Classical Studies

The Department of Classical Studies believes that the literature, monuments, and social institutions of the ancient world, together with the reflections of the Greek and Roman thinkers about their own cultures, are of unique value in themselves, well worth our contemplation and understanding; and that as we attempt to learn about and appreciate classical civilization, we necessarily learn as well a variety of contemporary methodologies and disciplines.

The department offers three groups of courses for distribution, those in Classical Civilization (introductory courses that require no knowledge of Greek or Latin), courses in Classical Archaeology, and upper level language courses in Greek and Latin authors or genres. While only a few courses are repeated in yearly or biennial rotation, most courses are offered less regularly. This system guarantees that the instructor approaches the subject each time with fresh impetus. We believe in a healthy change and variation in our course offerings. The undergraduate advisor of the Department of Classical Studies will consider and, if appropriate, authorize other classical civilization, literature, and archaeology courses for distribution credit upon request by students during the first drop/add period each term.

Classical Civilization offerings include the general surveys of Greek and Roman civilizations (CC 101 and 102), which provide (through readings, lectures, and discussions) a broad understanding of the literatures, thought, and social development of ancient Greece and Rome, and thus provide the student with knowledge of and appreciation for our cultural origins, as well as an acquaintance with modern methods for understanding an ancient culture. These courses are taught each year. CC 101 is offered in the Fall and CC 102 is offered in the Winter. Other courses provide understanding of particular aspects of the ancient world, approached from a variety of disciplines and studies literary, philosophical, historical, sociological, and so on. Some students (particularly those who have already developed special interests in such disciplines) may wish to explore one of these topics without having had a broader introduction.

Classical Archaeology offerings include the broad surveys of the archaeology and monuments of Greece (Cl.Arch 221 offered in the Fall) and Rome (Cl.Arch 222 offered in the Winter) and a general introduction to archaeological field methods (Cl.Arch 323). Other courses use the material remains of specific cultures both to introduce students to the diversity of the ancient world and to demonstrate how, through a variety of multi-disciplinary approaches, the archaeological record can be used to reconstruct the life-ways of past societies.


222/Hist. of Art 222. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).

The Roman empire stretched from the marshes of Britain to the deserts of Egypt. It survived for over twice as long as the United States has been an independent nation. Its inhabitants ranged from world conquering emperors to beggars and slaves. This course will introduce the archaeology and art of that vast, long-lived and diverse imperial society. Topics will range through time and space to provide some sense of life within the empire: the agriculture and trade practiced, the monuments and images erected, the gods (new and old) worshipped, the amenities and entertainments enjoyed. Lectures will provide general coverage of the subject, with weekly discussion sections allowing students to explore specific issues in detail. There are no prerequisites for this course and all interested students are welcome. Requirements consist of two hour exams and a final exam. Cost:2/3 WL:1 (Alcock)

365/Class. Civ. 365. Alexander the Great: The Making of a Legend. (3). (HU).

See Classical Civilization 365. (Cherry)

431/Hist. of Art 431. Principal Greek Archaeological Sites. A course in archaeology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will focus its study on selected sites in the ancient Greek world, with special attention placed on their growth and development as illustrated by the archaeological remains. Paper, midterm, final exam. (Harrison)

434/Hist. of Art 434. Archaic Greek Art. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course will study the development of architecture, sculpture, vase-painting, and minor arts in the Greek world from ca. 900-480 BC. Special attention will be given to differences in regional styles, issues of artistic influence, and the societal context of the artifacts. Midterm, paper, final exam. (Harrison)

Classical Civilization (Division 344)

Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

102. Classical Civilization II: The Ancient Roman World (in English). (4). (HU).

This course serves as a general introduction to the history, literature, life, institutions, and contributions of ancient Rome - that is, to Roman civilization. In order to achieve some focus, we will consider in detail four periods of change or crisis: the founding of the Republic (509 BC); the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 BC); the Augustan "peace"; and the established principate of Nero. We will thus be able to follow the development and failure of institutions of government and society, and to trace the changing attitudes and values of the major writers of each period as they tried to give shape and meaning to their world and times and searched for order and consolation in times of civil war and the collapse of the social structure. We will read historians (Livy, Sallust, Tacitus), poets (Catullus, Vergil, Horace) and other writers (Cicero, Petronius). Lectures will follow certain common ideas and themes, with occasional presentations of special topics (e.g., Roman law; slavery; the ancient book; gladiators). Attention will be given to daily life through slide lectures. There will be two short papers (50% of the final grade), and a midterm (15%) and final (35%) exam. Cost:2 WL:3 (D.O. Ross)

120. First-year Seminar in Classical Civilization (Humanities). (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Idea of the Decadent: Literature in Crisis in the Roman and Modern Worlds.
Conflict, change, and disruption of confidence are among the social forces that are part of societies in decline. Specific areas of social life to be examined include the individual's sense of self; ethics; religion; and the relationship between aesthetic responses and society undergoing stress. Works from the Roman Empire, including Petronius' Satyricon and Apuleius' Golden Ass, and works from the 20th Century, including Thomas Mann's Death in Venice and Nathanael West's Day of the Locust, will be read, contrasted, and compared. Three short papers and a final examination will be the bases for evaluation. Cost:2 WL:1 (Witke)

121. First-year Seminar in Classical Civilization (Composition). (4). (Introductory Composition).
Section 001 Religious Change in the Roman Empire.
In the fourth century AD, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire. The Christianization of western Europe, North Africa, the Balkans, and the Middle East was the most important act of Roman government. But what did it mean for practitioners of traditional religions in this area, and what did it mean for Christianity itself? How did Christianity change, and how did it change the Roman empire? In this course we will examine the nature of religious conversion, the impact of traditional, polytheistic practice on Christianity, and the creation of new power structures within the Church from the fourth to seventh centuries AD, when the emergence of Islam altered the religious equation in the Mediterranean World. After an examination of the structures of traditional religion in the ancient world we will move on to the nature of Constantine's conversion to Christianity in 312. From this point onward, the imperial government had a central role to play in the evolution of Church doctrine, and we will look at the effect of this upon the structure of the Church. Of particular importance is this regard will be the emergence of holy people, operating outside the limits of the traditional church, creating alternative Christian hierarchies in various ways throughout the empire. At the same time, Christianity provided a new vehicle for communication between the Roman state and peoples beyond the frontiers of the empire, with significant results. Christianity also provided new historical paradigms that enabled people to interpret and argue about the events of their lives in fresh ways; we will therefore spend some time looking at the formation of a new Christian paradigm for history. This course is concerned with the study of religion in its social context and methods available for that study. It is only coincidentally concerned with documents, not at all concerned with the truth or falsity of any system of religious belief. (Potter)

365/Class. Arch. 365. Alexander the Great: The Making of a Legend. (3). (HU).

Alexander's world-conquering exploits and early death in 323 B.C. made him a legend not only in his own time, but for posterity. This course employs historical, literary, archaeological, artistic, and other forms of evidence to focus critically on the 'reality' and 'image' of Alexander in antiquity. Its scope, however, extends far beyond Alexander's own world, to examine his legacy and how knowledge about him has been transmitted and distorted, used and abused: what the Romans made of him, the Medieval Alexander tradition, even his relevance in contemporary politics. There are illustrated lectures, supplemented where possible by the occasional use of film and museum resources. Students will read about Alexander in selections from two ancient lives, a medieval romance-legend, a modern scholarly study, and a novel about Alexander. A midterm, final, and short paper are expected. Cost:2 WL:1 (Cherry)

