University Courses (Division 495)

The University Courses Division sponsors a number of First Year Seminars (UC 150, 151, 152, 153) which provide a unique small class educational experience to first-year students. (A complete list of First Year Seminars offered by the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts can be found in the first section of this Course Guide.) These seminars, open to all first-year students, are small-group classes (approximately 15-25 students) taught by outstanding regular and emeritus faculty from many different departments on a variety of topics. They provide a stimulating introduction to the intellectual life of the University by exposing new students to engaging subject matter and by offering the opportunity for active participation that a small class can afford. It is hoped that students who take a seminar will find in it a sense of intellectual and social community that will make the transition to a large university easier. Some may discover a subject to pursue in further courses.

All First Year Seminars can be used to complete part of the College's general requirements. UC 153 fulfills the Introductory Composition requirement. Other seminars count toward satisfying the Area Distribution requirement in one of three major divisions: Humanities (UC 150), Social Sciences (UC 151), or Natural Sciences (UC 152). We strongly recommend that each student take at least one seminar during the four years at Michigan.

The University Courses Division also offers Collegiate Seminars, which are open to any student who has completed the Introductory Composition requirement. Intended especially for lower-division students and taught by regular professorial faculty members, Collegiate Seminars provide additional opportunities for first and second year students to personalize their education through a small-group course. Interaction between student and teacher, made possible by the small size of the class, facilitates deeper learning and encourages the development of a learning community where dialogue among students as well as between student and teacher takes place.

All Collegiate Seminars count toward satisfaction of the College's distribution requirements in one of the three major divisions: Humanities (UC 250), Social Sciences (UC 251), or Natural Sciences (UC 252). All emphasize critical thinking about important and central topics, and feature further instruction in writing.

150. First-Year Humanities Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Understanding and Appreciating Poetry.
While poetry is speech, a mode of communication among men and women, it is speech of a special kind, in which words are used, combined, in such a way as to produce not simply a straightforward utilitarian statement like a telegram or a set of directions, but a complex work of art that communicates in many-sided subtle ways. Now, it may well be that a taste for poetry is a gift, but it should be possible to deepen our appreciation of it by careful study of the exact ways in which poems make their appeal to us. The aim of the course will be to explore, by reading and discussing a variety of individual poems from both past and present, the ways in which poems work to produce the specific kinds of satisfaction they can offer us, and to help the individual reader develop a sense for the unique value of poetry, for one of the major arts. Reading assignments: close, analytic reading of a few poems for each class discussion. Short papers on single poems throughout the term, and a more extensive paper, towards the end, on the work of a particular poet chosen by each student individually. Text: The Norton Anthology of Poetry, Third Edition. (Barrows)

Section 002 Meaning and Power. Through messages and cultural codes (shared ways of making meanings), people understand and establish social power (relationships between individual and groups involving use of force, manipulation, persuasion, or authority). This seminar will compare a variety of such practices, with the goal of helping students to enlarge their sense of human limits and possibilities. Class discussions, audio-visual materials, and readings all will provide opportunities to explore cross-culturally and historically the range of expressive forms or media oratory, gesture, clothing, food, property, ritual, architecture, spectacle, tourism, song, dance, advertising, print, film, and television, among others which create and communicate differences of social influence. Students will be evaluated on the basis of class presentations and a research paper. Active participation is also expected. (Pollack)

Section 003 What Can We Know About Jesus? Jesus continues to fascinate people from diverse cultural and religious backgrounds. But do we really know how Jesus looked upon himself? How did his contemporaries, friends and foes, regard him? Unless one is satisfied with pat answers based on one's own convictions, these questions cannot be answered quickly. The gospels were not written until between 35 and 70 years after Jesus was executed. How reliable are they? Through an acquirement of the different critical methods which scholars apply to the gospel texts, the students will be enabled to form a defensible answer to this question. In addition to the methodological instruction, the students will acquire a basic knowledge about the religious, historical and social world of the gospels. Grades will be based upon the willingness and ability of the students to wield the methods of critical scholarship when reading the gospels. Both oral and written exercises will be required. (Fossum)

Section 005 An Investigation into Literature and Disease. The feverish pulse, exotic passion and heightened sensibility, associated with certain infectious diseases, have held a wide-spread fascination for Western literature. In this seminar we will study and discuss the contextual role and societal implications of such diseases as TB, Cholera, and the Plague in a number of representative works of fiction, opera and criticism. Participants will be asked to contribute to the breadth and scope of the seminar by preparing one topic-related independent research project geared to their own academic orientation. These projects may range from the artistic to the clinical. All presentations will be given in conference style during the final weeks of the term. Authors to be read are: Nietzsche, Mann, Hesse, Chekhov, Gide, Camus and Pratolini. (Paslick)

