Courses in Geological Sciences (Division 377)

A. Introductory Courses and Courses for Non-concentrators

G.S. 100-115 are short (half-term) courses. They consist of detailed examinations of restricted geologic topics. The department lists the specific courses from this series in the Time Schedule for the terms they are offered (fall and winter terms only). Each course, when offered, meets twice weekly for half of the term (first half or second half), and the specific dates for each course are printed in the Time Schedule. These courses are designed primarily for students with no prior geologic training and they are open to all interested persons. G.S. 100-115 are offered on the graded pattern (optional pass/fail).

100. Coral Reefs. (1). (NS). (BS).

Coral Reefs will be an in-depth tour of the biological and physical processes active in modern reef systems to provide a detailed understanding of the ecology of the individual organisms and the complex nature of their interactions within the reef community. Evolution of the reef community will be examined, ranging from the crude framework structures formed over one billion years ago by primitive algae to the luxuriant and diversified reefs of the modern-day oceans, to define the evolutionary strategies of reef building organisms. By tracking these evolutionary strategies through geologic time, the implications of man's intervention with the Earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere on the character of future reef communities will be considered. Cost:1 WL:4 (Meyers)

103. Dinosaurs and Other Failures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 273. (1). (NS). (BS).

This course will provide an introduction to our current understanding of dinosaurs and certain other reptilian groups of the Mesozoic Era. It is intended for students with an interest in geology, paleontology, or evolution, but does not require prior training in these fields. The course will deal with broad features of the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, methods of reconstructing dinosaur behavior and ecology, new developments in our interpretation of the biology of dinosaurs, and possible causes for the extinction of dinosaurs. There will be two lectures each week and a single exam at the end of the course. Cost:1 WL:3 or 4 (McShea)

105. Continents Adrift. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 205 or 270. (1). (NS). (BS).

In this one-credit course we will explore the mobility of the continents and oceans in present and past times. The goals of this course are to present the most exciting recent developments in the earth sciences, a unifying concept that explains ocean evolution, mountain building, earthquakes and volcanoes. Conceptual and factual material will be used to explain the principles of plate tectonics and the dynamics of the solid earth. No special background is needed. Evaluation is based on final exams. Cost:2 WL:1 (Stamatakos)

107. Volcanoes and Earthquakes. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 205, 270, or 271. (1). (NS). (BS).

The course is a study of the earth in action and includes the following topics: geography of earthquakes and volcanoes; catastrophic events in historic times; size and frequency of occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; the products of volcanism; volcanic rocks; volcanic activity through geologic time; volcanic exhalations and the evolution of the earth's atmosphere and oceans; relationship of earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics and the internal dynamics of the earth; volcanism and geothermal energy; manmade earthquakes; and earthquake prediction and control. Instruction by lecture, evaluation on basis of final exam. Cost:1 WL:4 (Pollack & Satake)

110. The History of the Oceans. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 222. (1). (NS). (BS).

The history of past oceanic inhabitants, events, and environments is recorded in the sediments which have accumulated on the ocean bottom throughout geological time. Fossils of marine plants and animals are a major part of the historical record; they give evidence of past oceanic living conditions and the evolution of life forms in the sea. Sediment particles eroded from land and carried to the oceans by rivers and winds provide insights into past climates on continents. Changes in ocean currents and in seawater chemistry have left their mark on the sediment record; the possible causes of these changes are explored. Plate tectonics and seafloor spreading have rearranged the shapes of ocean basins and repositioned continents over time. These processes are reflected in the record in marine sediments still present on the ocean floor and also in those now uplifted to form part of the continents. These topics are presented in lectures held twice weekly for a half term. A single exam at the end of the course will determine the course grade. Cost:1 WL:4 (Owen)

113. Planets and Moons. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 204 or 278. (1). (NS). (BS).

This lecture course provides a current survey of the geology and climates of the various bodies of the solar system in light of the extraordinary advances in planetary exploration during the past two decades. Topics treated include historical development of geological ideas about the solar system, planetary evolution, variability of geological processes throughout the solar system, and individual portraits of the principal members of the solar system family. No previous geological background is required. Course grade will be determined from a single objective-type final examination. (Pollack)

114. The Elements. High School math, physics, and chemistry. (1). (NS). (BS).

This lecture course introduces the origin, abundance and distribution of the elements in the solar system. It is intended for students with an interest in science. The topics include: a review of the periodic table of the elements; stellar evolution and synthesis of the elements; nuclear properties and their relation to the abundance of the elements and their isotopes; chemical properties and their relation to the distribution of the elements in planets and in different reservoirs of a planet. Great pictures of the planets; formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Evaluation on the basis of a final exam. Cost:1 WL:4 (Zhang)

117. Introduction to Geology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 119 or 120. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 117 for 4 credits. (5). (NS). (BS).

