Asian Languages and Cultures

Note: The Department Waitlist policy for all courses is 1 - Get on the Waitlist through CRISP, and then attend the first class meeting. Policies and procedures for handling the waitlist will be explained there.

Courses in Buddhist Studies (Division 332)

220/Asian Studies 220/Rel. 202. Introduction to World Religions: South and East Asia. (4). (HU).

This course is an introduction to the heritage of the major Asian religious traditions. Hinduism (India), Confucianism and Taoism (China), Shinto (Japan), and Buddhism (India, Tibet, China, Japan) will be considered against their cultural backgrounds, and against the background of human religiousness in general. To lend coherence to the vast and diverse field of study known as "Asian religions," we will focus on certain broad themes, such as ritual, meditation, mysticism, and death. There are three hours of lectures, and one discussion section per week, with occasional use of slides and films. There is no prerequisite for the course. Requirements will include a midterm and final exam, and one short paper. (Sharf)

406. Classical Tibetan. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to train students of Buddhist Studies in the basic skills necessary for reading Tibetan literature; it is not a class in spoken (colloquial) Tibetan. The plan of the course assumes that the student's primary interest is in the study of Buddhist literature. Accordingly, much time will be spent in reading Buddhist literature (autochthonous as well as in translation from Indic languages). The course offers explanations in the phonology of literary Tibetan ("Lhasa Dialect"), nominal derivation, syntax of the nominal particles, verbal conjugation and suffixes, and the standard script (dbu-can). All reading exercises will be taken directly from classical sources. (Lopez)

Courses in Chinese (Division 339)

Language Courses

102. Beginning Chinese. Chinese 101 or equivalent. (5). (LR). Laboratory fee ($10) required.

In Chinese 102, we do longer readings than in 101 and question-answer sheets twice a week. Students are also required to memorize short dialogues. Toward the end of the term students have to write a skit together with other students. Their performance will be video-taped and their pronunciation will be graded. We have a test or quiz each week on Thursdays. In general the workload in Chinese 102 is much heavier than in Chinese 101. For both courses, we recommend that students listen to tapes one hour per day. Attendance is taken everyday and no audits are allowed. Textbooks: (a) John DeFrancis, Beginning Chinese and Beginning Chinese Reader, Part I and II (Yale Univ. Press). (Tao)

202. Second-Year Chinese. Chinese 201 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

This course is a continuation of work begun in Chinese 101-102. Students electing the course should have mastered the spoken language material presented in DeFrancis' Beginning Chinese or a similar introductory text and should be able to recognize and write about 400 characters and 1200 combinations. The primary goal of the course is achievement of a basic level of reading competence within a vocabulary of 900 characters and accompanying combinations. A closely integrated secondary goal is continued improvement of aural understanding and speaking competence. These goals are approached through classroom drill, out-of-class exercises, and work in the language laboratory. Daily class attendance is required. Students are graded on the basis of daily classroom attendance, and weekly quizzes or tests. The texts are Intermediate Reader of Modern Chinese (Princeton University Press, 1992) and the movie script A Great Wall. Students who are native or near-native Mandarin Chinese speakers are not eligible for this course. They should enroll in Chinese 302 (Reading and Writing Chinese) which covers all of the material presented in Chinese 201/202 and is offered in the winter term. No visitors are allowed. (Baxter)

225. Calligraphy. Chinese 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of three credits.

To explore the richness of Chinese calligraphy, this class is designed to include a series of fundamental introductions to the history of Chinese calligraphy and a brief theoretical framework for evaluation and appreciation; in addition, a practice session will be held in each class to facilitate a hands-on learning process. (Shyu)

302. Reading and Writing Chinese. Permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Chinese 201, 202, or 362. (4). (LR).

This course is designed for students with native or near-native speaking ability in Chinese and who know approximately 400 characters. Meeting four hours per week, Chinese 302 focuses on reading and writing Chinese and covers the regular 201-202 reading material except for the movie script A Great Wall. Students will be graded on the basis of daily classroom performance, daily quizzes, periodic tests, and homework assignments. The text is Intermediate Reader of Modern Chinese. (An)

378. Advanced Spoken Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of four credits.

This course is designed as a spoken language supplement to the post-second year Chinese reading courses. The purpose of Chinese 378 is to continue building on the foundation of spoken competence laid down in first- and second-year Chinese by providing two hours a week for students to talk, talk, and talk. This is accomplished through presentation of brief speeches and discussions on topics selected by the class. The role of the instructor, who serves as a coordinator for the class, is not to teach students how to speak Chinese, but to encourage and coach them in speaking Chinese. Vocabulary lists will be provided before and after each discussion session. The grade will be determined by students' attendance, participation in discussion, oral presentations, and vocabulary quizzes. This course is not for native speakers or auditors. (Liang)

