. Evaluations are based on section exercises, two exams, and participation. The text is Williams, Fantastic Archaeology and a course pack. Slides, videos, and museum specimens supplement the course. Cost:1 WL:1 (Ford)

298. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. (3). (SS). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Globalization, Democratization, and Neonationalisms.
Background: Many contemporary analysts propose that the world is undergoing a far-reaching intellectual, philosophical, and political-economic movement or revolution comparable to the Renaissance or the Enlightenment. Variously alluded to as the postmodern condition, the new world order, or the postindustrial global village, the transformations wrought by this highly complex and multistranded "movement" have prompted a growing number of academicians, politicians, and entrepreneurs to reexamine their theories, policies, and business practices. Although there is usually an agreement that some sort of global transformation is taking place, much controversy remains concerning the magnitude and exact form of this transformation. This controversy calls for a critical inquiry. Anthropology occupies a privileged position to contribute both to methods of study and modes of analysis to fuel this critical inquiry and enhance our understanding of this movement. Content: In this course, we consider three of the most important submovements of this transformation - i.e., globalization, democratization, and, what may be called neonationalisms and the ways in which anthropology provides empirical and analytical tools for an integral examination of these processes. I have chosen to focus on these three processes because they point to a major contradiction embedded in this global transformation. Whereas globalization and democratization seem to have a homogenizing effect, the rise of new nations and neonationalisms along ethnic boundaries suggest the persistence and, indeed, accentuation of social and cultural differences. It is an increased awareness of those cultural differences that has brought anthropology to the forefront. That anthropology proves to be critical to an integral understanding of recent global changes is attested to by the (re)discovery of anthropology's indispensable role by a wide range of NGOs, governmental, and international organizations that seek anthropologists' assistance to ensure effective implementation of a variety of policies and projects. This interest in anthropology derives mainly from the growing appreciation that globalization, democratization, and neonationalisms cannot be understood without grasping the culture and local dynamics of relations that anthropologists are especially equipped to study. Course Goals: This course is meant to be a critical introduction to some of the most salient issues related to processes of globalization, democratization, and the rise of neonationalisms. In addition to introducing students to relevant topical issues, the course aims at sensitizing them to analytical frameworks that explore local phenomena as these relate to macro-level processes. The course is open to junior and senior students without prior exposure to or background in anthropology, political economy, or related fields. In topical areas, such as democratization, in which anthropologists are just beginning to conduct research, I rely primarily on studies carried out by other social analysts. However, in reviewing this literature we shall try to examine critically from an anthropological viewpoint the approaches these social analysts have used in their analysis of these issues, and explore how anthropology can enrich those studies. Organization & Requirements: The course will be organized in a lecture and discussion format, and will be divided into three parts and a conclusion. The three parts correspond to the three main themes of globalization, democratization, and neonationalisms. The conclusion will review and synthesize these themes. The amount of readings for this course ranges from 75 to 150 pages per week. Students will be asked to write three papers of between five and seven pages each, on a topic or theme drawn from each of the three main issues covered in the course. This course is open to undergraduate students of all standing. Cost:3 WL:2 (Dashti)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

319. Latin American Society and Culture. (4). (SS).

In this course we will examine the cultures and societies of contemporary Latin America both as they exist "at home" and as they have come to be redefined in this "other America." We will do this with an eye to appreciating the particularities of local cultures while searching out the shared themes and histories which in some ways unify them. Some of the themes we will cover are indigenous societies, religion, colonialism, economic development, agrarian reform and the state, race and ethnicity, language, and the politics of identity. This year we will focus primarily on two of the many and diverse regions of Latin America: Mexico and the Caribbean. Students will be expected to keep up with the reading, which will be heavy at times, to participate actively in class discussions, and to do independent research for a final project. Cost:3-4 WL:4 (Frye)

411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on INSTITUTIONAL characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and slides. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

Ethnology-Theory/Method

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an intensive upper-division introduction to cultural anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. Concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels, are welcome. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construct "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics. There are no prerequisites. The goals of this course are: (1) to facilitate reading of scholarly books and articles in cultural psychology, cultural semantics, intercultural communication, and the like; (2) to learn to write clear and effective essays in these genres; (3) to learn to think cultural analysis routinely. Cost:4 WL:4 (Daniel)

