Romance Languages and Literatures

French, Italian, and Spanish Placement Tests

If you are planning to take an elementary French, Italian, or Spanish class and you are a new student, freshman or transfer student, or you have not yet begun the elementary language sequence on the Ann Arbor campus, you must take the placement test in order to register for the correct course. You must register for the class into which you have been placed.

If you have registered for a class prior to taking the test, you will still be required to take the test in order to verify that you are in the appropriate level class.

If you have already taken French, Italian, or Spanish 101-232 on the Ann Arbor campus, or if you have already taken the placement test once, you are not eligible to take the test again. For questions regarding the LS&A language requirement, please see a general academic advisor or call POINT-10 (764-6810).

Please Note: With the reduction in the number of classrooms throughout LS&A, departments must limit the number of classes offered between 10 am and 4 pm. There will be more classes open before 10 am and after 4 pm. Please take advantage of the opportunity to register for these classes and avoid the "Lottery" (see 2b below).

Instructions for students requesting overrides for French or Spanish 101, 103, 231, or 232.

1. Try to find a section that will fit into your schedule, since the Department cannot guarantee every student a space in a section of his/her own choice.

However, do not register for a class that you cannot attend. You will not be eligible to override into the section of your choice if you are registered for any section of 101-232, even if you cannot attend that section.

2. As it states in the Time Schedule any registered student who misses one of the first four class meetings will be dropped from the course, thereby leaving some open spaces for those students who have been closed out.

If there is absolutely no section open which will fit your schedule, you should follow this procedure:

(a) Start attending the section you would like to get into on the first day of class. You will receive a Proof of Attendance form which must be signed by your instructor every day. You must attend a class every day, but it does not need to be the same section. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are taking.

(b) On January 11 at 7:00 p.m., there will be a meeting in the basement of the MLB, rooms to be announced later, for each of the above courses. At these meetings, students will be assigned to remaining vacated spaces in the most fair and equitable manner possible, using a lottery system. At no time, however, will any class be allowed to exceed 25 students. Students must bring their CRISP Official Printout of Classes and the Proof of Attendance form to the meeting!

3. Please note that you will not be allowed to change sections at the French meetings. Beginning January 12, Elementary French Language Supervisors will hear requests for section changes and fill those requests to whatever degree is possible.

4. Please ensure when adding with the override that you also add modifiers for pass/fail, etc.


Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. Students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Students with any prior study of French must take the Placement Test. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (LR).

The sequence of French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar, vocabulary, and culture which are needed in everyday life to understand French spoken at a moderate speed and to be understood by sympathetic native speakers. Vocabulary and structures are practiced in class primarily through communicative activities stressing listening and speaking. Authentic documents are used to develop reading skills and culture. Cultural awareness and listening skills are further developed through listening and video materials. Classes meet four hours per week in sections of 20-25 students. Daily homework assignments involve studying vocabulary and grammar, writing exercises or short compositions, and practice in listening comprehension. There are several quizzes and tests, as well as midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Class participation is graded. Cost:3 WL:4

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103. (4). (LR).

See French 101. It is Strongly suggested that transfer students see H.Neu for advice regarding placement in the appropriate course.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).

French 103 is a course for students with some prior language study in French, and covers the same material presented in French 101/102. Entrance into the course is by placement, or with the permission of the course coordinator. Because students are expected to be already familiar with some of the material, the course moves at a rapid pace, and students will need to plan on spending at least 8-10 hours each week preparing daily lessons. The objectives and methods of instruction are similar to those of French 101/102. Frequent quizzes (with both oral and written components) are administered to check students' assimilation of material. There are two hourly exams, a final and speaking tests. By the end of the course, students will have a good working vocabulary and strong listening comprehension skills; they should be able to express themselves in French (both in writing and orally) using most of the basic structural patterns in the language.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 are the third and fourth terms of language study offered. It presents a comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and literary excerpts. Both courses include the use of French movies and video. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on topics of interest, to understand conversations on such topics. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. Homework consists of grammar study, written exercises, and laboratory work both audio and video. There are comprehensive coursewide tests as well as the midterm and final examinations.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

In French 232, students will continue to improve speaking, writing, reading and listening skills by reviewing vocabulary and grammar from the second half of the book Ensuite. There, will be short weekly readings (advertisements, literary excerpts, and short stories) as well as class discussions of French cuisine, the French socialized medical system, and immigration. Throughout the term, students will listen to French songs, see several videos (from French television) as well as two French movies. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized, daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential and will be included in the final grade. There will also be listening comprehension quizzes, 2 in class compositions, 2 coursewide tests, a midterm, and a final examination.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward midterm students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 25 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, a midterm, final, and outside reading examinations. Cost:2 WL:4

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. This course does not fulfill the language requirement.