406. Third-Year Chinese. Chinese 405. (5). (Excl).

Chinese 405 and 406 are a two-term sequence constituting the third year of the Chinese program. All four basic skills reading, writing, listening, and speaking are stressed, but the most time is devoted to learning to read various styles of modern Chinese, including fiction, essays, and documentary and journalistic materials. Students who want more spoken language work are encouraged to enroll also for Chinese 378 (Advanced Spoken Chinese ). Readings are selected from a large variety of textbook and non-textbook materials, most of them in course pack form. (Liang)

432. Contemporary Social Science Texts. Chinese 431 or equivalent. (5). (Excl).

Chinese 431-432, Contemporary Social Science Texts, is a two-term advanced Chinese language course sequence focusing on Chinese politics, economy, diplomacy, and culture. It is intended for students who have interest in the social sciences as they apply to China, and who have successfully completed Chinese 405-406 ( Third-Year Chinese ) or the equivalent. Though reading skills are especially emphasized, the course also aims to develop practical listening, speaking, and writing skills needed by professionals in China-related fields and to help students do their research using Chinese materials. Contemporary Chinese texts are read and discussed largely in Chinese. (Chen)

462. Readings in Modern Chinese. Chinese 461 or equivalent. (5). (Excl).

Graded readings at an advanced level deal with a variety of materials to improve command of structure and vocabulary in a range of standard colloquial styles. Primary emphasis is on reading and understanding and increasing reading speed, but development of speaking and writing skills also stressed. Weekly assignments (compositions in Chinese and translations into English) are required. This course is the first half of a two-term sequence. In the second term in addition to building vocabulary, we will concentrate on improving reading ability with the aim of allowing students to read original material with less reliance on a dictionary. Students will also practice discussion on the readings in Chinese. Readings will be chosen from a variety of sources, depending partly on the interests of the students. They will include 20th century fiction and essays on various topics from both Taiwan and Mainland China. There will be frequent translation and composition assignments. The class will be conducted largely in Chinese. (Chen)

Literature Courses/Culture Courses

250. Undergraduate Seminar in Chinese Culture. No knowledge of Chinese language is required. (3). (HU). May be repeated with department permission.
Section 001 Language in Asia.
Through hands-on exercises and investigations, students in this course will explore aspects of language and its place in Asian societies. Topics will include the relationships of Asian languages to each other, linguistic clues to early history and prehistory, Asian scripts and their development, Asian languages in the computer age, and the interaction of language and culture. Emphasis will be on direct investigation of actual examples. The instructor is a specialist in the history of Chinese, but a variety of other languages (including Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Tibetan) will also be discussed. (Baxter)

Section 002 Journeys to the Middle Kingdom. A seminar on China and the outside world, past and present, seen through the encounters of travelers through the ages. After several sessions on foundations of Chinese culture, we will study the encounters with China of Marco Polo, Lord McCartney, and Henry Miller, among others. (DeWoskin)

452. Literary Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (4). (Excl).

This is a course primarily for specialists, requiring knowledge of Modern Chinese at least through the Second Year level. Through the use of Shadick's A First Course in Literary Chinese and selected handouts, the styles of written Chinese of imperial China from prose to poetry are selectively introduced. Class is taught in small recitation groups requiring constant preparation by the student. Quizzes, tests, and hand-in exercises on a weekly basis, plus a final exam, are used to measure progress. Emphasis is on understanding of the texts, as well as the ability to render them clearly into English. This course is the first half of a two-term sequence that is prerequisite to more advanced Chinese courses. In the second term, we continue to read in a variety of texts covering all premodern periods. Further practice is aimed at improving understanding of the structure of literary Chinese, introductory practice in dictionaries and other aids to interpretation, better familiarity with important grammatical particles. Supplementary areas of concern include policies and problems in using literary Chinese in research, problems of translation, and the general evolution of styles in the literary tradition. (Cook)

472. Traditional Chinese Drama and Fiction in Translation. No knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

The focus of this course is the development of drama and fiction in premodern China. Written in vernacular Chinese, these works expanded the permissible subjects and modes of literary expression giving the reader an intimate "backstage" view of traditional Chinese culture unavailable elsewhere. Course requirements are two short papers, a take-home midterm, a final exam, and participation in class discussion. Readings include plays: Chinese Theater in the Days of Kublai Khan, The Lute, and The Peach Blossom Fan; short stories: Stories from a Ming Collection, Silent Operas; autobiography: Six Records of a Floating Life; and novels: The Plum in the Golden Vase (cc. 1-20), The Tower of Myriad Mirrors, The Story of the Stone (v.1), and The Travels of Lao Ts'an. (Rolston)

475/Asian Studies 475/Hist. of Art 487/RC Hums. 475/Philosophy 475. The Arts and Letters of China. (4). (HU).