A basic single-term course in introductory geology concentrating on the evolution of the Earth in physical and chemical terms with particular reference to modern plate tectonic theory, and to the interaction of the external biosphere-atmosphere-hydrosphere with the Earth's interior. The laboratory provides a practical study of minerals, rocks and geologic maps. One hour each week is scheduled for review and discussion of topics covered in class. Lectures, laboratory and discussion. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mukasa & Pollack)

118. Introductory Geology Laboratory. Credit is not granted for GS 118 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 117, 119, 121, 122, or 218). (2). (NS). (BS).

The laboratory provides hands-on experience with minerals, rocks and maps. Participants will learn to identify common minerals and rocks, use topographic and geologic maps, and draw and interpret geologic cross sections. Examples will be drawn from areas of recent glaciation, volcanism and earthquakes to show how these features are depicted in maps. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mukasa)

119. Introductory Geology Lectures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 117, 120. No credit granted to those who have completed both 205 and 206. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 119 for 3 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course consists of lectures shared with Geology 117 but does not include the laboratory section. A separate discussion section is also scheduled to insure continuity with class material and student-teacher contact. Students interested in ONE-TERM laboratory introductory science course should elect Geology 117. Lectures and discussion. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mukasa & Pollack)

120. Geology of National Parks and Monuments. Credit is not granted for GS 120 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (116, 117, 119). No credit granted to those who have completed both GS 205 and 206. (4). (NS). (BS).

Geology of National Parks and Monuments approaches Earth history by examining the geology of places rather than by taking a process approach. It is designed for all interested undergraduates at The University of Michigan. The course format consists of three lectures each week and one two-hour demonstration-laboratory period, for four hours credit. Lecture material deals with the geologic history of selected National Parks and Monuments, which are chosen (largely by enrolled students) and scheduled so that those in which the oldest rocks are exposed (thus relating to the earliest portions of Earth history) are covered first. In so doing, we cover Earth history in a temporal progression, but do so by discussing different geographic areas. The demonstration-laboratory portion of the course will give you first-hand experience with rocks, minerals, and fossils; and an opportunity to discuss these in small groups. Cost:1 WL:1 (Wilkinson)

123/AOSS 123/Environ. Stud. 123. Life and the Global Environment. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 277. (2). (NS). (BS).

See Environmental Studies 123. (Walker)

125. Evolution and Extinction. Those with credit for GS 106 may only elect GS 125 for 2 credits. May not be included in a concentration plan in geological sciences. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course surveys evolutionary thought during the 19th and 20th centuries, providing a context for understanding current knowledge and debates in the field. The influence of evolutionary thought on other areas of science and society, as well as the reverse, will be a major undercurrent in the subject matter. Three public debates about evolution, the first between Georges Cuvier and Geoffroy Saint Hilaire in 1839, the second between T.H. Huxley and Bishop Wilberforce in 1860, and the third between William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow at the Scopes "Monkey Trial" in 1925, will provide focal points for discussion and understanding of various issues. Requirements include lectures, readings, midterm exams, and a final paper. Readings include Evolution: the History of an Idea by P.J. Bowler, The Two Cultures by C.P. Snow, and a course reader. Cost:2 WL:3 (Polly)

130. The Physical World. High-school algebra. (4). (NS). (BS).

The physics, chemistry, and pre-calculus (algebraic) concepts of comprehensive Earth and planetary science will be covered for those students who feel less than fully prepared for existing college level science classes. The course is aimed at students in need of a science course, particularly those who will not readily select more than one physical science course as undergraduates at U.M. Weekly discussions by a TA will complement the lectures and amplify on them. Extensive weekly homework (quantitative exercises) will form 40% of the grade, with the remaining 60% based on two in-class exams and one final exam. Textbook: K.B. Krauskopf and A. Beiser, The Physical Universe, McGraw Hill, 7th ed. 1993. Cost:2 WL:1 (Van der Voo)