French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but more advanced cultural and intellectual readings, as well as audio, written or video materials, provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, but homework, attendance, and participation in classroom activities determine the Credit/No Credit grades. Cost:1 WL:4

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students improve their proficiency in the spoken language and in their writing skills through varied activities. French grammar is reviewed; however, this is not a grammar class. The reading excerpts are taken from contemporary works by authors from different French-speaking countries. In the second half of the term, students will read and work on a full-length novel. Students will also watch and work on two contemporary French movies. Videos from recent French news programs will be used for discussion once a week or so. ACTIVE PARTICIPATION is expected of all students and is part of the final grade. All classes are taught in French. Bi-monthly essays, two in-class exams, and one final examination. (Belloni)

362. Advanced French. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

French 362 is neither a literature nor a grammar class. It is designed as a bridge between the highly structured activities of language courses and the more independent work required in literature and civilization courses. French 362 has two main objectives: (1) to help students improve their written and oral fluency; (2) to familiarize students with the linguistic and analytic tools necessary to approach a document, whether a literary text, a newspaper article, or a video document. Used as the basis of round-table discussions and written exercises, these documents will help students increase their ability to write and converse fluently on different themes presented in class. Active classroom participation is essential, and is part of the final grade. All classes are taught in French. Bi-monthly essays, 2 in-class exams, one final examination.

363. French Phonetics. French 361 and 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course, conducted in French, is designed to introduce basic concepts in phonetic theory and to help students improve their pronunciation of French through (1) study of the physical characteristics of individual sounds, the relationship between sounds and their written representations, the rules governing pronunciation of "standard" French, and (2) intensive oral practice in the production of French consonants and vowels, syllabification, intonation, liaison, and deletion/retention of the "mute E." During the first week, students will record a speech sample and will be informed of problem areas to work on independently using audiotapes. Homework for each class consists of reading theory, writing phonetic transcriptions, and oral practice with tapes. Participation, 1-2 oral quizzes, and the final oral exam will evaluate proficiency in pronunciation. Homework, quizzes, a midterm, and a written final exam will evaluate ability to use the phonetic alphabet and knowledge of basic theory. This course may be elected by students in the Teaching Certification program and used as a substitute for French 426. Cost:2 WL:1 (Neu)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c) development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays. In the second half of the term, each student will work on his/her own diary (journal). Final course grade will reflect the students' progress, and participation in class. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students concentrating in French. NO AUDITORS.

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361, and prior or concurrent enrollment in French 362. A maximum of six credits of French 380, 414, and Business Administration 415 may be counted toward a degree. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the LANGUAGE of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is partly built around a fictitious company whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, applying for a job in France. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. Attendance mandatory. NO AUDITORS. Maximum enrollment is 20.

Civilization

214/Hist. 214. Interpretations of French Society and Culture. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 French Revolutions.
This course looks at a series of French "revolutionary" moments structuring episodes in French culture and society of the past two hundred years. Among the subjects considered: telling and retelling the Great Revolutions of 1789; debates over national identity occasioned by the Dreyfus Affair and France's colonial empire; the near mythic status of Paris as the capital of European culture and pleasure. In addition to introducing major themes and topics in modern French history, this class urges students to think about how that history has been constructed. It also raises questions about disciplinary boundaries: what are the relations of artistic movements to political ones? Of cultural revolutions to social ones? Of literary and historical analyses? To these ends, the readings combine primary texts with recent interpretive works. No previous study of French history, culture, or language required. Cost:2 WL:4

381. Themes in French Literature and Culture. French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 French as Play, Creative Writing, and Performance.
A course intended to make students producers, as well as consumers, of French literature and culture. Intensive practice in the French language and an unconventional introduction to French literature through a series of exercises and activities. Literature, in this course, will be taken not as a group of texts to be studied and analyzed, but as something to be produced, performed, transformed, spoken, played with, and invented. Activities and exercises will include: pastiches of autobiographical and fictional texts, collaboratively written scenarios and dramatic scenes, oral performance (individual and collective) of literary works (both pre-existing and student written), transformations from poetry to prose and vice versa, lipograms and other Oulipian experimental writing, translations, pastiches and original compositions of letters and maxims, interviews, small group discussion of work in progress, mutual correction, collective discussion of issues raised by the course. Texts: Micro-Robert Dictionary, course pack, and a small paperback anthology. Cost:2 WL:4 (Paulson)