This interdisciplinary course is jointly taught by faculty specialists in Chinese philosophy, religion, history of art, drama, and literature. It is not a survey course. Instead the main task will be the sustained and critical study of a number of significant and representative works in order to present some major themes of a distinct and complex civilization of China. In spite of inner tensions, this is a cultural tradition that can be seen as a highly integrated system composed of mutually reinforcing parts, making such an interdisciplinary and multi-media approach particularly effective. Towards the end of the term we will observe the system's collapse as it struggles to adapt to the modern world, and will consider how our themes continue, persist, or change. Background lectures on history, language, and cosmology will be followed by topics and readings that include: Confucianism (Mencius) and Taoism (Chuang-Tzu); themes in Chinese religiosity, Ch'an (Zen Buddhism); classical narratives; lyricism and visual experience in poetry and landscape painting; traditional storyteller tales; poetic-music theater; fiction of modern "revolutionary" China. Course format: lectures and discussions by Baxter (language); Crump (theater); Feuerwerker (modern fiction); Lin (poetry); Powers (art history); Rolston (traditional fiction); Sharf (religion). In the fourth hour we will divide into two discussion sections. No prerequisites. Requirements: three short papers and final exam.

Courses in Japanese (Division 401)

Language Courses

102. Beginning Japanese. Japanese 101 or equivalent. (5). (LR). Laboratory fee ($9) required.

A thorough grounding is given in all the language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The aim of the oral component is to provide the student with the speaking and comprehension skills necessary to function effectively in practical situations in a Japanese-speaking environment. Attention is given to the social and cultural differences in the use of the language. In the reading and writing component the two Kana syllabaries (Katakana and Hiragana) and elementary characters (Kanji) are introduced. The goal of this component is to develop proficient reading skills through practice reinforced by oral and written short question-answer exercises. Students are required to practice with audio/video tapes a minimum of two hours for each class hour (10 hours per week). From the first day, recitation sessions are conducted entirely in Japanese; no English is permitted. Recitation sessions emphasize speaking/reading in Japanese contexts at normal speed with near native pronunciation, accent, intonation, rhythm, and appropriate body language. Analyses, explanations, and discussions involving the use of English are specifically reserved for lectures with a linguist. Texts: Eleanor Harz Jorden and Mari Noda, Japanese: The Spoken Language, Parts I-II; Eleanor Harz Jorden and Hamako Ito Chaplin, Reading Japanese.

202. Second-Year Japanese. Japanese 201 or equivalent. (5). (LR). Laboratory fee ($9) required.

Further training is given in all the language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) for students who have acquired a basic language proficiency. The aim of the oral component is to provide the student with the speaking and comprehension skills necessary to function effectively in more advanced practical situations in a Japanese-speaking environment. In the reading and writing component, the emphasis is on reading elementary texts, developing an expository style, and writing short answers/essays in response to questions about these texts. Approximately 400 of the essential characters are covered. Discussions on the social and cultural use of language are provided. Students are required to practice a minimum of two hours for each class hour (12 hours per week). Recitation sessions are conducted entirely in Japanese; no English is permitted. Recitation sessions emphasize speaking/ reading in Japanese contexts at normal speed with near-native pronunciation, accent, intonation, rhythm, and appropriate body language. Analyses, explanations, and discussions involving the use of English are specifically reserved for lectures with a linguist. Texts: Eleanor Harz Jorden and Mari Noda, Japanese: The Spoken Language, Parts II-III; Eleanor Harz Jorden and Hamako Ito Chaplin, Reading Japanese.

225(250). Calligraphy. Japanese 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of three credits.

This course is an introduction to Japanese calligraphy. The goals of the course are to: help you learn how to practice Japanese calligraphy and cultivate your minds through the practice. In this course we will practice six subjects, including Kanzi and Hiragana. We will focus on basic skills such as the way of using brushes, how to keep characters' balance, and so forth. In order to master the basic skills, we will practice a character Ei as warm up each session. Throughout the course we will work on cultivating our minds by writing characters in peace and quiet. We will also concentrate on keeping right posture and behavior, for our bodies are closely connected to our minds.

379. Advanced Spoken Japanese II. Japanese 378 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of two credits.

Instruction in storytelling, lecturing, and speechmaking, with emphasis on both the construction of discourse and Japanese patterns of oral delivery. The class will also include discussions of sociocultural differences and difficulties Americans have integrating into the Japanese environment. Students are expected to practice with audio/video tapes a minimum of two hours for each class hour.

