Courses in History of Art (Division 392)

Open to All Undergraduates; Not Open to Graduate Students.

History of Art 101, 102, 103 and 108, while covering different areas, are all considered equivalent introductions to the History of Art. These three introductory survey courses consider not only art objects as aesthetic experiences but also the interaction which exists between the artist and society. The lecture and discussion sections explore various historical, social, religious, and intellectual phenomena which are reflected in the style and content of works of art. Attention is also given to the creative act and to the problems of vision and perception which both the artist and his public must face. The three courses are numbered sequentially but they do not form a sequence.

Although it would be logical to move from History of Art 101 to History of Art 102, either History of Art 101 or 102 along with History of Art 103 and 108 serve as a satisfactory introduction to the history of art.

Course requirements and texts vary with individual instructors, but an effort is always made to introduce students to works of art in the collections of the university as well as in the museums of Detroit and Toledo. Most of the upper division courses in history of art require one of these three introductory courses as a prerequisite. The introductory courses are directed toward students interested in the general history of culture and are especially valuable cognates for students in the fields of history, philosophy, literature, and musicology as well as the creative arts. Photographic material is available for study in the Fine Arts Study Room in the Modern Languages Building. Examinations usually include short essays and slides which are to be identified, compared, and discussed.

102. Western Art from the End of the Middle Ages to the Present. No credit granted to those who have completed 104 and 105, or 150. Two credits granted to those who have completed one of 104 or 105. (4). (HU).

This course is a survey of topics in European and American Art from the late 14th century to the present, as well as an introduction to the techniques of art history. It will examine institutions such as patronage and the art market, the changing roles of artists in society, art and its public, and the changing functions of art. Weekly discussion sections will be devoted to building skills in visual analysis and critical reading of art-historical literature. There will be at least one optional film presentation and one optional field trip to the Detroit Institute of Arts. Requirements: attendance at lectures, informed participation in section meetings, regular reading assignments, several short papers and examinations. Texts will include a comprehensive survey book (title to be announced), Barnet's Short Guide to Writing About Art, and an anthology of articles. There are no prerequisites for this course. Cost:3 WL:4 (Zurier)

113/Art 113. Introduction to the Visual Arts. This course is for non art majors only. (3). (Excl).

Visual arts are a part of the human experience in all cultures and all time periods. The ability to appreciate, to understand, and to assess the quality of visual art can enrich a person's life and broaden one's thinking. This course will introduce students having no formal art or art historical background to the major forms of visual expression through human history from the Stone Age to the present. We will examine works of art in various media such as painting, drawing, printmaking, photography, sculpture, architecture, graphics, and industrial design. Students will learn how artists use the language of form to communicate information, to express emotion, to explore the world of nature and the world of the mind. Students will learn the basic techniques of the various media. Students will learn how the art of a time and place defines and expands the boundaries of that culture. Assigned readings and visits to museums and galleries will help students become critical consumers of the visual culture as they learn to see, appreciate, and assess art forms. Requirements include periodic quizzes, a final exam, and a term paper. Students will also make some ungraded drawings and paintings as analytical tools. Cost:3 WL:4 (Kapetan)

151. Art and Ideas East and West. (3). (HU).

In this course a comparative study is made of eastern and western cultural forms, ideas and values as these are reflected in examples of painting, sculpture, and architecture as well as in poetry, music and other forms of creative expression. This course also compares western and eastern attitudes toward significant cultural themes such as time, nature, death, God, love, and action. WL:4 (Spink)

194(210). First Year Seminar. (3). (HU).
Section 001 – Metropolitan Lives; the Ashcan School and their New York.
This seminar investigates what works of art can tell us about the society and culture in which they were made, through hands-on work with original art and historical material. We will focus on a particular time and place - New York City in the first years of the twentieth century – and a particular group of artists who were dedicated to exploring the highlife and lowlife they observed on the streets of the city. The "Ashcan School" were among the first Americans to bring themes from popular culture into the world of "high art." Our seminar will examine the making of the New York art world, and the artists' work and philosophy. We will develop skills in visual analysis and interpreting works of art. But we will also reconstruct the social world of a particular tumultuous era in urban history, when immigration, the entertainment business, labor strife and new forms of Commercial activity helped transform New York and eventually shaped modern American culture. Students will work directly with original works of art in museums and private collections, and do first-hand reading and research in turn-of-the-century documents: literature, photographs, newspapers, popular music, movies, and art criticism produced in New York City during the Ashcan artists' years. (Zurier)