430. Les structures socio-culturelles de la France actuelle. French 362 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.
Section 001 Restaurants, Zoos, Museums and Libraries: Spaces of Cultural Consumption.
This is a course about consumption - about the nineteenth-century production of specific delimited spaces for the consumption of culture. Restaurants, zoos, museums, and libraries, all were opened to the public (or, at least, a certain public) in the late eighteenth century, and hence are often attributed to the democratizing impulses of the French Revolution which converted the Louvre from palace to museum, and combined the Versailles menagerie with the King's Garden to create the extremely popular Jardin des Plantes. Yet this happy tale of popularization is balanced by limits on access, and logics of exclusion. Our readings will include both recent theoretical works on cultures of consumption (Lipovetsky, Baudrillard, Benjamin) and nineteenth-century texts (novels by Balzac and Zola; guidebooks; travelers' accounts; and physiologies ). Most readings in French (some available in English, and substitutions possible for non-concentrators). (Spang)

Literature

331. French Literature in Translation. Not open to French concentrators. Only one literature in translation course may be considered in the completion for the concentration requirements. (3). (HU).
France's Others, French Othering.
The course is about othering as a practice contributing to the historical construction of French national identity. We'll look at external and internal others, consider different functions of exoticism at different periods, track the emergence of modern racist ideologies and consider the gendering of the other (so be prepared to encounter racist and sexist stereotypes). You'll need 8-10 hours per week for reading. Writing will consist of keeping a journal (with special arrangements for ECB junior/senior writing credit). Lectures and discussions; work on a special project in the final three weeks. No midterm or final. Texts by Montesquieu, Graffigny, Mérimée, Verne, Loti, Duras, Maspéro. Also Tintin, Astéryx, Bizet's Carmen. WL:1 (Chambers)

386/MARC 386. Introduction to French Literature (Beginnings to 1600). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is a thematic study of the intellectual in the French Middle Ages, touching also on the Renaissance. We will read one of the spiciest intellectual autobiographies ever written (Abelard's Histoire de mes malheurs), the single most influential work of French literature, the Roman de la rose, and learn from social historian Jacques Le Goff about the role of the intellectual. in the Middle Ages. Intended as an introduction to the study of literature, the course will offer practical strategies for reading and analyzing literary works. Class activities include lectures by the instructor, discussions in large and small groups, and individual presentations. The instructor strives to establish a comfortable atmosphere where students can participate freely and actively in French. Students gain self-confidence in using French to communicate their ideas, expand their vocabulary, and increase control over their written French. No previous study of literature or history is expected. The readings, all in modern French, also include Adam de la Halle, Le jeu de la feuillée, and Louise Labé, Sonnets. Required work: regular class participation, 20 pages of written work divided between 3 papers and a journal of readings, midterm and final examinations. Cost:3 WL:4 (Graham)

387/388/389 INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course will focus on five of the most important writers of 19th century French literature, namely Balzac, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Zola and Maupassant. Emphasis will be placed on the literary aspects of the works read as well as the historical, political and artistic context of the day. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty pages of a given work and preparing to discuss them in class. Students will write four papers in French (three or four pages in length). Each paper will be corrected for grammar, choice of expression and content. The course grade will be based on the results of written work and on classroom participation. Regular attendance is required. There is no final examination. The course is conducted in French. Cost:2 WL:1 (Gray)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course consists in an introduction to Twentieth century French literature. We will examine texts representative of the passage from the 19th century classical tradition to modern French literature. We will examine the important literary works of the century and relate them to the changes of the French social context. Attention will be paid to the way the French language shapes the experience expressed in writing. Readings will include poems, short stories and very accessible (short) novels. This will be a discussion class. Required work: participation in class, 3 short papers (3-5 pages), and final examination. Cost:3 WL:4 (Gafaiti)

Section 002. An introduction to methods of literary study through the discussion of selected works of the twentieth century. We will examine the significance of formal characteristics of literary works (narrative, theater, and lyric poetry), and develop techniques of analysis suited to each type. We will also explore the relationship between literary form and social context. Particular attention will be paid to how the structures of the French language shape the experience related in the literary works we will read, and how writers use language to create a fiction of the individual.