Section 006 Jews and Christians: From Contempt to Dialogue. Judaism and Christianity are rooted in the same ancient religious tradition and share the belief in the same God. Nevertheless, their history has been often the history of a harsh confrontation. Israel never recognized the existence of the "new Israel," and the "new Israel" understood itself as the fulfillment of all the promises given by God to Israel. Only in contemporary times, in particular after the Holocaust, a new relationship has been gradually established, and the attitude of tolerance and dialogue has become predominant between Christians and Jews. The course will first reconstruct the partings of the ways between Christianity and Judaism from the movement led by Jesus of Nazareth to the triumph of Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire. Then, the difficult experience of the Jews in the ghettoes will be traced, from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 19th century, with emphasis on the first hesitant attempts at a cultural and religious meeting with the Christian populations. Finally, the origin and development of the contemporary Jewish-Christian dialogue will be examined, both in the USA and Europe, with reference to the many facets of the inter religious and inter group relations (e.g., theological and scholarly debate, Black-Jewish relations, etc.). Students will be asked to contribute with their skill to the agenda of the dialogue. (Boccaccini)

Section 007 Language Change: How and Why. Ongoing change is a universal characteristic of all living languages. The processes by which languages change and the ways linguists describe and study these phenomena will form the subject matter of this seminar. The seminar will deal in a non-technical way with such topics as the development of writing systems, the nature of historical linguistic evidence, and the relationship between languages, where words and forms come from, how words and forms change shape and meaning, how new words enter a language, how words fall into disuse, and how social, cultural and political changes can have a direct impact on the history of a given language. Exemplification will come for the most part from the history of English. This course does not require any previous background in linguistics or the knowledge of a foreign language. There will be one textbook, Jean Aitchison, Language Change: Progress or Decay? supplemented by a course pack. Grades will be based on a series of short written and problem-solving assignments, a research paper as well as on a final take-home exam. (Dworkin)

Section 008 How to `Read'a Play. This seminar will investigate the problems of reading a text that has been essentially designed for production in a performing arts medium. In doing so, the class will make use of a variety of media for which plays have been written: film, video, radio, as well as the live stage and more recent instances of "performance art." Questions of genre will be discussed as they relate to considerations of tone, mood, and style, as well as to the more practical issues of acting, directing, and design. Focus will be placed on the relationship between the literary and the performative, although questions of theory and practice will everywhere arise. This class will also discuss what happens to a "text" when it is adapted from one medium into another. Texts for this course will include, among other material, Shakespeare's Hamlet, Beckett's Waiting for Godot as well as his work for the mechanical media, Sam Shepard's True West, Pinter's The Homecoming, Caryl Churchill's Cloud Nine, David Hare's Wetherby, Mike Leigh's Life Is Sweet, and selected works by Maria Irene Fornes, Karen Finley, Laurie Anderson, Spalding Gray, Robert Wilson, and Ingmar Bergman. Students will be encouraged to take an active part in the seminar by preparing material for each weekly meeting, some of which might be, on occasion, their own original material written for the different media this class will consider. (Brater)

Section 009 The Archaeologist's Impossible Dream: Temples, Towns, and Tombs in Egypt. How do we do archaeology in Egypt today? This seminar will provide students with first-hand exposure to the broad range of material data available to archaeologists, through extensive use of the collections of the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology. The course will also explore the interpretive process in archaeology by discussing the way in which archaeological data are complemented by other sources of information, especially in a literate, complex society such as ancient Egypt. We will investigate specific sites to illustrate different kinds of puzzles in archaeology: the important cult and cemetery site of Abydos as an example of the research planning process, and of the necessity to grapple with the results of previous research; the site of Amarna as "ghost city,"yet one of our best sources for the study of the urban process in ancient Egypt; the town of Karanis, excavated by the University of Michigan, an archaeologist's "impossible dream," with a vast array of all kinds of data; and Karnak temple as a microcosm of royal attitudes towards gods and predecessors. Woven throughout will be readings on the theoretical and historical underpinnings of archaeology and its role in the reconstruction of Egyptian culture and society. (Richards)

Section 010 Gender and the Bible. When was the last time you read Genesis 1-3? This fascinating myth about Adam, Eve, and the Serpent had an enormous impact on the development of Christian thought in areas ranging from creation and salvation to the social roles of men and women. Did you know that some Christian women practiced transvestitism for the sake of entering the Kingdom while some men condoned castration? Such issues as androgyny, celibacy, marriage, primordial paradise, the feminine aspect of the godhead, and the implications of "becoming male" will be pertinent to our discussions. We will study many early Christian movements. Our major goal will be to analyze the aspects of "male" and "female" in these movements and answer the question: In what way(s) was the social history of early Christianity a reflection of its religious ideology? We will review Elaine Pagel's classic, The Gnostic Gospels, and the new hit by Torjenson, When Women Were Priests, plus biblical passages, The Gospel of Thomas, Gnostic texts, and some of the apocryphal Acts of the apostles. Several one page exercises and a research paper final will be administered. No religious background or prior knowledge required. (DeConick)