375. War in Greek and Roman Civilization. (4). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to trace the evolution of different ideologies connected with war in the Greco-Roman world. It will begin with the link between war and the state in early Greece that appears in Herodotus' Histories, and move on to Thucydides' analysis of the effect of war on civil society in his history of the Peloponnesian war. The third section of the course will be devoted to war and Roman imperial ideology, as seen through the work of Rome's most successful imperialist, Julius Caesar. The next part of the course will be concerned with civil war and rebellion in the Roman empire (comparing and contrasting Tacitus' Histories and Josephus' Jewish War ), and it will conclude with an analysis of war as experience and ideal in Ammianus Marcellinus' The Later Roman Empire. Consideration will also be given to the tension between ideas and the actual practise of war. Course requirements will include two take-home writing assignments, a midterm, and a final exam. (Potter)

460/Women's Studies 460. Theorizing Women in Antiquity. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

In this course we will study ancient philosophical, religious, and medical texts that purport to define women or the feminine. Our approach will be simultaneously theoretical and historical: starting from the literature of Classical Age, moving on to the Hellenistic period, and ending in Late Antiquity, we'll read modern critical theory in the light of their ancient sources, and ancient sources in the light of modern scholarship. Theorists will include, among others, Foucault, Irigraray, Kristeva, and Carolyn Walker Bynum. We'll examine how the `woman question' was proposed and answered in the schools of Plato, Aristotle, the Cynics, the Stoics, and Epicurus. The second half of the course will look at how women's lives changed with the advent of Christianity and with the development of institutions outside of the family structure. We'll read narrative hagiographies featuring women teachers as well as some theoretical texts from both Gnostic and Christian writers who expounded the ideologies of Virginity, Apocalypse, Pleroma, etc. Reading for the course will usually place primary sources side by side with critical studies of these texts. Assignments include take-home final, term paper, and class presentation. Cost:3 (Rappe)

472. Roman Law. Not open to freshmen. (3). (HU).

This course acquaints students with the fundamental concepts of Roman private law, with their origin in the society and government of the High Roman Empire, and with their all-important influence in the development of Western European legal theory and institutions. The course aims primarily to meet the interests of undergraduates with a bent toward law as a profession, but it is open to all students (except freshman). We will use a direct application of the American case-law method to the teaching of Roman law. Our basic text will be a series of actual problems from the Roman jurists, which we will discuss in class; only as the occasion demands will the instructor "fill in the gaps" with short lectures on other relevant legal material. Thus students should develop a feel for legal analysis and for the contribution made through such analysis by the Roman jurists; at the same time, students will learn Roman law in a form that will be directly relevant to future legal studies. Besides the handouts, one general introduction to Roman law (ca. 250 pages) will be required reading. There will be one hour test on material covered in class, in addition to the final examination; one paper (10 pages) will allow the student to analyze in detail a particular legal problem. Cost:2 WL:1 (Frier)

Classical Linguistics (Division 345)

503/Rom. Ling. 503. History of the Latin Language I: 600-1 B.C. Latin 231 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

The course will focus on non-classical ("Vulgar") Latin texts: 6th century BC to 8th century AD. The texts will be selected from Ernst Pulgram, Italic, Latin, Italian: 600 BC to AD 1260, Texts and Commentaries (Heidelberg: Winter, 1978), pp. 159-309. The course will be taught in a philological mode (rather than a strictly linguistic one with much linguistic theory); hence students of Classics, both graduates and undergraduates, not experiences in linguistics need not fear that they will be overtaxed. Interested students should plan to attend an organizational meeting on Monday, January 9 at 4:00 p.m. in 1052A Administrative Services Building (Classical Studies Seminar Room). Please bring a listing of when you cannot attend a two hour once a week class meeting so that we can determine the class meeting time. (Pulgram)

Classical Greek (Division 385)

Elementary Courses

102. Elementary Greek. Greek 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 310, or 503. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 503. (4). (LR).