453. Literature of the Seventeenth Century. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The history of dramatic literature numbers four great creative periods: the fifth century B.C. in Greece, the Elizabethan age in England, the Golden Age in Spain, and the 17th century in France. This had the particular distinction of establishing in both tragedy and comedy a tradition which was to determine the subsequent development of European drama. This course will focus on the works of the three most important and seminal dramatists of the time, the tragedies of Corneille and Racine and the comedies of Molière, first of all as literary texts, but also in relation to the social and political context of 17th century France. Grades will be based on class room participation (regular attendance is required), and on three papers (5-8 pages each) on assigned topics. The course will be conducted in French. WL:1 (Gray)

460. Topics and Themes in French Literature. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 "Beur" Fiction: Immigrant Literature in France.
In this course, we will examine "Beur" Fiction, the literary production of North African immigrants in France. Through this production, we will explore the recent challenge to French culture and society that invites the reconsideration of France as a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural civilization. The texts studied illustrate the contradictions linked to the post-colonial situation in France through important issues such as language, identity, the social status of minorities, the role of the school system for different social groups and the question of nationality. There will be also an emphasis on the originality of these writings (style, slang, humor, expression in relationship with gender, and the importance of music and cinema). This will involve also the discussion of films made by writers-film makers such as Mehdi Charef and Akli Tadjer. This will be a discussion class. Required work: one presentation, 2 short papers (4-5 pages) and one final paper. Reading List: Mehdi Charef, Le thé au harem d'Archi Ahmed, Mercure de France, 1983 (reed. Folio, 1988); Akli Tadjer, Les A.N.L du "Tassili," Seuil, 1984; Mehdi Lallaoui, Les Beurs de Seine, Arcantère, 1986; Farida Belghoul, Georgette!, Barrault, 1986; Tassadit Imache, Une fille sans histoire, Calmann-Lévy, 1989. Cost:3 WL:4 (Gafaiti)

482. Problèmes de l'analyse textuelle. Two of French 386, 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

During the term we read, analyse and learn to appreciate in depth the various aspects of a number of French texts and genres: poetry, prose, theatre, short stories, chosen from several centuries, mostly from the XVIth century to the XXth century. We examine their form, structure as well as their literary and philosophical significance. The course is based on a textbook introducing both the theory and practice of textual explanation, but other texts will be given in class to broaden and vary the choice of material used. There will be no midterm and no final examination, but you can count on a fair number of written "explications" to be handed in no less than three per month. This involves a formal presentation of the text, its form and structure as well as a literary assessment and a comment on its message. The paper is judged upon its organization, the level of the French (expression), its clarity and unity. Books needed: a textbook; at least a very good dictionary, a list of French verbs (Becherelle for instance) and access to a history of French literature is essential, at least as a reference (to inform yourself on the author, text, genre, period examined). The textbook will be ordered at Shaman Drum bookstore, State Street exclusively. The course is taught in French. Minimally, an adequate use of oral and written French is expected from those attending the course. (Mermier)


Courses in Italian (Division 399)

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (LR).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with parallel emphasis on conversation. Text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 101 covers the first half of the text. Course topics include: (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include: (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, audio-visual material, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination. Cost:2 WL:1

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden the student's knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also emphasized. The course covers the second half of the text with workbook and lab manual; readings supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination. Cost:2 WL:1

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102 or equivalent. Italian 206 may be elected prior to Italian 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Italian 206 emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is for students who have had at least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading material from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short storied, etc.) which will be discussed in class. Use of the language laboratory will provide additional conversational material on various aspects of Italian life. Class will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading is on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework and participation in classroom activities. Cost:1 WL:1

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of magazine and newspaper articles, short stories, plays and poetry, through the viewing of authentic visual material, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. A text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 231 covers the first half of the text. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions and oral reports center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. Cost:2 WL:1

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (LR).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian, including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. Text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 232 covers the second half of the text. There is a continuing review of grammar, and the elements of composition. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. Cost:2 WL:1

Other Language and Literature Courses

360. Italian Culture and History, Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries. (3). (HU).

This course, treating the 18th century through the 20th century, emphasizes the political, social and cultural difficulties that Italy encountered once it had lost the privileged position it held in Europe during the Renaissance. The importance of European movements, such as Illuminism and Romanticism, will be stressed as both artistic and political manifestations. Particular attention will be given to the mid-19th century struggle for the unification of the country, and the conditions that allowed the Fascist takeover. The Fascist period will be analyzed, considering in particular Mussolini's control over the mass-media, his promotion to the movie industry and the position of the intellectuals toward the dictatorship. The achievements of Italy after the second World War will be the focus of the last part of the course. Selected works by the following authors will be read: Vico, Verri, Beccaria, Goldini, Parini, Alfieri, Foscolo, Mazzini, Manzoni, Leopardi, Carducci, Verga, and early 20th-century figures. Students will be required to write three short papers during the term. A knowledge of Italian, while not required, will be useful. Cost:3 WL:4 (Frisch)