Section 012 Free at Last! Freedom and Responsibility in College Life. Are we free to do anything we want? If not, what are the limits and who imposes them? As first year students, many of you will experience more freedom than you have in the past. At the same time, you will adopt new responsibilities and escape old ones. The University environment challenges students to embrace their individual freedom without neglecting certain responsibilities. College life should provide a unique atmosphere for both unusual degrees of freedom and a heightened sense of responsibility. In this seminar, we will examine the common assumption that a college undergraduate exercises more freedom and shoulders fewer responsibilities than people in the "real world." To what extent is this true? Obviously we must investigate the relationship between freedom and responsibility, and ask whether more freedom entails more or less responsibility. Our inquires will span the continuum from personal freedom to political/social freedom: from the apparent freedom exercised in choosing to watch a video rather than to visit a friend, to the freedom to speak one's mind in a public forum. We will, for instance explore the current idea that increased sexual freedom requires more responsible "condom sense." We will read authors who have wrestled with these questions (e.g., Sartre, Camus, Hegel, Dostoevski, Bergmann, Kunera) and authors who have experimented with rather extreme degrees of freedom (e.g., Kerouac, Abbey, Miller) of all kinds: sexual, religious, moral, political, and environmental. Their narratives, analyses, and questions will provide fodder for our own discussions and re-evaluations. Course requirements include weekly reading assignments, a series of short writing projects, and an optional longer formal essay. Readings will include Sartre's Existentialism and Human Emotions; Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment, Notes from the Underground and The Grand Inquisitor, Bergmann's On Being Free, Kundera's The Unbearable Lightness of Being and The Hitchhiking Game, Kerouac's On the Road, Abbey's Desert Solitaire, Camus' The Stranger, and Miller's The Tropic of Cancer; plus some contemporary articles in a course pack. (Demetriades)

Section 013 Language and Human Identity. Much of what we take to be "natural" or "normal" is very closely related to the structure of our native languages. Our languages not only provide us with the words with which we define ourselves as humans, they also provide us with ready made classification systems. Topics we will study include: Does our language treat equally men and women, members of various racial and ethnic groups, those of all sexual orientations? How useful for self-definition are categories like race (in color terms), social class (in economic terms), sexuality (in terms of male vs. female gender)? What can we learn from the history of individual words (What is to be made of the fact that "witch, bawd, shrew, frump, harlot" originally referred both to men and women; that "tart" and "hussy" are shortenings of "sweetheart" and "housewife"?) We will also examine campus slang and jokes to discover their role in self-definition. Class discussion will be based on and supplemented by regular (nearly daily) short (1-2 page) written assignments. (Toon)

Section 014 Person, Knowledge, University: Theory and Practice. The question this course will be asking is, "What are we all doing here, anyway?" This course wants to direct our attention to the idea and experience of liberal education itself. It wants to get beyond subject matters and methods to ask questions about underlying assumptions, basic premises, first principles as to what it is to be a person and a student, the nature of knowledge, the idea and operative realities of the University. We will try to do this by reading and discussion of various writings: some works of fiction touching on these questions (John Updike, The Centaur; Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man; Dostoevski, Crime and Punishment; perhaps George Eliot, Middlemarch ); some of the dialogues of Plato; The Michigan Daily ; official notices posted here and there; and posters, inscriptions on blackboards, graffiti. The course works by discussion prompted by questions designed to uncover usually unexamined postulates, in which the fundamental issues of living and learning will be brought before us and, I hope, made as real, immediate, pressing as the myriad concerns of daily life usually are for us. The aim is at once highly ideal and eminently practical: to ask what is a University for? How do things actually work here? Why do they work that way? How might or should they work? What are we all doing here, anyway? The course requires committed, persistent attendance and participation; frequent, brief writings; one extended, meditative essay; one final examination of the readings. Arid speculation and most of the normal routines developed to fend off intellectual engagement will be eschewed. (McNamara)

151. First-Year Social Science Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Current Issues in Sports Sociology.
This structured seminar on the current issues, developments, and trends in sport sociology will be analyzed from various contributing theoretical and research bases. Critical new developments will be addressed as they occur. Topics include such disparate elements as status, race relations, ethical values, and bureaucratic structure of collegiate and professional sport. Other important themes include social deviance, recruiting practices, socializations via sport, socialization into sport, sport and gender equity and reward systems. Lecture and discussion. (Vaughn)