Greek 102 is the second term of the elementary ancient Greek sequence and requires that the student has already completed Greek 101. In Greek 102 students will supplement their study of syntax and grammar by reading Attic prose selections. There will be a series of quizzes and hourly exams in addition to a final exam. (Dillery)

302. Second-Year Greek. Greek 102 or equivalent. The language requirement is satisfied with the successful completion of Greek 301 and 302. (4). (LR).
Section 001.
This course is the second half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. The primary goal of the student in Greek 302 is to learn how to read Homer; hence emphasis is placed on Homeric vocabulary and grammar. The class will translate and discuss passages from the Odyssey. There will be quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:3 (Garbrah)

Intermediate Courses

402. Greek Drama. Greek 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

The prescribed plays are Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus and Euripides' Alcestis. In the translation of the texts grammar and style will be emphasized. Students will also be introduced to some of the basic metres of Greek drama. The interpretation of the plays will embrace matters literary and historical. A written assignment will be set on the plays. There will also be quizzes, a midterm and final exam. Cost:3 (Garbrah)

Advanced Courses

486. Readings in Later Greek Prose. Greek 402. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Novel in Antiquity (Greek, Jewish, Christian).
This course will deal with the ancient Greek novels. Our starting point will be the Jewish novel Joseph and Aseneth, from which we will proceed to some of the Greek erotic novels and hero romances, and finally to early Christian novelistic literature. Our focus will be historical rather than literary we will read (sections of) each text in Greek, and discuss issues such as its date, historical context, and significance. We will also focus on issues of cross-cultural influences as they appear, or do not, in the Greek novels. Student evaluation will be based on class participation and short written assignments, as well as a final examination. Cost:2 WL:4 (Bohak)

497. Senior Greek Seminar. Honors student or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Ancient City.
The primary concern of this course will be a consideration of how both the idea and the reality of the ancient city affect our understanding of classical antiquity. The course will feature literary, historical and material documents, and will employ a variety of approaches for their interpretation (anthropological, economic, and archaeological among others). While most of the course will concentrate on using the city as a means to understand the ancient world better, time will also be spent on how modern ideologies have shaped our evaluations of the ancient city. The course will have a seminar format. Students will be expected to take a midterm translation exam, make a presentation to the class, and write a final paper. Reading knowledge of either Greek or Latin is required. (Dillery)

Modern Greek (Division 433)

102. Elementary Modern Greek, II. Elementary Modern Greek 101 or permission of instructor. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 502. (4). (LR).

The course follows the same paidagogical scheme as MGr101, with class room dialogues, non-competitive group games and improvised scenarios. Instruction in more advanced grammar and syntax is effected through both formal methods and drills. By the end of the term students are exposed to approximately four-fifths of modern Greek grammar and syntax and are expected to be linguistically competent in a variety of everyday contexts. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, a one hour midterm exam and a final. Cost:1 WL:1 (Soulis)

202. Second Year Modern Greek, II. Modern Greek 201 or permission of instructor. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 504. (4). (LR).

This is the final term of the Modern Greek language sequence and students will be able to fulfill their language requirement. The course focuses on expanding vocabulary through reading more complex journalistic prose and literary texts (20th century poetry and prose) and discussion of those texts. Special attention is paid to the historical depth of the language through instruction in etymology. The proficiency gained by the end of Modern Greek 202 should enable students to express themselves in Modern Greek on topics of interest; students ought to be able to read, with dictionary help, all writings in Standard Modern Greek. Class participation, comprehensive tests, one midterm and a final examination will determine the final grade. Cost:1 WL:1 (Gagos)

Latin Language and Literature (Division 411)

Elementary Courses

Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential facts of morphology, syntax, semantics, vocabulary, history and culture are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English vocabulary improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.

In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 194, 231, and 232. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with little or no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit Professor Knudsvig in 2218 Angell Hall, 764-8297.

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 193, or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hours examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 193 or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

194. Intensive Elementary Latin II. Latin 193 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 221, 222, 231, 232, or 503. Graduate students should elect 503. (4). (Excl). This course does not fulfill the language requirement.