362. Advanced Italian. Italian 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Further proficiency in oral and writing skills will be stressed in Italian 362. Reading materials will include short fiction and non-fiction, as well as lengthier assignments of outside reading on which various written and oral assignments will be made. Participation in class discussion, occasional oral presentations, weekly compositions based for the most part on assigned readings, the subject matter of which will deal primarily with subjects of topical interest. Continuing grammar difficulties will be treated as they arise. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly. Cost:1 WL:1 (Habekovic)

380. Italian Cinema and Society. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU). Laboratory fee ($10) required.

The course, which will be taught in English, traces the historical development of Italian cinema from the postwar advent of neorealism to the mid 1980's. The course has several aims: to understand the political, economic, and cultural contexts which generated and supported the neorealist movement; to explore and analyze the theoretical bases of neorealism and its reception, both friendly and hostile, in Italian intellectual/political circles; to examine various aspects of the movement beyond neorealism proper in films of the 1950's and 1960's by Fellini, Visconti, Olmi, Bertolucci, and Bellocchio; and to expose the rethinking and re-evaluation of the neorealist aesthetic as carried out by Scola, the Taviani Brothers, Nichetti and Salvatores in the 1970's and 1980's. The course requirements, beyond class participation, will be three 6-8 page papers. A knowledge of Italian is useful, but is not required. Cost:2 WL:4 (Frisch)


Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101. (4). (LR).

A continuation of Portuguese 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on departmental exams, oral exams, quizzes, written assignments and daily oral work. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. Cost:1 WL:4 (Fedrigo)

232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 231. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Portuguese and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Portuguese-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on exams, designed to assess ability to speak, understand, read and write Portuguese, plus periodic written work (including compositions) and oral class participation. Cost:1 WL:4 (Fedrigo)


Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

414/Spanish 414. Background of Modern Spanish. Good reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 414. (Dworkin)

503/Class. Ling. 503. History of the Latin Language I: 600-1 B.C. Latin 231 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

See Classical Linguistics 503. (Pulgam)


Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. Students who began Spanish at another college or university must also take the placement test.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (LR).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish. Course objectives: the first part of an introduction to the Spanish language and culture; task- and content-based approach integrates grammar in a functional use through listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Language use encouraged through communicative activities rather than a sequence of linguistic units. Video, audio cassette and computer materials incorporated. Goals: Students completing Spanish 101 will hear about different sociocultural norms, can act with awareness of such differences; speak, using memorized phrases and some original language; read short texts of familiar or simple structure for detailed comprehension, less familiar materials for gist and main ideas; write familiar material with considerable accuracy. Work requirements/Evaluation criteria: regular attendance essential; participation in class includes asking and answering questions, initiating discussion, role playing and other situational activities. Grade based on oral participation, homework assignments, in-class work, four exams, and a final written and oral exam.

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. Spanish 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in Spanish 103. (4). (LR).

Continuation of Spanish 101. Course Objectives: Introduction to Hispanic language and culture; task- and content-based approach integrates grammar in a functional use through listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Language use encouraged through communicative activities rather than a sequence of linguistic units. Video, audio cassette and computer materials incorporated. Goals: Students completing Spanish 102 will speak in short spontaneous conversations involving everyday topics, observing basic courtesy requirements; understand gist of oneway communications like radio and television; read for practical information; write simple correspondence and short compositions on familiar topics, with good control of basic sentence structure. Work requirements/ Evaluation criteria: regular attendance essential. Participation in class includes asking and answering questions, initiating discussion, role playing and other situational activities. Grade based on oral participation, homework assignments, in-class work, chapter exams, and a final written and oral exam.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).