Section 002 Public Education for Blacks and Other Minorities. The purpose of the seminar will be to trace the development of elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education of Blacks and minorities in the southern states of the United States from the Emancipation Proclamation to May 17, 1954. Particular emphasis will be focused on judicial litigations from the Supreme Court decision to Plessy vs. Ferguson, from which the doctrine of "separate but equal" evolved, to the historic Brown vs. Topeka, Kansas Board of Education 1954, which upheld the fundamental principle that racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional. Of special importance will be seminar discussions revealing how blacks and minorities were successful in achieving an education in spite of the barriers confronting them in the states where they resided and resulting from supreme court decisions, including the Supreme Court of the United States. Students will be expected to read a number of the classic writings of the Black and minority authors such as W.E.B. DuBois, E. Franklin Frazier, Booker T. Washington, John Hope Franklin, and many others. The writings of contemporary Blacks and minorities will be explored as well as books about Blacks and minorities such as Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma. Students will be expected to prepare readings, participate in seminar discussions, and develop a research topic preferably centered around one of the southern states under investigation in the seminar. (Palmer)

Section 003 Empowerment: Myths, Beliefs, Actions. The instructor has been fascinated all his life by the phenomenon of change: people manage to alter their lives, people manage sometimes, in some circumstances - to take a greater degree of control over their lives. Again and again the instructor finds himself asking individuals to tell him the story of those periods of change: what was happening before, what was the person thinking, who was the person interacting with, what can the person recall of the days and moments in which change seemed to occur? How do people come to choose to leave abusive relationships, abusive situations? How do people come to choose to take the risk and to reach out? Are there characteristic features to these stories across situations? Are there particular kinds of events that impel choice, particular myths or beliefs that help alter the sense of self? Does strength come frequently from the presence of messenger people, people who have one foot in the world that is increasingly dissatisfactory and the other foot in the alternate world that suddenly can be imagined? Are there particular kinds of acts that can have a catalytic effect, crystallizing a growing readiness for change into knowledge that one has changed? The seminar is an invitation to imaginative and hard-working students to join the instructor in thinking about these questions. We shall read books from an assortment of situations, including struggles for civil rights, for community organization, against spousal abuse, and against addiction. We shall look at situations of disempowerment, including the impact of compliant acts on the nature of the self, viewed in the context of totalitarian rule. And we shall look at deformed versions of empowerment, such as the quest of organized racists to shore up their sense of self through participation in mythical struggle. (The instructor will bring in his on-going research with militant racists.) (Ezekiel)

Section 004 Environmental Injustice. Environmental injustice is an issue of importance to all, but especially to people of color communities, that is low income, minority, economically, politically, and socially disadvantaged populations. This course introduces students to one of the most important issues of contemporary history, providing an overview of differences and similarities regarding various aspects of the actual environmental crisis worldwide. Environmental degradation will be analyzed in terms of economic development, labor, class, race, and gender from a sociopolitical point of view. The participation of peoples and governments in the development and solution of environmental problems will be explored. Lectures, discussion, guest speakers, videos, and case studies from the United States, Third World Countries, and Latin America. Requirements include readings from a course pack, active and meaningful class participation, oral presentations (individual and/or team work), two short essays, and a final research paper. (Velez)

Section 006 Newspapers Today and Tomorrow. This seminar will examine the nature of today's newspapers and examine their evolution and how their role in society has changed and is likely to evolve. Discussion will be emphasized. Students will present a series of written and oral reports on their reading and research. Course Objectives: (1) to familiarize students with the way newspapers received, gathered and processed content in the past and how they do so today; (2) to examine how those traditions and practices influence what is printed; (3) to analyze and criticize the effects of newspaper content on the reading public; (4) to promote critical thinking about news and news organizations. Course Grades: Four critical papers of three to five pages each will count equally; together they will account for 75% of the course grade. The other quarter will be based on class participation. No examinations. Texts: Manoff & Schudson, Reading the News (Pantheon, 1987) "Media at the Millennium." Special Issue of Media Studies Journal I:4, Fall 1991. (Stevens)

Section 007 Presidential Character and Performance. What a president does depends partly on who he is. This course will identify the behaviors and experiences, abilities and aptitudes which shape a president's approach to his job. We will evaluate how a president's personality influences his leadership style and his ability to govern. We will see how the White House tries to shape the public's perception of the president's personal qualities and his effectiveness once he is in office. The course also will deal with the organization of the White House, presidential decision-making, and presidential campaigning, largely in the context of Gerald R. Ford's presidency, 1974-77. To understand these matters, students will conduct independent and team research projects at the Ford Library on North Campus. The Library houses nearly 20 million pages of material created during President Ford's administration. Students will use oral histories, memoirs, White House memoranda, audiovisual materials, and campaign documents to assess the relationship between Gerald Ford's character and his performance as president, and the public's perception of both. We may study other presidents, too, although less comprehensively. Students will assist in each other's work, evaluating and discussing ideas and research findings throughout the term. They will have the active support of the Library staff, as well as the instructor. No exams. Formal writing totals about 25 pages. Occasional lectures. Vigorous, collaborative class participation essential. (Mackaman)