406. Third-Year Japanese. Japanese 405 or equivalent. (5). (Excl).

Advanced training is given in all the language skills. Practice in the use of spoken Japanese is contextualized within simulated Japanese social settings. A variety of selected modern texts (essays, fiction, and newspapers) are read with emphasis on expository style. The goal is to produce self-sufficient readers who can read and discuss most texts with the aid of a dictionary. Students are required to practice with audio/visual tapes a minimum of two hours for each class hour (10 hours per week). Recitation sessions emphasize speaking/reading in Japanese contexts at normal speed with near-native pronunciation, accent, intonation, rhythm, and appropriate body language. Analyses, explanations, and discussions involving the use of English are specifically reserved for lectures with a native English speaker. Texts: Eleanor Harz Jorden and Mari Noda, Japanese: The Spoken Language, Part III; Eleanor Harz Jorden and Hamako Ito Chaplin, Reading Japanese; selected reading materials for Third-Year Japanese.

417. Communicative Competence for Japan-Oriented Careers II. Japanese 406, 411, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course stresses the effective use of the Japanese spoken language in contexts likely to be encountered by a career-oriented professional in Japan. Topics include: Banking, Import and Export, the Japanese Market, Annual Reports, Business Ritual, and Socializing. In addition, the course will include practice in rapid reading and transcription/dictation of moderately difficult texts, newspaper articles, and news broadcasts. Students are expected to practice with audio tapes for a minimum of two hours for each class hour.

446. Readings in Technical Japanese. Japanese 445, or permission of instructor. A maximum of 10 credits may be elected through Japanese 421, 445, and 446. (4). (Excl).

Japanese 445-446, a two term sequence of Readings in Technical Japanese, is designed to train fourth-year level Japanese language students to read technical materials written for a Japanese audience. Readings will consist of articles and reports taken from publications in fields where Japanese conduct leading-edge research. There will also be an oral/aural component stressing communications strategies for establishing and conducting professional relationships in technical environments. Japanese engineers carrying out advanced studies in Michigan, or employed at the many technical centers in this area, will be an important resource. Students will also be introduced to the uses of technical dictionaries and indexes. Class attendance is mandatory. Students are required to prepare for recitations and for frequent quizzes. Written translations will be assigned. There will be a midterm and a final. (Unedaya)

Literature Courses/Culture Courses

250. Undergraduate Seminar in Japanese Culture. No knowledge of Japanese language is required. (3). (HU). May be repeated with department permission.
Section 001 New Fiction from Japan.
This course will provide an unusual opportunity for students to read the latest Japanese fiction available in translation. No knowledge of Japanese is required. All readings are in English, including recent novels by best-selling writers Murakami Haruki and Yoshimoto Banana, as well as other trend-setting new Japanese writers. Students will explore "hot" issues in contemporary Japanese society and learn what writers young Japanese are reading and why. Requirements: attendance at two discussion sections per week and a final paper. (Danly)

402. Japanese Literature in Translation: Edo and Modern Periods. A knowledge of Japanese is not required. (3). (HU).

The course will examine the various forms of Japanese literature in the Edo period (1600-1868) haiku, prose fiction, puppet plays, and Kabuki drama. It will also introduce the student to the development of the modern novel beginning in the Meiji period (1868-1912) and will focus on major works of modern Japanese fiction from the Meiji era to the present, including the novels of Natsume Soseki, Tanizaki Jun'ichiro, and the Nobel Laureate Kawabata Yasunari. A knowledge of Japanese is not required. (Ito)

408. Advanced Readings in Modern Japanese Literature. Japanese 407. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces the student to modern Japanese fiction (largely short stories) and other materials written by outstanding writers for a mature Japanese audience. The emphasis is upon a literary approach, using close reading and translation, in class, of Japanese texts. Occasional papers and written translations are required. The pace of reading is intended to help the student build up reading speed and comprehension. The course will also teach the student how to use dictionaries and other basic research aids effectively. (Ito)

461. Social Science Readings in Japanese. Japanese 406. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course helps students to develop reading skills necessary to conduct research in Japanese social science topics. Readings are assigned from newspapers, books, and journals in a variety of fields. The emphasis is on the acquisition of "kango" vocabulary which arise in understanding these readings. Class attendance is mandatory. Homework includes a minimum of two hours of preparation per class hour. Students are expected to prepare for the readings and for frequent quizzes so that they can participate actively in discussion in Japanese in class. Japanese essays will be assigned. (Kozuka)

Courses in Korean (Division 409)