Accelerated refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. Transfer students elect Spanish 103 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere. Course objectives: Introduction to the Spanish language and culture; task- and content-based approach integrates grammar in a functional use through listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Language use encouraged through communicative activities rather than a sequence of linguistic units. Video, audio cassette and computer materials incorporated. Goals: Students speak in short spontaneous conversations involving everyday topics, observing basic courtesy requirements; understand gist of one-way communications like radio and television; read for practical information; write simple correspondence and short compositions on familiar topics, with good control of basic sentence structure. Work requirements/ Evaluation criteria: Regular attendance essential. Participation in class includes asking and answering questions, initiating discussion, role playing and other situational activities. Grade based on oral participation, homework assignments, in-class work, four exams, and a final written and oral exam.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to provide insight into the literature and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course Objectives: Content-based organized around themes: "Tradition and Change" and "Cultural Contrasts" to develop cultural awareness and formulate opinions on a variety of contemporary issues through reading, video, discussion and writing. Grammatical concepts considered within a functional whole; students responsible for home study of individual points. Classroom activities stress communication across the four skills with a strong oral/written component. Video, audio cassette and computer materials incorporated. Work requirements/ Evaluation criteria: Regular attendance essential. Participation includes asking and answering questions, initiating discussion, role playing and other situational activities. Pre- and post-reading activities take place in class; reading activities done at home. Writing samples prepared in class and at home. Grade based on oral presentations, classroom participation, homework assignments, periodic oral and written quizzes, chapter tests, and a Final written and oral exam.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 112. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to provide insight into the literature and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course Objectives: Content-based organized around themes: "Human Rights" and "Women and Society" to develop cultural awareness and formulate opinions on a variety of contemporary issues through reading, discussion and writing. Grammatical concepts considered within a functional whole; students responsible for home study of individual points. Classroom activities stress communication across the four skills with a strong oral/written component. Video, audio cassette and computer materials incorporated. Work requirements/Evaluation criteria: Regular attendance essential. Participation includes asking and answering questions, initiating discussion, role playing and other situational activities. Pre- and post-reading activities take place in class; reading activities done at home. Writing samples prepared in class and at home. Grade based on oral presentations, classroom participation, homework assignments, periodic oral and written quizzes, chapter tests, and a Final oral and written exam.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Spanish 111 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors, and to others by special permission. For graduate students a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate.

Other Language Courses

358. Spanish Conversation for Non-Concentrators. Spanish 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Spanish 361 or 362. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 358, 361, and 362 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 358 is a practical Spanish conversation course for non-concentrators interested in the Spanish language and in contemporary Hispanic culture. Texts include journalistic prose as well as journal formatted videos aimed at increasing students' knowledge of current affairs in Spain and Latin America. Audio tapes will be employed to improve pronunciation, vocabulary and listening skills. Class format includes group discussions, debates, oral presentations and role-playing. Attendance and participation will be mandatory and will constitute a large part of the course grade. Grades will also be determined by examination of students' listening and expressive skills. Finally, students will practice writing in various practical formats such as letters, book or movie reviews, etc. These written exercises will form the final component of the course grade.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 358, 361, and 362 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to increase the accuracy of students' Spanish and to increase vocabulary and cultural knowledge through readings. The course is centered on a grammar-review text. Students do readings in Spanish, prepare translations and other exercises, and expand vocabulary. Time is allotted to class discussion of readings and especially to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are conducted exclusively in Spanish. The final grade is based on translations, exams and participation in class discussions or presentations.

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 358, 361, and 362 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve student's ability to read Spanish prose, as well as their skills in conversational and written Spanish. To this end, students will be presented with a variety of written, visual and audio materials designed to stimulate discussion, both written and oral. Compositions are assigned regularly and oral presentations by students are required. Classes are conducted exclusively in Spanish. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in class discussions or presentations.

Section 005 Computer Assisted Reading-to-Write Course. This course is designed to improve writing skills and to provide the tools to think critically and analytically about what you read and how you write. Course activities center around reading, discussion, writing, peer editing and rewriting. Computer-assisted instruction prepares for reading and all phases of the writing process. There are five major compositions. Final grade determined by the progression of betterment made from first to final draft. The goal is to understand the text. "Reading" means processing signs, and "text" means signs organized into a code. Work will be collected in a "portfolio" on a diskette. Portfolio includes dialogue journal. Course obligations: compositions, 35%; class participation, 20%; dialogue journals, 15%; 2 in-class themes and test, 20%; final exam, 15%. Format of in-class themes, tests, final exam: one-half grammar/vocabulary and one-half written essay. (Carbon-Gorell)

414/Rom. Ling. 414. Background of Modern Spanish. A thorough reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course surveys the historical, social, cultural, and literary background against which spoken Latin of the Iberian Peninsula evolved into Spanish. The emphasis is on the external rather than the internal history of Spanish. Topics covered include the influence on the development of Spanish of such diverse languages as Basque, Gothic, Arabic, French, Italian, and Literary Latin, the role of the Reconquest (Reconquista) in shaping the linguistic map of Spain, and the circumstances leading to the rise of the Castilian dialect as the national standard. The ability to read Spanish is essential. Selected chapters from Rafael Lapesa, Historia de la lengua espanola and Antonio Alatorre, Los 1,001 anos de la lengua espanola will be made available in a course pack. In addition, graduate students will be required to read the chapters dealing with Spain in Roger Wright, Late Latin and Early Romance. There will be a midterm and final exams, and a written report. Cost:1 WL:3 (Dworkin)