214/CAAS 214. Introduction to African-American Art. Hist. of Art 102 or 108 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 – African-American Art and Culture.
This course surveys the visual arts of African descendants residing in the United States. Beginning approximately in the mid-19th Century, and continuing until the present, the lectures and discussions will cover important topics, issues and art productions within the context of African-American cultural history. Subject-matter, style and technique, training and patronage, content and meaning will be examined as a means of identifying and comprehending the social, cultural, political and economic milieu of the African-American vis-à-vis mainstream Euro-American society. Course topics are: 19th Century Domestic and Folk arts and Architecture, 19th Century Fine Arts: Painting and Sculpture, 20th Century: From the New Negro Movement to the Cold War Era, 20th century: Civil Rights Movement and Black Nationalism, 20th Century: Postmodernism and the Construction of Identity. Within each topic, one or more specific themes will be examined such as the diaspora of Africa in 19th century folk/popular art forms, the abolitionist as patron, the muralist tradition, Black aesthetics, and the ancestral legacy of African art. There will be assigned readings from class text and/or course pack, and an object-study list (slide identification) for exam preparation. There will be two scheduled exams (19th and 20th Centuries), and a research paper/project. Students are encouraged to meet and research an undocumented Black artist or propose an interdisciplinary topic such as the aesthetics of improvisation. Cost:2 WL:4 (Patton)

222/Class. Arch. 222. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).

See Classical Archaeology 222. (Alcock)

260. European Painting and Sculpture of the Seventeenth Century. Hist. of Art 102 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

After an opening review of 16th-century artistic and ideological developments, the course considers the revolutionary achievements of Annibale Carracci and Caravaggio, who together are shown to have established the premises of the three major trends in 17th-century art: Baroque Classicism; the "Ecstatic" Baroque; Baroque Realism. Each of these sub-categories is then discussed in turn, following a lecture format and a complete syllabus, with examples drawn from the painting and sculpture of Italy, France, Spain, Flanders and Holland, and with attention given to the historical/cultural circumstances under which the works were produced. Simultaneously, the uniqueness of such major masters as Guido Reni, Poussin, Guercino, Rubens, Bernini, Velázquez, Martínez Monta–és, Georges de La Tour, Vermeer, and Rembrandt will be revealed. It is hoped that a spectacle of astounding creative richness will emerge. But the course will end with an attempt to demonstrate that there is an underlying philosophical unity to 17th-century art, and it is also to this point that the textbook (John R. Martin, Baroque, N.Y., 1977, Harper and Row Icon paperback) addresses itself. Beyond the text, there will be a minimal amount of required reading, considerably more suggested reading, and continual study of the visual material in conjunction with the lecture notes. Students will be evaluated on the bases of the midterm and final examinations and a short non-research paper. Cost:1 WL:3 (Bissell)

272. Arts of the Twentieth Century. Hist. of Art 101 or 102; or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

In lecture, a survey of the major movements and personalities of 20th century Western painting and sculpture. Some attention will also be given to the arts of architecture and cinema. Weekly discussion sections will focus on individual aspects of the course material to develop skills in approaching 20th century visual art and related ideas including sociopolitical and philosophical issues. There will be two examinations, a midterm and a final. In addition, there will be a 10-15 page paper or project requirement. The required text is Arnason, History of Modern Art. Students are also strongly urged to purchase Chipp, Theories of Modern Art. The course is ideally suited as a sequel to Western art survey courses (either 101 or 102) and provides an excellent foundation for further specialized study in the visual arts of the 20th century. All major "isms" from Fauvism to Neo-Expressionism will be examined. A program of films associated with Cubism, Dada, Expressionism and Surrealism (5-10 films) is planned. Cost:2 WL:4 (Miesel)

292. Introduction to Japanese Art and Culture. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hist. of Art 495. (3). (HU).