102. Beginning Korean. Korean 101 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

This is an introductory course in spoken and written Korean. It will emphasize the aural/oral skill, but attention will also be given to grammatical structure. Class regularly meets five times a week two hours of lecture and three hours of aural/oral practice and daily attendance is expected. In addition, students are required to do additional hours of work for listening practice on their own in the language lab. Through lectures, students will learn Korean characters, be able to read sentences with considerable fluency, and understand the basic grammatical structures of Korean. Based on the knowledge obtained through lectures, recitation classes will help the students develop an ability to use basic conversational expressions freely. The checkpoints for evaluation include homework assignments, weekly quizzes, reading aloud, and oral interviews. The textbook for the course is Myongdo's Korean 1 by A.V. Vandesande. Those who successfully finish the course will gain sustained control of basic conversation. Those interested in taking this course are recommended to see the instructor before registration. (Cho)

202. Second Year Korean. Korean 201 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

This is an intermediate course in spoken and written Korean. It will emphasize the aural/oral skill, but attention will also be given to grammatical structure. Class regularly meets five times a week two hours of lectures and three hours of aural/oral practice and daily attendance is expected. In addition, students are required to do additional hours of work for listening practice on their own in the language lab. Through lectures, students will learn relatively complex structural patterns of Korean, build up their vocabulary, and get acquainted with various aspects of Korean culture and society. Based on the knowledge obtained through lectures, recitation classes will help the students develop an ability to carry on survival level of conversation. In evaluation, weight will be placed on homework assignments, biweekly quizzes, and oral interviews. Those interested in taking this course are recommended to see the instructor before registration. (Cho)

402. Third Year Korean. Korean 401 or equivalent. (5). (Excl).

Third-Year Korean will help students improve their skills, both spoken and written, up to intermediate-high level. Class meets five hours per week two hours of lecture and three hours of recitation. In lecture classes, the students will learn Chinese characters, and thereby build up their vocabulary and heighten reading ability. The reading materials will inform the students of various cultural aspects of Korea. Through weekly writing assignments, the students will also learn more accurate syntax, pragmatic ways of expression, and logical ways of thinking in Korean. In recitation classes, strengthened aural/oral training will be given. The students will tell a short story, have free group-discussion, and learn songs. Evaluation will be based on attendance, homework assignments, exams, class activities, and various oral performances. (Cho)

Courses in South and Southeast Asia (S&SEA) (Division 483)

S&SEA Language Courses

102. Beginning Thai. S&SEA 101 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

Standard Thai, the language of Thailand, is typical of several Asian languages in its grammar and tonal pronunciation. The focus of the course is the use of language in everyday situations. Upon successful completion of the two-term sequence, students will be able to conduct conversations dealing with several survival concerns, e.g., introduction, ordering food, transportation, banking, post-office trip, shopping, etc. From the first day of class, students will learn Thai scripts and will be able to read course materials and short passages in Thai at the end of the term. Writing assignments are also assigned. Thai cultures, history, geography, etc., will be offered both in the content of the language lessons and supplementary presentations. A placement test is required before registration. (Brown)

104. Beginning Indonesian. S&SEA 103 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

Indonesian is the national language of Indonesia, a country noted for its rich and deep cultural heritage as well as for its remarkable cultural diversity. With its 180 million speakers, Indonesian is the sixth most prevalently spoken of the world languages. The relatively simple syntactic and grammatical structures which characterize Indonesian make it an accessible language for native speakers of English. The elementary course comprises a two-term sequence designed to provide the student with a basic working knowledge of the Indonesian language. The course aims at the acquisition of the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing in modern Indonesian. The class emphasizes aural-oral exercises and practice and the learning of culture throughout the course. The text used is keyed to a set of tapes for use in the language lab and concentrates on practical knowledge of the language. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests, and a final exam. (Sudarsih)

106. Elementary Hindi-Urdu. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 315 or 365. (4). (LR).

South and Southeast Asia 105-106 is the first year in the sequence of Hindi-Urdu courses offered by the Department of Asian Languages and Cultures. Hindi and Urdu are the respective national languages of India and Pakistan. The course meets four hours per week in four sessions. If enrollments warrant, there will be a separate course (SSEA 315) intended for students who have some knowledge of the spoken language but do not know the writing system. In the first year only the Devanagari writing system (for Hindi) is introduced. Nastaliq (for Urdu) comes in the second year. The course concentrates on developing skills in reading, writing, speaking, and aural comprehension. Evaluation is based on attendance, written homework assignments, quizzes, dictations, and examinations. There are no prerequisites (no previous knowledge of Hindi is required). (Siddiqi)