Literature

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce participants to the literature of Spain from its beginnings to the Baroque period. Equally importantly, it will introduce participants to ways of thinking and imagining that are radically different, perhaps, from their own. We will study lyric poetry (Jorge Manrique, Garcilaso de la Vega, Góngora, and Quevedo), epic (Poema del Cid) and other narrative poetry (the comic Libro de buen amor), the beginnings of the novel in short fictions by Juan Manuel, Cervantes, and Maria de Zayas and the longer narratives of La Celestina and Lazarillo de Tormes, theater by Lope de Vega, and a taste of the mysticism of Santa Teresa de Jesús and San Juan de la Cruz. We have some 600 year's worth of texts to cover in our 14 weeks together. You should thus be prepared to manage reading assignments in Spanish of up to 60 pages per class. Requirements: Course journal and other brief writing assignments; midterm and final paper; midterm and final exams; active, engaged class participation. Conducted in Spanish. (Brown)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU).

The late eighteenth-century and the 1930's mark the two extremes of the period represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, methods and approaches of literary criticism are considered, and an effort is made to show how the works exemplify their cultural context, ranging from the Enlightenment through Romanticism, Positivism, Symbolism to Existentialism. Representative authors who may be studied are Moratin, Larra, Becquer, Galdos, Azorin, Machado, Jimenez, Unamuno and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of three sets of papers spread thoughout the term. The course is conducted in Spanish. Cost:3 WL:4 (Anderson)

373. Topics in Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Introduction to New World Spanish.
This course will provide a general introduction to the history and structure of the varieties of Spanish spoken in the New World. Topics to be treated will include the Peninsular origins of New World Spanish, the influence on Spanish of the languages of the native peoples of the New World, the features which characterize the several varieties of New World Spanish (including U.S. Spanish), the grammatical and lexical features which distinguish European and New World Spanish. Readings (mainly in Spanish) will be provided in a course pack. The course will be taught in Spanish. There will be a midterm and final exams, as well as written assignments. Cost:1 WL:3 (Dworkin)

Section 002 Vida privada y pública de la mujer espa ola en los siglos XVI y XVII. Las formas de vida femenina en las distintas regiones, en los diferentes niveles socio-económicos, y en los diversos grupos religiosos y étnicos. La mujer y su educación. Vestidos y usos. Las diversiones femeninas. La mujer y la familia. El amor y el matrimonio. La mujer y la religión. La mujer y la inquisición, especialmente en la región castellano manchega. La mujer y la vida pública: la mujer intelectual, la mujer política. La mujer espa ola en América. A través de obras de arte, de documentos y de textos literarios literarios en el sentido de letra escrita, no exclusivamente de ficción literaria- se estudiará la vida de la mujer en la Espa a de los Austrias. Se verán cartas y documentos de distintas mujeres. La mujer en el refranero tradicional castellano y en la poesía folklórica. Catálogos y documentos de Inquisición. Los alumnos harán un trabajo de investigación en fuentes primarias, sobre un tema escogido, dirigidos por la profesora. El trabajo puede hacerse individualmente o en equipos, a elección de los alumnos. Habrà dos exámenes, uno a mitad de término y otro al final. (Lopez-Grigera)

374. Monographic Studies in Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Writing Violence in Colonialist Discourses.
This course will examine European representations as well as indigenous views of the "discovery" and "conquest" of the Americas. The Native-Ameican chronicles will include texts written in alphabetic script as well as visual representations drawing elements from pre-Hispanic forms of picture writing. Readings will include texts from both the contemporary as well as the colonial period. Students will write two short essays. A list of topics will be distributed at the beginning of the term. Students will be required to prepare all the questions in the list for the final. Throughout the term students will write on these questions on a daily basis. Teaching will be conducted entirely in Spanish in a mixture of lecture and discussion format. Evaluation: (a) Two short essays 5 typed pages (50%); (b) class participation (15%); (c) Final Exam (35%). Cost:2 WL:4 (Rabasa)

375. Civilizaciòn de Espa a (Spanish Civilization). Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 361 recommended. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (Excl).