135. History of the Earth. High school chemistry, physics and mathematics recommended. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 269. Those with credit for GS 115 may only elect GS 135 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course provides a broad and fundamental introduction to the Earth and explains the formation of rocks and the major geological features, as well as the changes that have occurred over the 4.5 billion years of Earth history. The course is intended for students considering a Geological Sciences concentration, as well as for students interested in studying Earth sciences as part of their general educational background. Topics include minerals and the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, fossils and the evolution of life, the interior of the Earth, the measurement of time, continental drift, and the effect of the Earth's atmosphere, climate, oceans and rivers on shaping the surface of the Earth. The history of the planet will be followed from Earth's accretion from dust, through the origin of life, the building of the current continents and ocean basins, and the origin of humankind. Lectures three times a week for the full term. Textbook required. Evaluation will be based on four exams. Cost:2 WL:3/4 (Halliday & Smith)

201/Geography 201. Introductory Geography: Water, Climate, and Mankind. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 268. Those with credit for GS 111 may only elect GS 201 for 3 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course is a basic introduction to physical geography which emphasizes many topics including maps, seasons, the atmosphere, greenhouse gasses, radiation and heat balance, the dangers of global warming, circulation, moisture and precipitation, air masses, and water supply. Students also study climate classification, and geologic and historical climate changes, and landforms and their formation. Students in this lecture-lab course are evaluated by hourly and final examinations with satisfactory completion of the lab work a prerequisite to the final course evaluation. Cost:2 WL:3 (Stearns)

205. How the Earth Works: the Dynamic Planet. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 117, 119, or 270. No credit granted to those who have completed both GS 105 and 107. Those with credit for one of GS 105 and 107 may only elect GS 205 for 1 credit. (2). (NS). (BS).

The dynamic Earth has given us oceans, continents and an atmosphere. Its continuing activity is manifested today by the destructive powers of such natural phenomena as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and mountain building. The unifying concept of plate tectonics contains the clue to the shape and changes in the physical environment of the Earth from its initial formation to today. Our goal is to present a fully integrated approach to the evolving Earth's unique features in our solar system and explain its physical and chemical principles using conceptual and factual material. Extensive use is made of videos, slides and classroom demonstrations. Two lectures/week; evaluation based on midterm and final exam. No special background required. Course reading: Earth's Dynamic Systems by W.K. Hamblin and a course pack. This course can be taken singly or concurrently with its companion course (GS 206); together they constitute a balanced introduction to modern earth sciences. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lange)

206. How the Earth Works: the Water Cycle and Environment. Those with credit for GS 109 may only elect GS 206 for 1 credit. (2). (NS). (BS).

This course describes behavior of earth materials in the surficial environment. Water is the main transport agent in the geological cycle; it's unique properties and exchange rates among oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater are one focus. Interaction between water reservoirs and physical and chemical weathering of soils, sediments and rocks also are discussed. Impact of humans on the surficial environment is a unifying theme because we can affect hydrologic and geochemical cycles. No special background required. Two lectures per week. Several field sessions are planned to collect water and sediment samples for follow-up lab analyses. Evaluation based on exams and participation. This course, and its companion course (GS 205), may be taken singly or concurrently and together constitute a balanced introduction to modern earth science. Cost:1 WL:4 (Walter)

222. Introductory Oceanography. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AOSS 203. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

This course introduces students to the scientific study of the oceans. Contents include the shape, structure, and origin of the ocean basins; the sedimentary record of oceanic life and conditions in the past; the composition of seawater and its influence on life and climate; waves and currents; the life of the oceans and how it depends upon the marine environment; the resources of the ocean and their wise use by society. The course format consists of lectures and readings from an assigned textbook. The course grade will be based on several hour exams. Cost:2 WL:3 (Moore)

223. Introductory Oceanography, Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in G.S. 222. (1). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

This course is an optional laboratory intended to provide students with opportunities to explore further various oceanography topics presented in the G.S. 222 lectures. Laboratory sessions will include sampling procedures, use of equipment, discussions, and demonstrations of how data are generated. The course grade will be based on written laboratory exercises and a final exam. Cost:1 WL:4