108. Beginning Tagalog. S&SEA 107 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

Tagalog is the national language of the Philippines. Elementary Tagalog is a two-term sequence designed to give the student who has little or no knowledge of Tagalog the necessary basis for learning to speak it and to have an acquaintance with the cultural context in which it functions. Tagalog is particularly interesting in the way it has integrated the broad influences of both Spanish and English into its own syntactic and semantic systems. The oral approach is greatly emphasized in the classroom, using questions and answers and short dialogues to develop active use of the language in the most natural way possible. This is complemented by the use of taped lessons in the Language Laboratory. There are frequent short quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. At the end of the first year, the student should be able to handle brief exchanges in common social situations and to read and write simple Tagalog. (Weller)

110. Beginning Sanskrit. S&SEA 109 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 369. (3). (LR).

This course will work toward developing a proficiency with the basic tools necessary to read and write Sanskrit, the classical language of India. Lessons will include study of the script (Devanagari), elementary grammar, and vocabulary. The grade will be based on completion of regular homework assignments, weekly quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. (Deshpande)

112. Beginning Punjabi. S&SEA 111. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 371. (4). (LR).

This course offers an introduction to spoken and written Punjabi, a major language of northern India and of Pakistan, with some 80 million speakers. It will begin with a concentration on the spoken language, emphasizing oral-aural skills, and introducing the Gurmukhi script. Students will be encouraged to begin basic conversation in class. The written aspects of the language will be introduced through graded readings and written exercises. This course is oriented toward developing a basic practical proficiency in the language. Teaching materials will be drawn from a variety of sources: available reference grammars, textbooks of Punjabi, and instructor-prepared materials. Evaluation of students' performance will be based on daily class work, homework, a midterm, and a final. (Singh)

114. Elementary Tamil. S&SEA 113. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 373. (4). (LR).

This course offers an introduction to spoken and written Tamil, the major Davidian language spoken in Tamil Nadu, the largest state in southern India, and by the largest minority in Sri Lanka. All major language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing are covered. The aim of achieving proficiency in speaking comprehension is to enable the student to function effectively in different everyday situations in a native environment. Reading and writing are taught through frequent graded exercises. A standard textbook is used, supplemented by reference grammars and additional materials selected or specially prepared by the instructor. Recitation sections emphasize speaking and listening in native contexts at normal speed with near-native pronunciation, intonation, rhythm, and appropriate body language. Students learn to handle the script in which Tamil is written. The students will have regular written homework assignments, in-class quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam; both midterm and final will examine reading and writing, listening, and speaking.

116(382). Beginning Vietnamese. S&SEA 115 or permission of instructor. (5). (LR).

Vietnamese 115-116 is the introductory course in reading, listening, speaking, and writing the only language of more than 65 million speakers, from the South to the utmost northern part of Vietnam. This country is now moving towards the free market economy and needs foreign capital and know-how. In addition, with prospective normalization of US-Vietnamese relations in the very near future, one cannot doubt that a knowledge of the Vietnamese language and culture will be a crucial asset in enabling one to participate in many opportunities that will be available then. This first half of the two-term sequence course is designed to accommodate students with no knowledge of the Vietnamese language as well those with some knowledge but desire to develop the four basic language skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing, and to improve their knowledge in Vietnamese history and culture. The format will be as follows: three class hours a week will be focused on the aural-oral approach in reading, dialogue form, translation, question-and-answer on the content of the texts. One hour a week will be devoted to quizzes and tests, and one hour to guided conversation. In addition, there will be written assignments and works in the language lab. Throughout the course, students will be encouraged to communicate in Vietnamese, and classes will be largely conducted in Vietnamese in view to develop the students' ability to acquire sufficient automaticity and fluency in spoken Vietnamese. Course evaluation will be graded on classroom performance, class attendance, home assignments, and a final examination. (Nguyen)

202. Intermediate Thai. S&SEA 201 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

This course continues and extends the four skills students developed in Thai 101-102. Reading and discussion as well as written assignments from authentic materials will be covered. Also, discussions on topics interesting to students will be covered in order to increase speaking fluency. Class is conducted largely in Thai. Students are required to actively participate in class. (Brown)

204. Intermediate Indonesian. S&SEA 203. (5). (LR).

The course is a two-term sequence aimed at increasing the student's proficiency in the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing in modern Indonesian. Although increasing emphasis is given to the development of reading and writing skills, listening and speaking constitute an integral part of the course which is conducted entirely in Indonesian. Vocabulary building and instruction in matters of cross-cultural sensitivity are of great import. The primary text used is keyed to a knowledge of the language. Supplementary materials introduce the student to reading modern Indonesian literature. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests, and a final exam. (Sudarsih)

206. Intermediate Hindi-Urdu. S&SEA 205. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 316 or 366. (4). (LR).

This course is intended to increase students' skills and proficiency in speaking, in comprehension, and in reading and writing the Devanagari (Hindi) script. Students are also introduced to the Nastaliq (Urdu) writing system. Evaluation is based on attendance, written homework assignments, quizzes, dictations, and examinations. Students with a background in Hindi-Urdu may also enter the sequence at this point. See the instructor for placement examination.