Section 008 Psychology of Interpersonal Relationships. This course is designed to assist members toward an understanding of the personal and situational forces that help and hinder persons in their relationships with each other and in their efforts to work and live together. It will also assist members to transform these social psychological understandings into constructive actions for handling the problems and difficulties which inevitably arise when people are together. There will be opportunity to refine one's competencies at reflective listening, giving and seeking feedback, interpersonal observation, and mindfulness in thinking about issues. The class sessions are interactive and informal with brief information-giving, focused discussions, interpersonal learning exercises, and videotapes. Reading assignments are mainly through course handouts and other suggested sources. To stimulate personal reflection on interpersonal issues, class members maintain an observation and reading portfolio and do a term paper on a relevant, self-selected topic. This work is also used as the source of evaluation and grading in the course. (Menlo)

152. First-Year Natural Science Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (3). (NS). (BS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Consumer Chemistry.
What's really in that tube of toothpaste or bottle of antiperspirant you used this morning? What's a non-alkaline shampoo? Is there such a thing as a chemical-free sunscreen? What's the hype about organically grown food? Is there really a difference between Wisk, Tide or Cheer? What's an active ingredient? Are you really an "informed consumer"? Consumer Chemistry will provide a unique overview of the chemical information needed to understand the production, efficiency, and safety of everyday products to enable consumers to make informed choices. We will begin by introducing in a qualitative manner, the language of chemistry. A background in chemistry is not required or presumed. After introducing basic concepts, more specific topics, such as molecular geometry, hydrophilicity, pH etc., will be introduced as they relate to the products of the pharmaceutical, automotive, photographic, petrochemical, textile, food and various other industries. We will discuss the fact that the science of chemistry has become BIG business. The class format will consist of lectures, audiovisual materials and small group discussions. There will be two multiple choice, short essay exams. A group project will be assigned resulting in a five to six page paper and will involve a class presentation. (Paulissen)

153. First-Year Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (Introductory Composition). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 The Imaginary Self.
Are you sure of your image without looking in the mirror, or into another's eyes? This course invites you to explore the role of the imaginary in the definition and invention of the self. We will focus in particular on subjectivity in its relation to imagined and imaginary others, an interplay that is often fraught with desire, anxiety, and violence. In discussing specific topics such as sexual, social, or ethnic identities, we will question traditional boundaries between the natural and artificial, the public and the private, the familiar and the alien. Readings will cover a broad cultural and historical range of fictional and non-fictional texts. Discussion, likewise, will draw on several media - not only literature but also art, film, and advertisements. Readings will included works by Mary Shelley (Frankenstein ), Shakespeare, A. Cesaire, Toni Morrison, Adrienne Rich, Freud, and Lacan. Visual media will include surrealism, science fiction, and fashion ads. Evaluation will be based on class participation and on four essays. No final, no finalities. (Clej)

Section 002 Creative Writing. One of the most important tools in creative writing is the feedback of interested readers who provide constructive and supportive criticism. In this course, we will address specific challenges in fiction-character development and description, narrative voice, dialogue and point of view but we will also explore the interactive part of the writing process, and the delicate but crucial art of providing responsible criticism and making the most of such criticism. While we will be reading the work of living writers to gain insight into the technical aspects of writing fiction, we will learn primarily by writing, and by discussing our writing as a group. We will be reading and discussing short stories by Alice Munro, Richard Bausch, Wallace Stegner, Mary Hood, Flannery O'Connor; excerpts from novels by Toni Morrison, A.S. Byatt, and Mark Helprin; and from John Gardner's The Art of Fiction; and Annie Dillard's Living by Fiction. Students will be asked to attend fiction readings by authors visiting campus. Grades will be based on participation, as well as short writing assignments (for each class period), and a short story to be written over the course of the term. (Lippi-Green)