267. Gems and Gem Material. (3). (NS).

The lore, legend, and esthetically pleasing properties of gems and gem materials have their basis in relations such as symmetry, interaction with light, and geological or synthetic origins, because gemology is concerned with practical applications of mineralogy and materials science. This course therefore is concerned with subjects such as symmetries of gem crystals, cutting styles that optimize light/solid interactions, identification of gems vs. synthetic substitutes, geological vs. synthetic origins, and ethical considerations in the marketplace based on gem properties. It thus exemplifies the scientific method in practical terms with respect to applications to esthetically-pleasing materials. The class involves lectures, seminar-type discussions, student presentations, and some hands-on laboratory sessions, including the fashioning of cabochons with lapidary equipment. Textbook: Gemology, by Hurlbut and Switzer. Grade is based on two exams, one paper, and one presentation. (Peacor)

271. Natural Hazards. Those with credit for GS 107 or 205 may only elect GS 271 for 2 credits. Those who have credit for both GS 107 and 205 may only elect 271 for 1 credit. (3). (NS). (BS).

This freshman/sophomore seminar examines various types of natural hazard such as earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes and tornadoes. We make case studies, explore geological and geophysical background, and discuss the social aspects of natural hazards. Each student is given a project, which will be presented in a class and reported as an essay. Evaluation is based on an exam, the presentation and essay. No science background is required, but active participation of students is expected. Cost:1 WL:4 (Satake)

272. Seminar: Environmental Geology. High school math and science. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 284. Those with credit for GS 109 may only elect GS 272 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

This seminar will focus on a wide spectrum of possible interactions between people and their physical environment and could be described as a course in applied geology. Fundamental principles important to the study of environmental geology will be presented followed by readings of case histories and discussions of selected environmental problems including natural hazards (flooding, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions), water resources, global warming, nuclear waste disposal, and geological aspects of environmental health. Students can study this subject without any previous exposure to the geological sciences. The goal of the seminar is to provide a scientific basis for making informed decisions on the myriad of environmental problems that challenge a modern technocratic society. Student will be evaluated on the basis of midterm and final examinations as well as a short term paper and oral presentation. Cost:2 WL:1 (O'Neil)

273. Contemporary Dinosaurs. Those with credit for GS 103 may only elect GS 273 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

Paleontologists' understanding of dinosaurs and other fossil reptiles has undergone a revolutionary transformation since the mid-1970's. New data, new methodologies, and new assumptions about the basic biology of extinct reptiles have resulted in a more complex and dynamic picture of dinosaurian behaviour, ecology, and morphology, and new estimates of their evolutionary history and relationships. In this course, we will investigate both these new scientific conceptions of fossil reptiles including dinosaurs, pterosaurs, aquatic reptiles, and other related groups and examine the history and philosophy of paleobiological work. We will also pursue aspects of contemporary evolutionary theory and introduce background information on geological processes needed to understand the field. Course requirements include one brief (5 page) paper and one term paper of about 15 pages, a midterm and final exam, and vigorous class participation. Weekly readings will be assigned from reserve materials, text, and course pack. There are no prerequisites for enrollment. WL:3, students should ask instructor for override, but also are encouraged to sign up for it at CRISP too.

277/Environ. Stud. 361. Humans and the Natural World. Those with credit for GS 123 may only elect GS 277 for 1 credit. (3). (NS). (BS).

See Environmental Studies 361. (Walker)

278. Earthlike Planets. High school science and math recommended. Those with credit for GS 113 may only elect GS 278 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

In a small class room setting, Earthlike Planets introduces the undergraduate to the terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, moon, and Mars. Studies of solid planets will be used as a vehicle to better understand our own world and the methodology and limitations of science in the presence of conflicting hypotheses and ambiguous data. Since western society has made a significant commitment of resources toward the exploration of the planets, we must consider not only the scientific merits of the endeavor but also its historical origins. Grades will be based upon class participation, a midterm exam, and a final project. The final project will provide the basis for a written report and an in-class oral presentation. Cost:2 WL:3 (Van keken)

417. Geology of the Great Lakes. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl). (BS).

Fresh water is becoming one of mankind's most precious resources. This course investigates the modern physical and chemical nature, and the environmental geology and paleoclimatic history of large lakes, with emphasis on the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Topics include introductions to physical limnology (seasonal cycles, circulation, waves), processes of sedimentation in large lakes (including the deposition of clastic, biogenic, chemical, and anthropogenic materials), and methods and results of age-dating and isotopic investigations. Records of both natural and human-caused changes found in lake sediments will be discussed and interpreted by the class. Instruction is by lecture/seminar format. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a class presentation and by a midterm and final exam. Prerequisites are an introductory class in geology, biology or oceanography. Cost:1 WL:4 (Rea)