This course will take an interdisciplinary approach to selected topics in the history of Japanese culture. The class will examine the introduction of Buddhism to Japan through the architecture, painting and sculpture of the 7th century monastery, Hôryûji. We will discuss life in the imperial court at its height, as represented by the Illustrated Tale of Genji. One segment will concentrate on the arts of the Tea ceremony, and another on the urban life of 18th century Edo (Tokyo) as reflected in its literature and woodblock prints. The course will conclude with the treatment of tradition in the graphic arts and architecture of recent decades. Two exams and two short essays will be required. No prerequisites; freshmen and sophomores are especially welcome. Cost:2 WL:4 (Reynolds)

341. The Gothic Age. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).
Section 001 – Art of Medieval Paris.
During the 13th and 14th centuries, the city of Paris – capital of a powerful monarchy, seat of a bishop, site of a newly founded university, a center of trade – was preeminent in the arts. Parisian artisans, serving a broad urban clientele, created trend-setting works of art that exerted an influence throughout Europe. The first part of this course, which is intended to offer a basic introduction to Gothic art and its forms, will be devoted to a reconstruction of medieval Paris and to the study of surviving architectural monuments (Notre-Dame, the Sainte-Chapelle, etc.). The second part will concern the production of precious objects - religious and secular – in all media: illuminated manuscripts, ivories, works in gold and silver, tapestries. Cost:2 WL:3 (Sears)

360/CAAS 380. Special Topics in African Art. Hist. of Art 108 or 214. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 – History and Style in West African Sculpture.
This course examines the historical and cultural determinants of African sculptural styles. It looks at the dynamic relationship between, on the one hand, changing patterns of social, economic and political organization of selected African peoples and, on the other, their aesthetic traditions. Its primary emphasis is the roles crosscultural contacts, migrations, commerce and technology have played in the emergence of art styles over the last two hundred years. The bulk of the works to be examined will come from West Africa, a region with some of the most prolific art producing groups on the continent. Video films and occasional visits to museums and private galleries will complement the class lectures. Students are required to purchase a course pack upon which most reading assignments will be based. There are no prerequisites but students with HA 108 or Anthropology background will have an advantage. Cost:2 WL:4 (Quarcoopome)

393. Junior Proseminar. History of Art concentrators. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 – Rereading the "High Renaissance" in Italy.
Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists (1550) culminates in a third period of artistic "perfection", dominated by the figures of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael. Countless modern art historians have followed Vasari's periodization, and have described in various ways the developments that make up what has come to be called the "High Renaissance". A critical analysis of Vasari's text, in both the first and the second editions, will prepare a careful re-reading of some of the most influential modern accounts, including Wölfflin's Classic Art and Freedberg's High Renaissance Painting in Rome and Florence. All these accounts presuppose a paradigmatic shift in style that runs across the genres and art forms; our critique will thus proceed through an analysis of developments within various genres and types in the period, and their inter-relation: altarpieces, portraits, cabinet and studiolo pictures, church architecture, palace architecture, free-standing and relief sculpture. We will also consider the reception of so-called High Renaissance developments in centers other than Rome, Florence and Venice, such as Siena, Bologna and Parma, and Milan. Cost:1 WL:3 (Nagel)

Open to Upperclass Students and Graduate Students

402. Contemporary Modes of Interpretation in Art History. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to introduce students to new methods of interpretation currently in use in the discipline of art history. After a brief survey of the some of the major methodologies and practices which have traditionally informed the study of visual art, students will examine four methodologies which form part of the "new art history": (1) gender and cultural studies (modes of analysis which focus on gender and race as determining factors in the study of art), (2) psychoanalysis, (3) phenomenology, and (4) deconstruction. These newer art historical methodologies do not replace the more traditional modes of art historical analysis, but rather supplement them – augmenting canonical art history's focus on form, style, connoisseurship and social history with concerns having to do with the construction of both selfhood and otherness, as well as the interrelation of art and politics. Grades will be based on three 5-7 page position papers, a twenty minute class presentation, and class participation. The seminar will include both lectures and discussions. Cost:3 WL:3 (Biro)

