NEAR EASTERN STUDIES


GENERAL NEAR EAST (DIVISION 439)

100(101). Peoples of the Middle East. (4). (HU).

As an introduction to the Middle East, this course examines the various elements that contribute to socio-political formations in the Middle East. By studying the region's literature, music, art, and film students can examine the important role that the construction of cultural boundaries has played in the political and economic formations of the region. Rather than examining the issues of ethnic and political strife from the vantage point of diplomatic history alone, this class adapts an interdisciplinary approach. The seemingly rigid basis for ethnic and national identification is called into question through the study of feminism, orientalism and colonialism in the Middle Eastern setting. Students will take a midterm and a final examination. Cost:2 (Balaghi)

204/Rel. 204. Islamic Religion: An Introduction. (4). (HU).

This course provides a comprehensive introduction to Islam as a religious tradition. After examining the fundamental sources of Islam, particularly the Qur'an and the reports about the activities and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, we will discuss how these foundations gave rise to the beliefs and practices of Muslims and to an Islamic civilization with spectacular achievements in such areas as law, theology, science, philosophy, and mysticism. Our emphasis will be on the first thousand years of Islam, but modern developments will be covered as well. Quizzes, a midterm and final exam. (Knysh)

260. Ancient Egypt and its World. (4). (HU).

The course is an undergraduate survey of the culture of ancient Egypt, focusing on Egyptian religion (the gods and their cults, life after death, mummification, etc.), ways of thinking (practical wisdom and elevated philosophy), basic institutions (the kingship, the priesthood, etc.), literature and science. The student will be taught the elements of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, how it was deciphered and the derivation of our own alphabet from it. Throughout, special attention will be given to a comparison of Egyptian ideas, values and religious thought to our own with open-ended class discussion. There is a midterm (40% of grade) and final exam (60% of grade) and an optional 10-page paper at term end. Four textbooks, all paperbacks, are compulsory. (Krahmalkov)

275. Islam and the West to 1800. (4). (HU).

The encounter of Islam with Christian Europe, from the early Middle Ages until the modern period. Emphasis on: the concept of holy war, in its Muslim and Christian versions, and the history of military encounters, especially in Spain and during the Crusades; economic relations, commerce and travel; cultural exchanges; and the ideas which these two great civilizations formed of each other. No prior requirements. Provides introduction to some important aspects of Islamic civilization. Requirements: biweekly short papers, midterm and final exam. (Bonner)

330(140). Introduction to Arabic Culture and Language. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for undergraduate students who wish to explore social, religious, historical, and linguistic aspects of Arab culture through an exciting collection of videos, lectures, readings, and discussions. It includes an Arabic language component focusing upon Arabic sounds, letters, and basic communication needs. There will be an emphasis on developing effective outlining, writing, and oral presentation skills. Evaluation is based on written reports (50%), monthly language tests (20%), term project (20%), and preparation and participation in class discussions (10%). (Rammuny)

446. Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the modern literature of the Arab Lands, Iran, Israel and Turkey. The course is taught by four professors, each of whom will examine the literature in which he/she specializes. Lectures introduce major literacy figures and their works within the framework of the historical and social circumstances of their lives. Materials are in English translation. Cost: A course pack worth $10.00 for each of the four segments of the course possible. (Stewart-Robinson)

468/Jud. Stud. 468/Rel. 469. Jewish Mysticism. (3). (Excl).

Jewish Mysticism has existed as an expression of Jewish thought for thousands of years. The academic assessment of this mystical phenomenon has undergone many radically conflicting interpretations. This course will discuss the affiliations between the critical study of the historical development of Jewish Mysticism and the phenomenological significance of its symbolic universe. Special attention will be focused upon visionary reality, mystical experience, the mystic personality, changing perceptions of the deity, the mystical language, and the role of dreams. Major historical topics will include: Rabbinic Ascent mysticism, the Kabalah of Safed in the 16th century, and Eastern European Hasidism in the context of the mystical phenomenology. The course will require extensive weekly reading, active participation in class discussion, and a final term paper elaborating a particular topic of the curriculum. WL:4 (Elior)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature; Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. Cost:1 WL:3 or 4 (Schramm)

478/Jud. Stud. 478/Rel. 478. Topics in Modern Judaism: Modern Jewish Thought. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

This course will explore Judaism as an evolving expression of religious culture from historical overview of the development of major trends in Jewish thought and will touch upon diverse aspects of the varieties of Rabbinical Judaism, Medieval Jewish Philosophy, Kabalah, Sabbatianism, and Hasidism. The course will touch upon the transmission of tradition in the face of conflict and crisis occurring between spiritual innovation and the forces of ongoing Jewish heritage. The course will require extensive weekly reading, and a final term paper elaborating a particular topic of the curriculum. WL:4 (Elior)

481/Rel. 481/Engl. 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (4). (HU).