This course will focus on some current issues that confront Spanish democracy. Social, economic, political and cultural aspects of Spanish life will be discussed. For example, what do the Spanish people think about abortion or the relationship between the Church and the State? How has the Spanish economy changed since Spain's entry into the Common Market? Are the Spanish people satisfied with their monarchy and the present socialist government? What do the Spaniards think changed when Spain joined NATO? How did the cultural life improve after the death of the dictator Francisco Franco? The objective of the course is to discuss the contemporary problems as well as the historical origins of these and other questions and to expose students to the perspective that the current democracy introduced. The course will cover information about these issues through readings and lectures. The goal is to stimulate critical thinking by the students and discussion in the class. (Calvo)

458. The Spanish Picaresque Novel. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

A mediados del siglo XVI aparece en Espa a una novela breve, anónima, La vida de Lazarillo de Tormes, que comienza un género nuevo: los personajes son ni os y adolescentes, que viven en mundos marginales económica, social y moralmente. Escrita en forma autobiográfica, sitúa la acción cerca en el tiempo y en el espacio del que lee. Se imprime y traduce rápidamente en distintos sitios de Europa. Medio siglo más tarde el nuevo genero está consolidado en la novela picaresca, que resulta una "anatomía" - sátira menipea de la sociedad de aquellos a os. Se leerán: Lazarillo de Tormes; fragmentos del Guzmán de Alfarache, de Mateo Alemán; El Buscón, de Quevedo; Rinconete y Cortadillo, El coloquio de los perros y La ilustre ftegona, de Cervantes; y Teresa de Manzanares de Castillo Solórzano. Cada alumno debe hacer dos trabajos de investigación sobre algún tema sociológico por ejemplo sobre la mendicidad legítima y falsa en el surgimiento de la Europa mercantilista-, literario o lingüístico. Habrá dos exámenes durante el curso. (Lopez-Grigera)

465. The Modern Spanish Novel I. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

From 1880 to 1930, the Spanish novel underwent a radical transformation in content and form. The late nineteenth-century realist novels were followed by innovative novels which no longer sought to be "true-to-life" and challenged received notions of truth and reality. We will examine the cultural assumptions which underlay these diverse novels and explore various interpretive approaches to narrative. Readings will include novels and novellas by Galdós, Pardo Bazán, Unamuno, Valle-Inclán, Azorín, and Jarnés. Students should be able to read 30-40 pages carefully for each hour of class. Assignments include two medium-length papers, occasional take-home quizzes, a group oral presentation, and two exams. Evaluation will be based on written work and class participation. Discussions will be conducted in Spanish. Cost:2 WL:4 (Highfill)

468. Spanish Theater of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (Excl).

Over the course of the term we shall be reading seven plays by a number of Spain's foremost modern dramatists, including Jacinto Benavente, Jacinto Grau, Miguel de Unamuno, Ramón del Valle-Inclán and Federico Garcia Lorca. Stress will be laid on the close reading of texts, though at the same time we shall trace how playwrights seek to distance themselves from standard dramatic norms, often by stressing or enhancing the theatricality of their own works. Furthermore, there will be some consideration of the issue of literary text versus text for the stage, a gap which is particularly wide in some of the works to be read. The class will be a mixture of lecture, discussion and informal oral presentation; evaluation by attendance, participation, and several medium-length papers spaced through the term. Instruction will be exclusively in Spanish. (Anderson)

485. Case Studies in Peninsular Spanish and Latin American Literature. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent or permission of advisor. (3). (Excl).May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Section 001 Latino/a Literatures: The Politics of Language and Cultural Identity. Reading knowledge of Spanish is essential. Class discussions will be conducted in Spanish, English, and code-switching. This course explores language and bilingualism as sites for defining and reconceptualizing cultural identity among Latinos/as in the United States. Through poetry, prose, essays and testimonies written by Latino/a writers, students will delve into the political meanings of using Spanish. English, and codeswitching in literature and in daily life. Issues such as the role of language in creating a cultural identity, the practice of codeswitching and bilingualism, the dialectics between orality and written texts, and the power dynamics related to bilingualism and the use of Spanish in the United States will all be explored. The course is interdisciplinary in its approach and will include readings in literature, sociolinguistics, education, politics and cultural studies. Cost:2 WL:1 (Aparicio)

Section 002 Writing, Independence, and Underdevelopment in Latin America. This course will explore the role of certain canonical Latin American writers, from 1826 forward, within the general social task of constructing genuine independence from Spain, Britain, or the US in the face of persistent material dependence on these nations and in light of persistent internal poverty. What does independence mean for Latin American writers? How do they conceive their responsibility to their societies? How have they imagined and reimagined an independent Latin America? How have they represented the desires of those who never fully participated in independence? We will read works (poetry, short stories, essays) by Andrés Bello, José Martí, José Enrique Rodo, Jose Carlos Mariátegui, Pedro Henríquez Ure a, Julio Cortázar, Roberto Fernández Retamar, Rigoberta Menchú, and others. Some historical readings will be recommended for students without prior general knowledge of the history of the period. Evaluation on class participation, biweekly journal entries, and final paper. Cost:2 WL:4 (Colás)


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