432. Social Theory. (3). (Excl).

This seminar is intended to introduce students of junior and senior standing to the most salient theoretical issues that have formed the cornerstone of anthropological analysis and interpretation in the United States, Britain, and France since its institutionalization as a discipline at the turn of the century. The first week will be devoted to an excursion into the historical and philosophical bases of anthropological theory by reading a few accessible selections from works by Locke, Rousseau, Kant, and Hegel. This will help to develop a detailed discussion of the sorts of issues and problems that have always been central to anthropological theory. Some of these issues include the relation of the individual to society and to consciousness and dualisms such as structure and agency or universalism and relativism. Requirements: The amount of readings for this seminar ranges from 100 to 170 pages per week. Students will be asked to write two papers of between ten and twelve pages each, on a topic or theme drawn from the main issues covered in the course. Cost:3-4 WL:2 (Dashti)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 History of Ethnology.
For Winter Term, 1995, this section is offered jointly with History 391.001. (Trautmann)

Section 002 Narratives of the Borderland Self. Narratives of the Self have a long tradition in the West, stemming in part from the notion that the soul can be purified through speaking or writing a confession. During the last decade, the forms of self-narration have been radically altered by women and men of hyphenated American identities who are using the first person voice, not as a form of confession, but as a means to explore new borderland subjectivities rooted in the disjunctures of ethnicity, color, gender, class, and immigration. In this course we will cast our net widely at works written by authors who examine why and how they feel split at the root within American culture. We will read memoirs, personal essays, autobiographical criticism, novels, and ethnographies by a range of writers, including Adrienne Rich, Gloria Anzaldúa, Michelle Cliff, Irena Klepfisz, Cherrie Moraga, Renato Rosaldo, Patricia Williams, Rosario Morales, Aurora Levins Morales, Sandra Cisneros, Richard Rodriguez, Victor Perrera, Eva Hoffman, Art Spiegelman, and Cristina Garcia. The course will be taught as a seminar, and students will be expected to participate actively in class discussions and in a variety of writing exercises. Cost:4 WL:1 (Behar)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Anthropology and Human Rights: Women and the State in Latin America.
Anthropology and human rights has emerges as this year's organizing theme within the discipline. This introductory course critically explores issues of human rights as a universalist discourse in international political practice and the contribution of anthropology in formulating more culturally specific and politically salient ways of thinking about human rights. We will focus on the problems of women and the state in Latin America to illustrate the transformation of international discourse in localized, everyday struggles. The format will include class and small group discussions, occasional short lectures, and group presentations. Course requirements: participation in class discussions, including brief weekly commentaries, two 5-7 page essays, and a final in-class essay exam. (Frazier)

439. Economic Anthropology and Development. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces students to economic anthropology and development in rural, village-based, tribal, peasant, urbanizing and industrializing societies and cultures of the Third World: Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America and the Middle East. The FIRST PART reviews the nature of economic anthropology, its scope, objectives, basic concepts, theories and methods of investigation. It discusses economic anthropology as it relates to conventional/development economics. The SECOND PART examines anthropological (social science) perspectives on development and underdevelopment: progress, modernization, acculturation, socioeconomic growth, etc. The THIRD PART is concerned with specific case studies of problems of Third World development and underdevelopment: rural/urban poverty and inequality; women and development; international migration; etc. The course CONCLUDES with an overview of global issues in Third World development and underdevelopment. The course is recommended for anthropology concentrators and all students with serious interest in comparative cultures and Third World development and underdevelopment. Junior standing or permission of instructor. Lecture/discussion format. Films shown in class when available. Final grades based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussion. Basic texts: Lucy Mair, ANTHROPOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT; Polly Hill, DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS ON TRIAL. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

443/ABS 442/Rel. 442. Myth and Literature of Ancient Mesopotamia. (3). (Excl).