208. Intermediate Tagalog. S&SEA 207 or equivalent. (3). (LR).

This course is designed for the student who has some knowledge of Tagalog and who wishes to develop some fluency in spoken Tagalog and to be acquainted with Tagalog literature. It is a two-term sequence which is essentially a continuation of what has been learned in the first year but there will be more emphasis on reading and writing. Students who have not taken Elementary Tagalog (South and Southeast Asian 107/108) may take this course if they pass an evaluation test to be given by the instructor. The format will be as follows: two class hours a week will be devoted to readings and grammar review and one class hour a week will be devoted to guided conversation. Readings will be assigned and these will provide the framework for the discussion of grammatical points and question and answer sessions in Tagalog on the content. There will be written assignments, a midterm, and a final examination. By the end of the second year, students should have acquired sufficient competence to handle longer conversations, write letters and brief essays, read certain plays, and (with the aid of a dictionary) newspapers and magazines. Course texts are: Intermediate Readings in Tagalog, ed. by Bowen; Tagalog Reference Grammar by Schacter and Octanes; and a Tagalog-English Dictionary. Supplementary readings will be assigned during the term. (Weller)

214(436). Intermediate Tamil. S&SEA 213. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 374. (3). (LR).

For description see S&SEA 114. The students will have daily written homework assignments and will write two major course exams.

216(482). Intermediate Vietnamese. S&SEA 215. (5). (LR).

This course is a continuation of Beginning Vietnamese 115-116. It is designed for the students who have some knowledge of spoken and written Vietnamese and wish to develop the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading and writing learned in the two-term Beginning Vietnamese course. Students who have not taken test to be given by the instructor. The format will be as follows: three class hours a week will be focused on the aural-oral approach in reading, dialogue form, translation, question-and-answer on the content of the texts. One class hour a week will be devoted to addition, there will be home assignments. Throughout the course, the students will be encouraged to communicate in Vietnamese, and classes will be largely conducted in Vietnamese. Course grade will be based on classroom performance, class attendance, weekly assignments, and a final examination. (Nguyen)

402. Advanced Thai. S&SEA 401 or equivalent. (4). (Excl).

In this course students will complete the move from material written specifically for foreign language-learners to "real" Thai, including such genres as newspaper articles, essays, and fiction. Class discussion of the reading selections and other topics will be in Thai, giving students the chance to acquire more sophisticated oral skills such as those of advancing and supporting opinions and interpretations. Written assignments will advance students' facility at writing Thai. (Brown)

406. Advanced Hindi-Urdu. S&SEA 206, 316, or 366. (3). (Excl).

South and Southeast Asia 405-406 is the third year in the sequence of courses offered by the Department of Asian Languages and Cultures in Hindi-Urdu. Meeting three times a week, the course is intended to further students' skills in speaking and aural comprehension as well as increase their proficiency in reading and writing both Hindi and, for those interested, Urdu. Students with prior knowledge of Hindi-Urdu may be able to join the sequence at this point. See the instructor for placement. (Hook)

416(598). Advanced Vietnamese. S&SEA 415. (4). (Excl).

This is a two-term sequence in advanced Vietnamese. The course will emphasize composition writing and discussion on selected reading materials. This selection of materials, ranging from literary books to newspapers, folk stories and other cultural materials, will provide the students opportunities to get acquainted with various sociocultural aspects of Vietnam. (Nguyen)

419. Urdu Poetry. S&SEA 206, 316, or 405, or equivalent knowledge of Hindi-Urdu (as determined by interview and placement exam). (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 3 credits.