B. Primarily for Concentrators

310. Petrology. G.S. 231 and either an introductory geological sciences course or G.S. 351 to be elected prior to or concurrently with G.S. 310. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Petrology is the study of the origins of rocks. Emphasis is placed on igneous and metamorphic rocks in this course. The evidence for the deep crustal and upper mantle sources of igneous rocks is traced using petrographic, geochemical, and phase diagrammatic observations. In metamorphic petrology the response of metamorphites to changes in pressure, temperature, and fluid composition will be evaluated, primarily using petrographic and phase equilibrium data. Plate tectonic processes will be tied in to the origin and evolution of many igneous and metamorphic rocks. Some comparisons with extra-terrestrial igneous petrology will be made. The lectures are coordinated with microscopic laboratories using optical techniques to identify and evaluate mineral assemblages. The grade is determined through a combination of midterms, laboratory exams and a final. Cost:3 WL:3 (Mukasa)

351. Structural Geology. G.S. 117 or 119 or the equivalent; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

The description and analysis of geological structures in the Earth's crust and an introduction to global tectonics. Three lectures and one laboratory session weekly. The following topics are covered: the description of geological structures; the kinematics and dynamics of folding and faulting; stress, strain, deformation and rheology; introduction to dislocation theory; micro-structural analysis; principles of plate tectonics; selected orogenic systems of the world. This is a core course for concentrators, but is open to all who want to have a basic knowledge of geology. Evaluation is based on graded lab assignments, a lab test, a midterm and a final exam. Textbooks: Foundations of Structural Geology, 2nd ed., by R.G. Park (lectures) and Basic Methods of Structural Geology by S. Marshak and G. Mitra (labs). In addition, hand-outs and preprints of a new text are used throughout the course. Cost:2 WL:4 (van der Pluijm)

415. Introductory Economic Geology (Metals). G.S. 310, 351, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course deals with the range of geologic processes that concentrate metallic and some non-metallic elements to form ore deposits. Although some attention is given to the economic, engineering and exploration aspects of economic geology, the course concentrates on the geology and geochemistry of ore deposits. Most attention is given to hydrothermal ore deposits, including the solution and isotopic geochemistry of these ore-forming systems. Hydrothermal deposits associated with sedimentary basins, metamorphic terranes, submarine and continental volcanic areas, and deeper intrusive zones are discussed in detail. Deposits formed by other processes such as magmatic differentiation and immiscibility, weathering, and stream action, are given less attention. A laboratory associated with the course deals with geochemical calculations, examination of representative suites of ore samples in transmitted and reflected light, and study of fluid inclusions. A textbook, The Geology of Ore Deposits by Guilbert and Park, is strongly recommended. (Kesler)

422. Principles of Geochemistry. G.S. 231, 305, 310 and Chem. 125/130. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The course is designed to provide a quantitative introduction to geochemical aspects of the rock cycle. Topics which will be covered include: thermodynamic and kinetic controls on the distribution of the elements, trace element and isotope geochemistry, geochemistry of the oceans and atmosphere, environmental geochemistry, and geochemical cycles. Instruction will consist of lectures and discussion of homework problems. The course is intended primarily for seniors concentrating in the geological sciences, but is also open to graduate students with advisor approval. Evaluation will be based on homework problems, a short term paper, a midterm examination and a final comprehensive examination. Required text: Faure, Principles and Applications of Inorganic Geochemistry, (1991). Cost:3 WL:4 (O'Neil)

424. Introductory Cosmochemistry and Early Evolution of Planets. Math. 116, Phys. 126, and Chem. 130, or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course introduces basic concepts of cosmochemistry and focuses on the solar system. Lectures on properties of the elements and nuclides, nuclear reactions, stellar evolution, the origin of the elements, chemistry of the solar system, classification and composition of meteorites, origin of planetary atmospheres, chemistry of terrestrial planets (Earth, Moon and the Apollo project, Mars and SNC meteorites, Venus, and Mercury), isotopic systems (including extinct nuclides) and how to use them to infer the history of the solar system. Several special seminars on planetary evolution and current topics. Knowledge of mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry preferred but not required. Evaluation will be based on homework problems, participation in seminars, a midterm exam, a term paper and a comprehensive final exam. Cost:2 WL:4 (Zhang)