See English 401. (Williams)

485/Rel. 485. Muslim Sages. (3). (Excl).

This course covers the major aspects of Islam as a religious tradition with particular reference to the Qur'an and Qur'anic studies, reports about the words and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad, theology, law, mysticism, and philosophy. Upon studying traditional views of Islam and its disciplines the students will be introduced to some revisionist approaches to Islamic legacy cultivated by Western scholars. In-class discussions, a midterm exam and a take home term paper (Knysh)

561. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern History: Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Age of the Crusades.
A survey of the Islamic Near East, North Africa, and Spain, from 945 until 1258. The general framework of political history for this period will be covered, but there will also be emphasis on topics including: holy war and the organization of armies; the sultanate, and related political concepts; the growth of mystical fraternities; the Islamic city; educational institutions; and commerce and trade. Cost:3 (Bonner)

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS) (Division 317)

120/Rel. 120. Introduction to Tanakh/Old Testament. (4). (HU).

ABS 120 is designed to introduce the student to the modern study of the Old Testament or Tanakh (no prerequisites). Lectures and readings will focus on ancient Israel's religion, literature, and history and their contribution to modern Western civilization. The approach will be literary, historical, and critical, using methods employed by scholars of different religious persuasions. ABS 120 is designed to challenge the student with a series of questions and issues often ignored or neglected in spite of the widespread use of the Bible today. The course grade will be based upon daily assignments, attendance, and quizzes (20%), two major examinations (a midterm, 30%, and a final, 30%, the exams are NOT cumulative), and an introductory essay (8-10 pages) on a topic of choice in consultation with the instructor (20%). The required texts are the Revised Standard Version of the Old Testament or the Jewish Publication Society's Tanakh, and a course pack. Cost:2 WL:3 (Schmidt)

160/Hist. 130. The World's First Civilizations. (4). (HU).
Section 001 Introduction to the History of the Ancient Near East.
Introduction to the first 3000 years of human history as recorded in the texts of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia, Iran, and the Levant. The origins of complex societies in Sumer and Egypt will be briefly considered and the subsequent development of the cuneiform and hieroglyphic civilizations studied in more detail, down to their common conquest by the Macedonians in the fourth century BCE. Particular attention will be given to the effects of ecological factors upon economic, political, religious, and intellectual history. A number of primary documents from the Ancient Near East will be read in translation. Course requirements include midterm and final examinations as well as a 10-15 page term paper. Cost:1 WL:1 (Beckman)

202. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. ABS 201 or equivalent. (3). (LR).

Continuation of ABS 201 with increased emphasis on Biblical Hebrew syntax, vocabulary, and the verbal system as presented in Weingreen's A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew. In addition, the students will be introduced to select readings from the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. Final grades will be based upon daily class performance, two quizzes, a midterm, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3 (Huddlestun)

283/Rel. 283. The Beginnings of Christianity. (4). (Excl).

Some New Testament passages point at the Pharisees as "hypocrites, blind guides, whited sepulchres." They opposed Jesus; they plotted his death. They were his adversaries, if not his most implacable enemies. This derogatory view has become predominant among Christians and even today in modern English the term "pharisaic" labels a self-righteous, sanctimonious, hypocritical attitude of mind. Among the Jews instead, the Pharisees are regarded as pious and heroic people. While Christianity is dismissed as a non-Jewish phenomenon, the Pharisees are praised as the highest form of religion during the Second Temple Period. Their accomplishments let Judaism survive in the aftermath of the destruction of the Temple and laid the foundations of the great rabbinic literature (Mishnah, Tosefta, Talmuds). Who were the Pharisees then? Hypocrites or saints? Conservatives or reformers? History can help us answer these questions, revealing the actual reasons of the competition that gradually separated, within the Jewish family, the Christian and Pharisaic siblings, both of them equally claiming to be the only true heir of their common parents' heritage. History can also help us overcome the prejudices produced by that ancient debate and rediscover the universal legacy of the Pharisaic movement. Cost:1 (Boccaccini)

350/Religion 350. History of Christian Thought, I: Paul to Augustine. (4). (Excl).