See Ancient and Biblical Studies 442. (Michalowski)

450/ABS 496/Relig. 404. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (McKinley)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Sex and Violence Across Genres and Cultures.
For Winter Term, 1995, this section is offered jointly with English 417.002. (Kottak/Rabkin)

Section 002 The Colonial Order of Things in Southeast Asia: A Comparative Perspective. This seminar on the cultures of colonialism in Southeast Asia focuses on the representations of European rule and the political economy of European imperial ventures. While its regional focus is on the Dutch Netherlands Indies, British Malaya, and French Indochina, its analytic focus addresses colonialism in comparative perspective and draws on readings from South Asia, Africa and Latin America to explore the perceptions and practices of 18th and 19th century imperial expansion that have shaped the postcolonial world. Specifically we will examine the historical processes by which the categories of "colonizer" and "colonized" have been created and contested by looking at the gender politics, racial thinking and class visions that have informed how these categories were applied. Special attention will be paid to changes in the nature of colonial historiography and to the interface of colonial power and the production of colonial knowledge. Because of the broad theoretical focus, students interested in regions outside Southeast Asia are welcome. Grades will be based on critical essays, weekly commentaries, class participation and a research paper. Prior permission of the instructor is required. Please contact Professor Ann Stoler by email (Ann Stoler@um.cc.umich.edu). Cost:3 WL:2 (Stoler)

Section 003 Religious Experience. For Winter Term, 1995, this section is offered jointly with Religion 402.001. (Rappaport)

459. Inequality in Tribal Societies. Two courses in ethnology. (3). (Excl).

What is the principal locus of the production of inequality in human society? This has been an important concern of humanistic social thought since the Enlightenment. All those who have examined the problem have had recourse to consideration of relatively egalitarian pre-modern societies in which forms of hierarchy associated with the nation state and industrialized world economy are absent. These ethnographic cases provide a critical testing ground for general social theories of inequality because the latter explicitly or implicitly "predict" the social and economic configuration of the most egalitarian societies. Both received wisdom and recent theory have emphasized the production and circulation of accumulatable forms of wealth as the source of inequality. Unequal accumulation and relations of dependence and indebtedness are seen to follow inevitably from the sheer presence of wealth (which should thus be absent in egalitarian societies). The Marxian position holds that all social inequalities are grounded in the dynamics of a particular mode of production and are either directly generated by this or built-up upon core relations of inequality that are so generated. There should then be a one-to-one relation between economic inequality and social inequality (i.e., differential prestige, privilege and moral evaluation). Recent elaboration of this perspective sees social inequality as rooted in the social relations of production entailed by bridewealth systems in which senior males gain control over the labor of wives and junior males by their control of matrimonial goods. The exchange of persons for persons is also replaced by an exchange of persons for goods so that accumulation of wealth becomes a precondition for the reproduction of kin relations. If the evolutionary road to inequality is paved with bridewealth as this perspective suggests then egalitarian societies should lack marriage payments, for these are seen as a central locus for the production of inequality. The course will examine these issues. It is open to advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Format is part lecture, part seminar. Substantial term paper required. Cost:2 WL:2 (Kelly)

Linguistics

474/Ling. 410. Language and Discrimination: Language as Social Statement. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Lippi-Green)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 417. (Shevoroshkin)

578. Monographs in the Ethnography of Speaking. Anthro. 576, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with major works in the ethnography of speaking, ranging from studies that approach language ethnographically to those that approach ethnography through language. By examining detailed field studies, both classic and recent, we will consider ways in which ethnographers have used linguistic evidence to draw inferences about social relations and cultural patterns, and consider the methodological insights and problems raised by these studies. By reading monograph-length studies, we will go beyond programmatic statements to look at the ways in which linguistic insights have been used to develop fine-grained social analyses, and at the pitfalls encountered along the way. Prerequisite: Anthropology 576 or two courses in formal linguistics. Cost:5 WL:1 (Mannheim)

Archaeology

383(485). Prehistory of Africa. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the development of cultures in Subsaharan Africa from the first emergence of human-like bipeds more than 5 million years ago to the rise of states and urban centers during the Iron Age. The requirement of the course include a midterm examination (take-home) and either an in-class final exam or a research paper. Lecture. (Wright)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration advisor.
Section 001 Honors Ethnology.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the Winter term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and readers. By midterm, each student should have completed the research and a draft of their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Lockwood)

Section 002 Honors Archaeology. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (O'Shea)


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