404/CAAS 404. The Art of Africa. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 – The Arts of Central Africa.
This course will interweave an introduction to the masquerading, ritual sculpture, architecture, and urban painting of Central Africa with analysis of certain key issues of interpretation. We will consider the relationship of music and art, the negotiation of invention with convention, the role of metaphor in visual and ritual language, and theories of aesthetics. We will also briefly examine the persisting image of the region in the Western imagination as the "heart of darkness." Classes will be structured with 1/4 lecture, 2/3 discussion of weekly reading assignments. There will be 2 exams, a museum exercise, and a paper. Required texts include: J.M. Chernoff, African Rhythm and African Sensibility; Roy Wagner, Invention of Culture; Wyatt MacGaffey, Religion and Society in Central Africa; Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness; reserved reading and course pack. (Strother)

405. Artists and Patrons. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be elected for credit more than once with permission of chair.
Section 001 – Art and Society in China with reflections on Europe.
This course is designed to familiarize the student with a variety of approaches to interpreting relations between artists, clients and audience. A comparative framework is employed throughout the course so that students in Western or Asian art can benefit from exposure to related but distinct patronage institutions in two, highly literate cultures. Topics discussed include but are not limited to: royal patronage; the evolution of an open art market; the role of art collecting and criticism; tensions between courtly taste and alternative discourses; the encoding of social issues in pictorial style. The first few weeks of the course will be devoted to reading and critical discussion of exemplary studies of art and society. Then a group of secondary studies on art history and social history will be read and critically discussed so as understand the rapid evolution of patronage institutions in Song China (10th – 13th centuries). Finally, by examining primary sources in translation, students will conduct trial investigations of specific patronage institutions. No previous knowledge of Chinese art is necessary for the course. There will be a midterm quiz and a final paper. In addition, students will type short responses to study questions supplied for assigned readings. There is no textbook. Readings will be placed on reserve and/or provided in course packs. Cost:1 WL:4 (Powers)

Section 002 – Art and Architecture in Augustan Rome. Prerequisites: HA 221 and 222/Permission of instructor. The political chaos, social conflict and religious turmoil that characterized the last decades of the Republic ended with the violent rise to power of Julius Caesar's grandnephew and adopted heir, Augustus Caesar. This course examines how the images and the architecture of Augustan Rome celebrated the new political ideology, religious conservatism and social reformation of Rome's first emperor. Particular emphasis will be placed on sculpture and public architecture with additional review of the official and private visual messages expressed through wall paintings, terracottas, decorative metalwork, coinage and other media. Relevant classical texts in translation will also be discussed. While the focus will be on monuments in the capital city and on the Italian peninsula, representations and structures from other sites under Roman control will be discussed for comparison. Students will be asked to critically evaluate recent assessments of the originality, aesthetic traditions and eclecticism of Augustan art and architecture. In addition, we will study the precedents set by Republican monuments as well as the influence of Augustan Rome on the art and architecture of the later Roman Empire. Undergraduates will have weekly reading assignments, a midterm and final exam and one short research paper (5-8 pages). Graduate requirements include additional readings (occasionally in German, Italian or French), the midterm exam and a research project the topic for which will be chosen in consultation with the professor. The research project will involve both a short oral presentation in class as well as a final research paper approximately 15-25 pages. There will be no final exam for graduate students. Required Book: Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor 1988) approximately $20 for paperback. Additional Readings: on reserve in the Fine Arts Library. (Conlin)

409. Survey of East Asian Ceramics. (3). (Excl).

The ceramic traditions of East Asia extend over 6000 years of development and change, a few thousand of which will not be covered in this class. After a brief glance at prehistoric pottery in China and Japan, we will explore the great ceramic traditions which gave the world Song celadons, Ming blue and white wares, and Qing porcelains. Western versions of these models of perfection are still created today. In contrast to China, the concepts we have of Japanese aesthetics are founded, to a considerable degree, on the "rustic" tea bowls, floral plates, and inventive ceramic shapes of Japanese potters. Finally, Korean and Southeast Asian ceramics will be considered in relation to Japan and China. Some knowledge of East Asian art history or culture would be helpful in this course, as would some experience with ceramics itself. There will be two short papers, and weekly assignments which will determine the grade for the course. Cost:2 WL:3 (Mannikka)