During this course we shall seek to obtain an understanding of the development and meaning of the major dogmas (i.e., opinions) which gained mastery in the ancient Church. We shall see that these dogmas did not fall down from heaven in full-fledged form, but developed through contention with other dogmas. In order to understand the antithetical nature of the concept of dogma, we shall ask: What are the dogmas protecting? Why are they countering other dogmas? This approach will show the appropriateness of dealing equally with the dogmas which in the end were defeated. Hopefully it will be realized that the use of labels such as "orthodox" and "heterodox" in an academic study of the development of Christian thought is anachronistic. Throughout the course there will be made an attempt to see if the old dogmatical contentions can be detected under some new cover in our time. There are no prerequisites save a genuine curiosity and a determination to work hard. In addition to the lectures by the instructor, there will be a weekly discussion session conducted by a teaching assistant. There will be two examinations and one paper. Cost:2 WL:4 (Fossum)

402. Intermediate Biblical Hebrew. ABS 401. (3). (LR).

The student will be introduced to the elements of Biblical Hebrew syntax and other aspects of advanced grammar. Selected Biblical texts will be read and their historical and literary backgrounds analyzed and discussed. (Krahmalkov)

442/Rel. 442/Anthro. 443. Myth and Literature of Ancient Mesopotamia. (3). (Excl).

The oldest literary texts in the world come from ancient Mesopotamia, from the lands of Sumer, Babylonia and Assyria. In this course we will read translations of many of these ancient texts, which were written on clay tablets thousands of years ago. The lectures will provide the historical and social information necessary for the understanding of this very old literature. Because most of the literary texts were religious in nature, much attention will be focused on the mythology and religion of ancient Sumerians and Babylonians. We will concentrate on the problems of understanding myths and poems from a culture that was very different from ours. This will provide the opportunity to discuss issues of literary analysis, theories of myth, socio-linguistics, and literary history. No prior knowledge of the area is required; curiosity, a willingness to work hard, and an open mind will suffice. Grading will be based on two examinations: a midterm and a final. WL:3 (Michalowski)

496/Rel. 404/Anthro. 450. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (McKinley)

522. Introduction to Akkadian. ABS 521. (3). (Excl).

This course is the second term of the Introduction to Akkadian language sequence. (Michalowski)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 101 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

In 102, the focus on acquisition of the basic vocabulary and fundamental structures of Arabic is continued through vocabulary lists, grammar presentations and oral and written practice based on short readings including simple news items, narration, and description. There is increased emphasis on developing conversational, reading and writing skills. There will be focus on communicative drills and activities involving student-teacher, student-student, and group interactions. Daily written assignments are required involving short descriptions and narration utilizing vocabulary and structures covered in class. Grades are based on class participation, weekly achievement tests, periodic comprehensive tests, and a final exam including an oral component. Textbooks: (1) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part One (Lessons 11-20) and (2) Course pack including supplementary cultural material, dialogues, and activities. Cost:1 WL:3 (Kalliel)

202(232). Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 201 or 222. (4). (LR).

Primary goals are to have students develop the ability (1) to communicate/speak in Arabic with native speakers of Arabic on familiar topics, (2) to understand familiar spoken Arabic, (3) to read and understand specific content on an intermediate level, and (4) to communicate in writing and provide correct responses within the scope of the content of this course. This course is taught in Arabic using a communicative approach. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, tests and quizzes, and a final exam. Required text: Abboud and McCarus, Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part Two, 1975. Same texts as Arabic 201. WL:3 (Kalliel)

222(202). Intensive Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 221 or 102 or equivalent. (6). (LR). Laboratory fee ($9) required.

This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to use Arabic. The primary goals of this course are to have students develop the ability: (1) to communicate/speak in Arabic with native speakers of Arabic on familiar topics; (2) to understand familiar spoken Arabic; (3) to read and understand the specific content of an elementary level; and (4) to communicate in writing and provide correct responses within the scope of the content of this course. This course is taught in Arabic using a communicative approach emphasizing the use of language. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, texts and quizzes, and a final exam. Required text: Peter Abboud et al., Elementary Standard Arabic, Part I. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, 1975. (Khaldieh)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

416. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 415. (3). (LR).

This is a continuation of Arabic 415. In Arabic 415 the basic principles of pronunciation and grammar are emphasized through oral and pattern practice drills. In Arabic 416 increased emphasis is placed on practical use of the dialect based on expanded vocabulary and texts containing more cultural and idiomatic content. The course is accompanied by tape recordings of the pronunciation drills, the basic texts, the vocabulary, the conversations and the listening comprehension selections. Regular use of the language laboratory is required to reinforce class work and also to do the assignments that are recorded. The course grade is based on classroom performance, assignments, tests and the final examination. Textbook: A Course in Levantine Arabic, by E. McCarus, H. Qafisheh and R. Rammuny. Cost:1 WL:3 ( Kalliel)

422(402). Advanced Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 421 or the equivalent. (6). (Excl).