Section 003 Building a Community of Change. This course is equivalent to an English 125 course and will offer an introduction to community development through "empowerment education" as developed in the writings of Paulo Freire, Myles Horton, Lyra Srinivasan, Augusto Boal and other progressive educators who have worked with oppressed people around the world. You will learn how to work with and learn from people in our own community who have been left out of the "American dream" through experiential classroom activities, critical reflection on the works of social theorists and educators, dialogue with community activists on cross-cultural and cross-class issues, and your own field experiences working in community agencies. Weekly community service and dialogue journals promote critical questioning and tie readings and class discussion to your own experience. The course is open to students who are ready to do some heavy-duty reading, writing and critical thinking about the nature and causes of social problems, and to demonstrate leadership in doing something about them. Taught by a UM faculty member who has been a writer and trainer for the Peace Corps, the course will provide unusually thorough preparation for students interested in National Service or Peace Corps work, or who are headed for careers in medicine, law, environmental science, economics, political science, or public administration. (Fox)

Section 004 American Women's Literary Humor. This writing-intensive seminar explores the humor practices of American women, both in print and in performance (including vaudeville, stand-up comedy, the blues, sit-coms, and cinema), but with primary emphasis on twentieth-century comic novels by women. Our interdisciplinary approach which combines the resources of reader-response theory with research in social sciences will allow us not only to locate the cultural and gender specificity of American humor but also to investigate the crucial distinctions in humor practices among different groups of women, distinctions grounded in race, ethnicity, martial status, regionalism, age, sexual preference, and class. Our study will be organized around comic types, or masks, that women historically have assumed when they clown publicly. While women humorists of the nineteenth century favored masculine, geriatric, and juvenile personas, comic women writers of the twentieth century have assumed a much wider range of poses, to wit: the dumb blond; the spinster; the African-American woman-of-words; the bitchy lady; and the working-class woman (who takes the shapes of the good ol' girl in the country, the pink-collar worker in the city, and the housewife in the suburbs). Indicative rather than inclusive, these comic types represent very different humor traditions within American women's culture. Readings will include work by Zora Neale Hurston, Sandra Cisneros, Anita Loos, Dorothy Parker, Edith Wharton, Flannery O'Conner, Mary McCarthy, and Louise Erdrich, among others. Also required: three multiple-draft essays, ongoing electronic conversations about your work-in-progress, and a hardy sense of humor. (Monroe)

Section 005 Writing the Information Superhighway. The "information superhighway,"an international conglomeration of computer networks, offers access to data and supports written communication through electronic mail. Those building, cruising, and studying the information superhighway predict it will have profound effects on society, education, and perhaps language itself by effectively altering our definitions of knowledge, reading, and writing. The purpose of this course is to explore and learn, through writing, the literacies of the various networks available to UM students for research and correspondence. Through a series of computer-mediated writing activities that encourage them to learn about and from the information superhigh way, students will enter electronic discourse communities within the class, across the university, and across the nation. The activities will begin at the local level, using the university's local area networks, e-mail, and Mirlyn (UM's on-line library catalog), then out to the Internet to correspond with other students and researchers on the superhighway, and then to various Gophers and other Internet accessible data bases to gather information. In addition to frequent e-mail writing, students will write four academic (analysis and argumentation) essays, each of which will undergo extensive revisions based on on-line peer and instructor critiques. You need not own a computer to participate in this course, and computer literacy, while helpful, is not required. (Butler)

Section 006 Writing and Non-fiction: Placing the Self in Context. This course should be thought of as a writing course, the undertaking of which will involve students in writing their own fiction and non-fiction. In conducting this course we will question the following proposition: writing, whether it be fiction or non-fiction, is a form of autobiography. We will concern ourselves with the way professional and student writers render their experience, and will study how fiction can tell a true story as well as how non-fiction is dependent upon an author's ability to render an event truly, if not always factually. In conducting this inquiry we will also examine how Purpose, Audience, and Event influence the appropriate or effective construction of a piece of writing and how the rhetorical techniques of narrative, exposition and argument are employed, often together, to achieve a writer's goal. Readings will be drawn from the work of Toni Morrison, Lewis Thomas, Annie Dillard and Alfred Kazin, as well as from Prism, a publication of student writing. In addition to writing their own fiction and non-fiction, students will conduct a critical analysis of one of the professional writers assigned for this course. (Cooper)

Section 007 Literacy and the Liberal Arts. This class explores the relationship of the liberal arts tradition with both standard and non-standard concepts of literacy. We will begin with traditional definitions of literacy "school "literacy, prose literacy, document literacy, and quantitative literacy, and broaden our focus to include other forms computer literacy, functional literacy, etc. Students will begin by exploring their own multiple literacies, comparing their experiences and educational backgrounds to each others 'and to autobiographical writings from authors of various racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Students will also work actively and collaboratively with each other and, via electronic network, with students in classes at other major universities in a project designed to examine how liberal arts universities address issues of literacy within the academy and in society at large, with a particular focus on the university's obligations to serve the needs of the many communities that exist within a single society. Ultimately, students will investigate what being literate means within the contexts of the academy in general and their chosen fields in particular. The class will focus on the ways these definitions govern the processes of making and reporting knowledge within those fields and disciplines and, in turn, determine how one becomes a member of these various discourse communities. These explorations will be grounded in readings from, among other sources, works by Jonathan Kozol, Shirley Brice Heath, Jamaica Kincaid, Vivian Gornick, E.D. Hirsch, David Bartholomae, Mike Rose, Michael Anania, and Allan Bloom. Class members will write frequently: assignments include field work, reports on library research, participation in computer conferences, and several medium-length papers. (Condon)