415/WS 415. Studies in Gender and the Arts. One course in Women's Studies or History of Art. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.
Section 001 – Gender and Painting in Early Modern Europe.
This course explores some of the ways that ideologies of art and gender intersect within the history of early modern European painting and the critical discourse it produced. Its main focus will be on analysing how specific types of images - such as the nude, figurations of sexuality and art-making, images of parenthood, family and domesticity – both reflect and shape cultural attitudes toward gender and art. We will also consider men and women as makers and consumers of art, changing notions of creativity and the ways in which pictorial production came to be stratified along gender lines. Classes will combine lecture and discussion of weekly readings and topics. Two short papers, a midterm and final examination will serve as basis for grading. Although there is no formal prerequisite, some familiarity with European painting of this period is recommended. Cost:3 WL:4 (Brusati)

431/Class. Arch. 431. Principal Greek Archaeological Sites. A course in archaeology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Classical Archaeology 431. (Harrison)

434/Class. Arch. 434. Archaic Greek Art. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

See Classical Archeology 434. (Harrison)

451. High Renaissance Art in Italy. Hist. of Art 102 or 250; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 – Art and Politics in Italy 1480-1527.
This course will study the uses made of art and architecture in Italy during a period in which both art and politics underwent dramatic, and sometimes volatile, change. We will study a range of commissions in the Italian city-states as well as in papal Rome, in an effort to understand the various ways in which art played a political role in this period. Our focus will range from the local level to that of international politics. Works by artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Fra Bartolomeo, Andrea Sansovino, Michelangelo and Bramante, among many others, will be studied in the light of some of the most important developments of the period: the French invasion of Italy, the fall of the Medici in Florence and the (re)establishment of a Florentine Republic under Savonarola, the crisis of the Venetian Republic and the formation of the League of Cambrai, the imperialization of the papacy under Julius II, the Protestant Reformation, and the Sack of Rome by imperial forces in 1527. Lectures will be supplemented by primary source readings, such as the political and historical writings of Machiavelli and Guicciardini, together with selections from the secondary literature. WL:2 WL:3 (Nagel)

462. Baroque Art in Italy. Hist. of Art 102 or 260 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will focus on works by painters, sculptors and printmakers working in Italy between (roughly) 1580 and 1750 and major stylistic trends originating in Bologna, Rome, Naples, and Venice. We will consider how artists from Annibale Carracci to Caravaggio, from Salvator Rosa to Canaletto, representing self-consciously regional movements, faced up to the "Italian" past – most notably Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance. We will also study the nature of genres: portraiture, landscape, still-life, mythology, religion, and history. This will allow us to appreciate what has been termed "the resources of kind." We will pay particular attention to generic crossovers, in which the "resources" of one genre are lent to another, resulting in something novel that challenges the viewer's expectations. The course will consist of lectures and discussions, supported by assigned readings; evaluations will be based on several short papers, one exam, one term paper, and degree of participation. Cost:2 WL:3 (Willette)

471. Investigations of Recent Art. Hist. of Art 272 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 – Frames, Framings, and Frame-ups: Language and Institutions as Media in Contemporary Art.
Recent critical theory has increasingly observed how the institutional use of language in titles, labels, and catalogues serves as a conceptual frame that mediates or otherwise effects the ways in which art is read. Our goal in this course is to observe how this mediating function has been employed by contemporary artists who engage language and institutional spaces as media in their art. Our focus will be on work made during the past twenty-five years, although we will occasionally make forays outside this period in a search for historical antecedents. Among the artists discussed will be Robert Smithson, Fred Wilson, Greg Ligon, Barbara Kruger, Jenny Holzer, and Paula Hayes. We will also cover topics that include installations, virtual galleries, and sculpture parking lots, as well as postmodernism's ultimate act of appropriation, the museum itself: how might the museum as an institution be considered a 'work of art?' Classes will include both lectures and discussions. Evaluation will be by means of two essays and a final examination. Cost:3 WL:3 (Grigely)

483. Asian Architecture. Hist. of Art 103 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will be devoted to a survey of all of the most significant religious and secular architectural monuments of India, Southeast Asia, China, and Japan – viewed in the context of their religious and social functions and analyzed according to their plans, materials, structural techniques, exterior and interior decoration, environmental settings, and stylistic evolution. The material is divided into two main categories, comprising the religious and the secular, within each of which the development of the various architectural types is separately traced, crossing national boundaries where appropriate. While History of Art 103 (Arts of Asia) is not strictly necessary as a prerequisite, this course or some other experience in the religions or cultures of Asia is recommended. A final exam and a term paper of approximately ten pages will constitute the main student requirements. Cost:1 WL:4 (Kane)