This course is required of all students concentrating in Arabic and is recommended for other students who expect to learn Arabic for use in related fields. It is the second part of a one-year sequence of Intermediate Modern Arabic whose objectives are to enable the student: (1) to comprehend spoken literary Arabic comparable in content and difficulty to the student's intermediate level; (2) to participate with a native speaker of Arabic in a dialogue or conversation using familiar vocabulary and structures; (3) to read with understanding of subject matter comparable to what he/she has learned; and (4) to write a summary of about 100 words of a short story or passage read, and answers to questions in the form of short paragraphs. The method of instruction stresses the four language skills with particular emphasis on oral and written practice based on selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and non-fiction and A-V cultural materials. The course is conducted in Arabic and meets six hours weekly with 10-12 extra hours per week for outside of class preparation including listening to lesson tapes, writing assignments and review. Course grade is based on classroom performance, weekly written assignments and quizzes, a midterm and a final examination. (Khaldieh)

430. Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 422 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

Arabic 430 is an introduction to the modern linguistic study of Arabic structure and its historical and social background. It is designed to accommodate both the Arabic concentrator with little training in linguistics and the linguistics concentrator with no knowledge of Arabic. We will cover historical linguistics and dialectology, and the micro linguistic fields of phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Meetings will consist of lectures and discussions. The approach will be a cooperative investigative one; participants will be encouraged to draw on their varying backgrounds to contribute to class discussions. Student evaluations will be based on preparation and participation, and on a term-long project examining the various aspects of a chosen dialect as these aspects are taken up in class and culminating in a final paper. Readings will be made up of a common core of articles, supplemented with more advanced or Arabic texts according to student demand. Cost:1 WL:1 (Pimentel)

522. Medieval Arabic. Permission of concentration advisor and instructor; primarily for graduate students. (3). (Excl).

An elementary introduction to Classical Arabic, the language of the Koran, traditions of the prophet Muhammad, Islamic historical writings, and medieval Arabic poetry. The students will read and discuss easy selections from medieval Arabic prose. This is a continuation of Arabic 521, and students who would like to enroll are expected to have basic knowledge of Arabic grammar and at least one year of Modern Standard Arabic. This course is for beginners, and no one who comes from an Arabic-speaking background will be admitted. (Knysh)

Hebrew Studies (Division 387)

373/Judaic Studies 373. Israeli Culture and Society. (3). (Excl).

Israel as a newborn nation-state offers us the opportunity to study a culture in formation, a culture formed from both indigenous Middle Eastern elements and the contributions of immigrants from Jewish communities from all over the world. Attention will be focused on the different bases of Israeli identity which give rise to a society defined by its cleavages, and the resultant tensions arising within such a society. The analysis will include a consideration of the ways in which the particular and peculiar history of the state of Israel are reflected in the national culture. The course will adopt a multi-disciplinary approach encompassing historical, sociological, literary and cultural studies. In addition to the reading of both primary and secondary sources, films (both documentary and belletristic) will be shown. Requirements for the course include a midterm and final exam, compilation of a dialectical journal and a paper. Cost:2 WL:3 (Bernstein)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

302. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 312. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. In addition to continued study of morphology and syntax, some reading selections in fiction and non-fiction prose will be introduced. Cost:1 WL:5 (Etzion)

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

404. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

A continuation of 403. Emphasis on readings, listening and speaking skills. The social genre of the communications media (newspapers and television) will serve as the basis for discussion of current events. Unedited newspaper selections will be read and news broadcasts and television programs will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. Grades will be based on two exams and a special project. (Coffin)

452. Modern Hebrew Fiction: From the Palmah Generation to Contemporary Israeli Prose. A knowledge of Hebrew is not required. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Between Him and Her.
In this course we will be exploring the theme of relations between the sexes as expressed in modern Israeli poetry and prose, in particular those authors who comprise "the New Wave" in Israeli literature. We will be reading from the works of (among others) S.Y. Agnon, Amos Oz, A.B. Yehoshua, G. Taub, Y. Katzir, Sh. Hareven, A. Meged, Sh. Librecht, D. Ravikovitch, D. Grossman. The class will be run on a seminar basis and the active participation of students will be an essential component. The final grade will be based on class participation, short writing assignments as well as presentations of students and a final research project. An advanced knowledge of Hebrew is required for this course. Cost:2 WL:3 (Bernstein)

541. Hebrew Legendary (Tannaitic) Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Readings in the Oral Traditions of the Sages (roughly 200 BCE - 200 CE), in either the narrative literature (midrash aggada ) or legal procedures (halakha ). The texts will be read in conjunction with the biblical sources and medieval and modern commentaries. Students will be required to give a class presentation and a term paper.