Section 008 & 009 Workin' Over Time. What is the meaning of work in your life? What do you think of as "work"? What is the work of maintaining a family and how is it divided up in your own family? In other families? How has the meaning of women's work changed in the last 100 years? The work of children? How has the changing workplace (from home to shop to industrial park and back) affected your choices and how you make sense of work? What does it mean to be a "professional"? What is the meaning of leisure in your life? In this class you will use the methods of history, literature and the visual arts to research the social and cultural meanings of work. The class will look at the representations of work in fiction, ethnography, photography, film and television as well as historical writing. By reading and critically analyzing significant texts dealing with such topics as work and family, women's work, child labor and the transformation of childhood, changes in the workplace, and the myth of leisure time, we will examine and compare the various messages we all get about the role of work in our lives. The course will emphasize critical reading and writing skills and will give you the opportunity to articulate your own experience and ideas about work, and to hear what other students have to say, as well as write and read about the history of work. Expect to write two four-to-six page papers, and one six-to-eight page paper, each of which you will develop, think through, revise, and polish, with careful help from both other students and instructors. Final versions will go into a portfolio which will be used to determine your grade in the course. (008, Reed; 009, Quiroz)

Section 010 Classic and Commonplace in 19th-Century American Literature. This seminar pairs classic and lesser-known American literature in historical perspective, examining the processes by which literary canons are constructed and revised over time. While paying close attention to the social categories of race, class, gender, and ethnicity, we will nevertheless focus on questions of authorship, literary value, style, taste, and what constitutes good writing. Emphasizing writing to learn (sharing our own writing to focus and extend thinking), this seminar satisfies the first-year writing requirement. Authors will include Cooper, Cary, Emerson, Melville, Warner, Jacobs, Bryant, Whittier, Dickinson, Alcott, Whitman, Freeman, Poe, Hawthorne, Twain, and others. (Gernes)

Section 011 Writing On Music. Why write about music? Isn't it enough to listen and enjoy it? Maybe so, but since we all have to write, we might as well practice on a topic that means a lot to us. Some of you find as I have that to write about music is to think about it in new ways, making listening even more meaningful. You will write essays and papers ranging from concert reviews to analytic descriptions to biographical reports on musicians. The music discussed will be as eclectic and diverse as the background and tastes of people in the class. My own examples will be chosen from pop, jazz, country, and folk music as well as from the canon of European and American classical music. Throughout the course and for a final paper and presentation, you will be asked to bring in examples of your favorite music. No particular musical background is required; you'll learn new music vocabulary and concepts as we go. The only prerequisites are a willingness to work hard on your writing skills and a passion for music. (Reed-Maxfield)

Section 012 Representations of Self; Representing Ourselves. The focus of this first year seminar is twofold: we will look at the ways words and images are used to construct representations of individual identity. We will also explore ways we can use different media to construct representations of our identities. Our analysis of identity politics will include discussions of gender, race, class, and sexual orientation. We will read a variety of texts, including fiction, non-fiction and poetry, by contemporary American writers including work by African American, Latino, Native American, white writers, gay and straight writers, working class and middle class writers, women and men. We will also explore some of the ways images are used in film, television, and computer games. In addition to watching two films (one of which is likely to be "Torch Song Trilogy"), we will also analyze several episodes of "She-TV "and, depending on how much time we have, take a quick look at images in computer games. Each student will be required to keep a journal, which will form the basis of class discussion and class projects. Students will be expected to write critical and creative responses to all assignments, including readings, films, and television shows. In addition to that informal writing, students will be expected to write several drafts, meeting with a peer group and with me in order to get responses to drafts in progress. The first assignment will be relatively short three pages, focusing on an early reading in the course in order t o clarify the concepts of identity and representation. The second assignment will be longer, as will the third, ranging from 3 to 5 pages. On each, students will be asked to draw upon a mixture of readings, observations, and personal experiences to form an argument. On either the second or third assignment, students will also be asked to use the hypercard stack "Autobiography Assignment." The fourth project will be a culminating experience, 5 to 8 pages long. Students will have the option to create a multimedia project using video or any other visual medium they have access to as well as writing an explanation and analysis of their work, the focus of which will be a reflective piece about the work they have done in the course as represented in their journal, their class participation, and their four formal projects. Students will have opportunities to reflect on their work throughout the course, and as a class, we will develop criteria for each project as well as for the final portfolio, in order to make evaluation clear and fair. (Decker)