425. Environmental Geochemistry. Introductory chemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course deals with the geochemistry of Earth's environment. The intended audience for the course includes advanced undergraduates and graduate students in Geological Sciences, as well as students at a similar level in related departments such as Chemistry, Natural Resources, Public Health and Engineering. The course begins with a review of geochemical fundamentals and goes on to a review of the composition of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere and the ways that they are related to the composition of the biosphere. Special attention is given to naturally-occurring elements and compounds of environmental interest and to geochemical processes of environmental significance. Lecture material is supplemented by problem sets and discussions. Evaluation is based on these assignments, as well as a midterm and a final exam. Reading comes largely from a course pack, class handouts and research papers. (Kelser)

446. Permafrost, Snow, and Ice. Math. 116 and Physics 140/141. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The course covers the geothermal environment of permafrost using analytical periodic and step function models of conductive thermal evolution. The impact of coupled heat-mass transfer in the annual thaw or "active" layer and the overlying snow cover are considered in detail. Arctic/alpine geomorphology, lake/river ice and glaciology are also covered. Students make extensive use of computer models developed by the instructor. Near the end of the term a numerical model of sub-sea permafrost is used to explore the climatic history of the Arctic Shelf. This project is used to illustrate the power and limitations of thermal modeling in the analysis of climate variation. Several "problem oriented" take home examinations employed to evaluate student performance. Readings: Students will be supplied with xeroxed tutorial materials. Cost:1 (Outcalt)

449. Marine Geology. G.S. 222/223 or introductory physical geology. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is an examination of the geology of the ocean basins and the adjacent continental margins. Topics covered include methods of marine data collection, geologic structure of the ocean floor and margins, sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics, the processes of terrigenous, biogenous and chemical sedimentation, and the interpretation of the sedimentary record in terms of past ocean circulation and global climate history. Grades are based on a midterm and final examination and a term project designed to reveal the geologic history of one of the major ocean basins to be selected each year by the class. The class is given in a lecture format, class discussions are encouraged. The textbook is Marine Geology by J.P. Kennett. Cost:3 WL:4 (Rea)

465/AOSS 467/Chem. 467. Biogeochemical Cycles. Math. 116, Chem. 210, and Phys. 240. (3). (Excl). (BS).

See Chemistry 467. (Carroll)

468. Introduction to Signal and Image Processing in the Earth Sciences. Math. 116. Prior or concurrent enrollment in a structured computer language such as "C" or Pascal. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Students use image processing software to manipulate topographic elevation images developing contour maps, block diagrams and shadow images. The fractal geometry of space and time series are explored. Topics include (1) Frequency domain transforms; (2) Calculation of the "fractal dimension" using both the Variogram and Hurst Exponent methods; (3) Kernel operator design for image processing; (4) Conversion of numerical data to images; (5) The map as a matrix. Grades are based on problem sets and a term project. Several "problem oriented" take home examinations employed to evaluate student performance. Readings: Image Lab, T. Wegner, (Waite Group, 1993) as a text which will be augmented by xeroxed articles. Cost:3 (Outcalt)

473. Fundamentals of Organic Geochemistry. G.S. 305 or Chem. 215/216. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The origins and fates of organic matter in geological settings form the basis of this course. Distributions of various types of carbon compounds in lakes and oceans, recent and ancient sediments, and soils are discussed. Molecular and isotopic indicators are used as tracers of organic matter sources and of alteration and exchange processes within and between these compartments. The special circumstances required for formation of coal, oil, and gas are explored as an important part of the alteration process discussions. The course format consists of lectures, discussions, and readings from the scientific literature. A midterm and final examination, plus a term paper, are required. Cost:2 WL:4 (Meyers)

484. Geophysics: Physical Fields of the Earth. Prior or concurrent election of Math. 216 and Phys. 240, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Newtonian attraction; the potential function, spherical harmonics; attraction of special distributions, gravity exploration techniques; isostasy, the figure of the earth; earth tides, the magnetic field of the earth, spatial and temporal variations, theories of origin; rock magnetism, paleomagnetism, contributions to earth dynamics and global tectonics; magnetic field of special distributions, magnetic exploration techniques; temperatures and heat transport in the earth, geothermal measurements, implications for tectonic processes. Lectures and laboratory. Cost:1 WL:3 (Van der Voo)

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