554. A Survey of Modern Israeli Novels. Hebrew 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A selection of Israeli works of fiction, films, and plays. Emphasis on readings, discussion, and analyses. Contemporary novels, plays, and films will serve as the basis of discussion. Grades will be based on written and oral assignments and two examinations. (Coffin)

Iranian Studies (Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Persian. (4). (LR).

This course is the continuation of Elementary Persian 201. All four language skills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing) will be emphasized. the class will be conducted in Persian with occasional recourse to English for grammatical explanations. There will be daily assignments and in-class conversation groups. By the end of the term, students will have acquired an adequate knowledge of all major points of Persian grammar. They will be able to conduct simple conversations in Persian, read non-technical simple prose, and write passages on a variety of topics. Grading will be based on attendance, homework, quizzes, a midterm and final examination. Incoming students may join the class pending examination and approval by the instructor. (Amirsoleimani)

402. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

This course is a continuation of 401. The emphasis will be increasingly on reading, composition, and dialogue with the objective of achieving intermediate competency. The two main textbooks are Windfuhr-Bostanbakhsh, Modern Persian. Intermediate Level I, and Windfuhr, Modern Persian, Intermediate Level II. Additional material include tapes and videos. Special needs or interests of the students will be taken into consideration.

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

552. Modern Persian Nonfiction. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The objective of this course is the language and rhetoric of the Iranian media. It is open to all students with a two-year knowledge of Persian, or equivalent. The course is organized in four parts, 10 sessions each: (1) daily and weekly printed press; (2) television news; (3) television features and videos; and (4) magazines. Grading will be based on assigned term projects, participation in team projects, and class work. (Windfuhr)

Turkish Studies (Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

This course is the sequel to Turkish 201 and is the second half of Elementary Turkish. We will focus on speaking and writing the language of Modern Turkey. Course topics include the phonological structure of Turkish, basic sentence patterns, and basic vocabulary. The aural-oral approach is emphasized and serves as the basic course format. There are tapes which accompany the text, Turkish for Foreigners. Student evaluation is based on written and oral quizzes, and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:3

402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

Part of the departmental sequence in Modern Turkish. The course is designed for students who have completed Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It provides further study of Turkish grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Comprehension and oral and written expression will be developed through translations and compositions. Readings will be emphasized. Evaluation will be determined on the basis of class quizzes and performance, a midterm and final examination. Books cost $20.00 if not already purchased for fall term. (Stewart-Robinson)

412. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 411. (3). (Excl).

Second half of first year Ottoman intended to sharpen skills in the handling of a variety of styles, topics and scripts through the reading and analysis of specially selected texts. Quizzes and a final examination required. Materials cost: less than $10.00 worth of photocopied material. (Stewart-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

551. Modern Turkish Prose Literature. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Part of sequence in required language courses for concentrators, M.A. and Ph.D. candidates. The objective is to continue to develop comprehension ease in modern Turkish through the reading of the literary products of modern Turks. Recitation type course includes reading, translation, and discussion of content and style. Quizzes and a final exam are required. Cost: about $5.00 of photocopied material. (Stewart-Robinson)

Courses in Uzbek

154. Elementary Uzbek II. Uzbek 153. (4). (Excl).

Principles of Uzbek grammar; phonological structure, sentence patterns and morphology of the language. Course will be taught according to the proficiency method, with emphasis on conversation and written work. Textbook: Introductory Uzbek, by Hairullah Ismatulla (cost $28). Grade will be based on participation, daily homework, biweekly quizzes, midterm and final exams. (Kamp)

254. Intermediate Uzbek II. Uzbek 253. (4). (Excl).

Principles of Uzbek grammar; phonological structure, sentence patterns and morphology of the language. Course will be taught according to the proficiency method, with emphasis on conversation and written work. Textbook: Chrestomathy of Modern Literary Uzbek, by Ilse Laud-Cirtautas. Grade will be based on participation, daily homework, biweekly quizzes, midterm and final exams. (Kamp)


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