Section 013 The Environment in the Christian Tradition. Christianity has always had much to say about the natural world, and relations between God, the physical world, and humanity. This course examines relevant biblical texts, then considers how Christians from antiquity to the present have understood the Bible and Nature. We ask, for example, what implications does the biblical verse, "Be fruitful and multiply" have for population issues and environmental degradation? What does it mean that all Christian writers have called Nature "good"? Is Nature good in its own right, intrinsically for its own sake, or is Nature only good when it serves some purposes for humanity? This class examines these and other primary issues about the environment and the Christian tradition. (Wessel Walker)

176/Russian 222. Russia Today. (3). (HU).

See Russian 222. (Makin)

177/Slavic Surveys 240. Introduction to Slavic Folklore. (3). (HU).

See Slavic Surveys 240. (Stolz)

210. Perspectives on Careers in Medicine and Health Care. (4). (Excl).

This course is for students considering a career in the health professions. It is designed to help them acquire perspectives to facilitate their decision-making process. Health care professionals visit the class and share their educational and professional experiences. Students become acquainted with the prerequisites for professional and graduate schools and spend time with dental, medical, osteopathic, nursing, and public health students. We consider problems facing the health professions in the 90s: problems of health care delivery, the high cost of medicine and its effect on the uninsured and underinsured. We discuss issues relating to malpractice and death and dying. Students are expected to respond in writing and in class to the visitors, to the reading materials, and to films. Two course packs serve as the required texts. All students are responsible for taking definite steps toward the development of their own goals through a self-inventory of their values, skills, and interests and through a term paper exploring a possible career direction. Evaluation is based on class attendance and participation in and completion of all assignments. The class meets Mon. 3-5, 432 West Engineering; Thurs. 7-9:30 p.m. at 2130 Dorset Rd., Ann Arbor. A map showing the location of 2130 Dorset Rd. will be available at 1017 Angell Hall. Cost: 2 WL:5 Enrollment by override only: contact Fran Zorn at 1017-H Angell Hall (763-2062) or call 662-0682 and leave a message. (Zorn)

251. Collegiate Seminars. Open to any student who has completed the introductory composition requirement. (3). (SS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Alternative Realities: Science and the Study of Human Perception.
This course will investigate a number of questions about the nature of human perception, about the nature of science, and about the relationship between them. A number of broad, highly subjective, inherently interesting questions about the nature of perception will be investigated. The broadest of these questions will be the question of cultural relativism: Do people from widely different cultures experience immediate reality in fundamentally different ways? However, these questions will provide a vehicle for introducing more fundamental questions: How can such questions be meaning fully investigated? And, especially, can such questions be asked from within the framework of modern (positive, operational) science? The goal will be to expose the students to the philosophy of science in a palatable manner, with an emphasis on the discussion of the limitations of scientific investigation and an introduction to alternative modes of inquiry. The alternative realities to be explored will be those attributable to cultures, subcultures, cults, historical eras, substances (i.e., drugs), and mental illness. Most importantly, the scientific enterprise itself, as one mode among others, of establishing an order of reality, will also be presented in this context. The readings for the course will be broad and eclectic: Selections will be assigned from Aldous Huxley's The Doors of Perception, Allison Lurie's Imaginary Friends, Owen Barfield's Saving the Appearances, Walker Percy's Message in the Bottle, Thomas Szass' The Myth of Mental Illness, Helen Keller's The World I Live In, and Theodore Roszak's Where the Wasteland Ends. We will also focus some discussions on a number of contemporary movies which will be viewed in informal, supplementary classes held at the instructor's home. These will include Do the Right Thing, Koyaanisquatsi, Field of Dreams, and Dances with Wolves. Finally, an MTS conference will be established in which the students can have continuing interactions among themselves, and with the instructor. The students' grades will be entirely determined by writing papers. The students' writing will be individually developed and evaluated through individual, tutorial meetings held every three or four weeks at the instructor's office. (Pachella)

280. Undergraduate Research-A (Grade). First or second year standing, and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). A maximum of 8 credits of 280 and 281 may be counted toward graduation.

This course provides academic credit for students engaged in research through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP). To receive credit, the student must be working on a research project under the supervision of a University of Michigan faculty member. Students may elect the course for 1-4 hours of credit. For each hour of credit, it is expected that the student will work three hours per week. The grade for the course will be based on a final project report evaluated by the faculty sponsor and on participation in other required UROP sponsored activities, including bi-monthly research group meetings, and submission of a journal chronicling the research experience. Students will receive a letter grade for this course. This course is open only to students enrolled in the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program.

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