This is a one-credit minicourse meeting once a week and devoted to the reading and interpretation of Urdu poetry written over the past two centuries. The class is conducted in Urdu, and requires a fourth-term proficiency in the written and spoken language. (Hook)

464. Advanced Readings of Modern Indonesian Texts II. S&SEA 404 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

The course is a two-term sequence designed to introduce the student to critical readings of modern Indonesian texts. A reading and speaking knowledge of modern Indonesian is prerequisite (equivalent to having completed the six-term sequence in Indonesian). With an emphasis on text analysis, the student is required to produce critical commentaries on (and sometimes translations of) selected passages from a variety of assigned texts. The course is run as a seminar with discussion conducted in Indonesian. Evaluation is based on the written assignments and classroom performance. (Florida)

Culture Courses

250. Undergraduate Seminar in South and Southeast Asian Culture. No knowledge of any Asian language required. (3). (HU). May be repeated with department permission.
Section 001 Religion in Modern India.
This course is about the diversity of religious life in modern India. It will begin with the examination of the following three points, namely, (1) that ancient layers of India's religious life (for instance, the Indus Valley 3000-1500 BCE; the Indo-Sramanical 600 BCE-300 CE; the Indic, i.e., Hindu-Buddhist-Jain 300-1200 CE; the Indo-Islamic 1200-1757 CE; and the Indo-Anglian 1757-present) are alive and well in contemporary India; (2) that the hybrid discourse of the "secular state" is itself a religious discourse in modern India; and (3) that India's unique agony over religion is instructive for rethinking some of our most general notions about "religion" and "secularization." We will then apply the overall analysis to the five salient religious crises in contemporary India: the Sikhs in the Punjab, the Muslim issue in Kashmir, the Shah Banno case and the Muslim Women's Bill, the Mandal Commission Report on India: Other Backward Classes and the controversy in Ayodhya. (Singh)

Section 002 Traditions of Poetry in India. Through readings and discussion SSEA 250 introduces the student to six traditions of poetry in India: (1) Vedic-Upanishadic mystic poetry; (2) Tamil Sangam love poetry; (3) Classical Sanskrit and Prakrit court poetry; (4) medieval devotional poetry; (5) Urdu metaphysical poetry; and (6) modern secular poetry. We will read translations of selections from each of these six traditions, appraise them as sources of esthetic enjoyment from our own points of view and where possible evaluate them in the context of their own place and time. In coming to terms with traditions far removed in space and time the student will come to know something of Indian esthetic theories and the continually renegotiated role of the poet in forming and transforming the ways in which people interpret their own life experience. The course will require several short papers, at least two of which will be close readings and explications of individual poems, and at least one other will compare notions of what makes poetry poetry in India and the West. Translation and/or transcreation is an option for some of these six assignments. (Hook)

Section 003 The Bhagavad-Gita: An Activist View of Hinduism. This course will focus upon an understanding of the Bhagavad-Gita, a very important scriptural text of Hinduism. It will consist of close readings of the text and of the different interpretations of this text ranging from ancient and medieval commentators to modern scholars and politicians. Students will be expected to take part in class discussions and present one short paper in the class. Besides this short presentation, there will be an additional five page paper, a midterm and a final exam. The course will try to understand where this text fits in the history of Hinduism, its own textual history, its unique teachings, its changing interpretation, and its impact. No knowledge of Sanskrit is required. The course will use English translations of Sanskrit materials and readings from critical studies. (Deshpande)

462. Writing, Culture, and History: Perspectives on Indonesia. (3). (Excl).

Drawing on materials concerning Indonesian culture, history, and literature, the course will consider the colonial and postcolonial formation of Indonesia as a subject of scholarly study. Among the questions the course will address are: how is the Indonesian past recalled and how is Indonesian culture represented? (Florida)

Courses in Asian Studies (Division 323)

112/Hist. 152. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).

See History 152. (Lieberman)

122/Hist. 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

See History 122. (Pincus)

220/Buddhist Studies 220/Rel. 202. Introduction to World Religions: South and East Asia. (4). (HU).

See Buddhist Studies 220. (Sharf)

381. Junior/Senior Colloquium for Concentrators. Junior or senior standing and concentration in Asian Studies. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Tradition, Development, Nationalism, and War in Twentieth Century Asia.
This course is designed primarily for seniors in Asian Studies, who are given preference, but other upperclass students may be admitted if there is space. Some previous knowledge of Asia and its modern history is assumed, but not Asian language competence. As a colloquium, it centers on group discussion of the readings, and the writing of four short papers. The scope includes India/Pakistan, Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan, from 1894 to 1976 (the end of the Vietnam War). Readings are varied, mainly in a course pack. The rise of Asian nationalism is the major trend of the twentieth century in that part of the world, fuelled and expressed in part through the series of wars beginning with the Sino-Japanese conflict of 1894-95. We will also consider the matter of "modernization" and the patterns of economic development. Cost:2 (Murphey)

395. Honors Seminar. Honors candidate in Asian Studies. (3). (Excl).

Honors students in Asian Studies should use this course number for their Honors thesis, but will normally work with whatever faculty member is closest to the subject of the thesis.

475/Chinese 475/Hist. of Art 487/RC Hums. 475/Philosophy 475. The Arts and Letters of China. (4). (HU).

See Chinese 475.


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