484. The Art of Cambodia and Indonesia. Hist. of Art 103 and 383. (3). (Excl).

A Cambodian or Indonesian temple was modeled after the cosmic Mt. Meru, home of the gods. Thus transformed into a kind of divine palace, the temple provided an idealized sphere for worship, which included architectural allusions to the calendar, cosmology, and history. Within the multiple chambers of these expansive structures, the graceful stone images of Buddhist and Brahmanical deities were considered to be a representation of the gods and the ancestors, combined. Enhancing the stone architecture and sculpture are the textiles, ceramics, and shadow puppets which form a part of the culture and temple life. The requirements for this class are the Arts of Asia (HA 103) and/or the Survey of SE Asian Art. Some knowledge of SE Asian culture and history would be helpful. There will be weekly assignments of 1-3 pages and two 7-10 page papers, in lieu of exams. Cost:2 WL:3 (Mannikka)

487/Chinese 475/Asian Studies 475/RC Hums. 475/Philosophy 475. The Arts and Letters of China. (4). (HU).

See Chinese 475. (Y. Feuerwerker)

493. Art of India. Hist. of Art 103 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed for students with little knowledge of Indian art. It deals with architecture, sculpture, and painting, most of the monuments being closely connected with the Hindu and Buddhist religions and (to a lesser degree) the Islamic faith. A good portion of the required reading is intended to provide a background in the mythology and history of these religions; books such as H. Zimmer's Myths and Symbols in Indian Art, Wendy O. Flaherty's Hindu Myths, William Archer's The Loves of Krishna, and W. Spink's Krishna Mandala will be used. The major course requirements are a short paper, a midterm, and a final paper in lieu of a final exam. By and large the course is a lecture course, and the coverage chronological, although more attention will be given to certain topics than to others, so that certain parts of India's long tradition can be understood in some depth. History of Art 103, 151, 454 or Asia 111 all would provide a useful background for this course, although they are not essential to it. (Spink)

543. Carolingian and Early German Art. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The beginnings of German art: indigenous sources, the classical tradition and the influence of Byzantium, from Charlemagne in the ninth century through Otto the Great and his eleventh-century successors. The course will focus upon major developments in manuscript illumination, small-scale sculpture, ecclesiastical and secular architecture, and the intellectual and political developments which underpin the artistic phenomena of the era. Lecture-discussion sessions will be supplemented by visits to the Rare Book Room. In addition to a midterm quiz and a final examination, students may pursue independent work in a term paper. Assigned readings will make use of publications in the Fine Arts Library. Cost:1 WL:4 (Forsyth)

580. Twentieth-Century Masters. Hist. of Art 102, 272, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 – The Art of Romare Bearden, 1940-1987.
The course examines the artistic production of American artist, Romare Bearden, between the years 1940-1987. Lectures and slides will review and highlight Bearden's career as an African-American painter and collagist, including his exploration of various artistic styles and the cultural and social communities of Black Americans in the United States. Bearden's will be examined in the construction and development of his professional career, and will be compared to familiar and unfamiliar American artists so as to understand his place within American Art history. Discussions about Bearden as a modernist and postmodernist artist, as a "master" artist will highlight the "double consciousness" of many contemporary African-American artists. Subject-matter, style and technique, training and patronage, content and meaning will be examined as a means of identifying and comprehending social, cultural, political and economic milieu of the African-American artist vis-à-vis the mainstream Euro-American artist. There will be assigned readings from a selected bibliography and class text. Evaluations are based on exams, class discussion and one research paper/project. (Patton)

596. Japanese Architecture Mid-19th Century to the Present. Hist. of Art 103, 495, or 591; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Japanese architecture and urban planning from the mid-19th century to the present. Topics include the establishment of a western-style architectural profession in the late 19th century, the emergence of a modernist movement in the 1920's and 1930's, biological metaphors and the romanticization of the technology in the theories and designs of the Metabolist Group, the special implications of postmodernism in the Japanese context, and the shifting significance of certain Japanese architectural traditions for modern architects. There will be an emphasis on the complex relationship between architectural practice and broader political and social change in Japan. Cost:2 WL:4 (Reynolds)

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