This is a continuation of Latin 193, a beginning language course which will have covered, by the end of the Fall Term, the essentials of Latin accidence and syntax, with some experience in reading continuous Latin prose. The second term of this introductory sequence will continue the reading of prose and will then include one of the first six books of Vergil's Aeneid. Students need not have taken Latin 193 to enroll in Latin 194. Initially there will be a systematic review of Latin grammar, and throughout the term attention will be paid to details of grammar to ensure a command of language necessary for increasing ease in reading. Therefore, anyone with a knowledge of elementary Latin could profit from the course. The Aeneid has been chosen as the main text because of its inherent importance for later European poetry and literature, and will be considered in class discussion as such not simply as an exercise in translation. Cost:2 WL:3 (001:Meckler; 002:D.O. Ross)

231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from such authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D. as Caesar and Livy and Pliny the Younger. Class discussions center upon the readings. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).
Section 001.
This class will ask you to bring together and apply the knowledge and skills you have acquired in studying Latin to the reading of the greatest work of Latin literature. We will work closely with the text, slowly and methodically learning techniques of translating Vergil's poetry into clear and precise English prose. We will review grammar as necessary. We will also study Vergil's epic in English translation. By term's end we should have both a good understanding and appreciation of what the Aeneid is all about and an ability to confront a Latin passage of the poem with some skill and comprehension. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:1 (Wallin)

Sections 002-005. The goal of this course is simple: to learn to read extensive passages of Vergil's Aeneid, with comprehension and enjoyment. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and time of the Emperor Augustus. Quizzes, hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. Cost:2 WL:1

Intermediate Courses

302. Intermediate Latin II. Latin 194, 222, 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course will provide an introduction to the prose and poetry of the late Roman Republic (First Century B.C.). Class time will be spent primarily in translation and discussion of several of Cicero's speeches and a selection of the poems of Catullus. Emphasis will be placed on a further mastery of Latin grammar and translation skills. There will be several hour exams and a final. Cost:2 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

402. Imperial Prose. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001 Tacitus' Agricola and Annals.
Keen judgment and a terse, energetic style have made Tacitus a favorite author of many both in antiquity and in modern times. In this course, students will gain familiarity with Tacitus' unique prose style through reading two of the historian's works: Agricola, a biography of Tacitus' father-in-law, Agricola, a whose distinguished career came to an abrupt end in a political persecution; and selections from the Annals, a history of how the family of Augustus kept control of Roman government during the early years of the empire. There are two textbooks for the course: the Oxford Classical text of Tacitus' minor works, edited by Winterbottom and Ogilvie; and the first half of Henry Furneaux's edition and commentary on the Annals. The books will be available at Shaman Drum (?). Students should note that there is no class on January 6 and that the first class will be held on Monday, January 9. Students should be prepared at the first class to translate chapters 1-3 of the Agricola (pages 3-4 of the OCT). (Meckler)

410. Poetry of the Republic or Later Empire. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001 Lucretius, or, Death is Nothing to Us.
This course will offer students a chance to explore the writing of Lucretius, the poetic atomist, through a close reading of Book 3 (on death) and of excerpts from earlier and later books of De Rerum Natura. Although primarily conceived as a reading course, this is not its sole purpose. Our text will be the departure point for a wider discussion of the role of death in atomism generally; death's structural similarities to the void; the ethical function and the related poetics of death (indifferentism, shock, and fascination); and the concept of symbolic death in ancient and contemporary thought. A new, still unpublished translation of Philodemus' treatise De morte will be made available as part of the background reading to the course, which will also include selections from Democritus and Epicurus, skeptics and Cynics, and Freud and Lacan. Two short research papers will be required, a midterm, and a final. Cost:2 WL:4 (Porter)

Advanced Courses

421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of modern linguistic theories that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

426. Practicum. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

497. Senior Latin Seminar. Honors students or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Ancient City.
For Winter Term, 1995, this section is offered jointly with Greek 497.001. (Dillery)

506. Advanced Latin Composition. Latin 403. (3). (Excl).

The writing of continuous Latin prose: includes the writing of versions, i.e., rendering of original English passages into classical Latin and free composition in Latin. Not open to undergraduates. (Garbrah)

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